- 1. Archaeology of the FourCanonical Gospels.Digging for Jesus In Each Gospel"Tell"
2. What is a Tel/Tal/Tell? Repeated,Renewed Building on Older SitesTel Jericho, Israel One of the Oldest Cities in the World Evidence of Earliest Occupation, ca. 5000 BCE 3. Working Tel Jericho 4. For Good Work Down a TelAttention to Every Detail is EssentialDestroy Nothing Before Records areMade 5. Stratify the Finds Aided by Geology and Pottery 6. Southern Israel 7. Locate and Measure Finds 8. Carefully Sift for Finds 9. Process Even the Smallest Finds 10. What Archaeologists Do With theEarth, Biblical Scholars Do with Texts Carefully Dig Into Them! 11. The Four Canonical Gospels The Oldest Sources to Dig Through To The Jesus of HistoryHeld in the MetropolitanMuseum of Fine Art, New York, NYIvory Codex CoverDated 1000 1050 CE 12. Agnus Dei?The Lamb of God?Beltex Ram,Northern Italy (From Sudan?) 13. Other Beltex 14. TEXT CRITICISM Collect all the Available Manuscripts (Hand WrittenTexts, and there are five thousand for the New Testament)Prior to the Introduction of Moveable Typewhich, thereby, Assured Identical Printed CopiesThereafter. Date the Manuscripts On the Basis of Calligraphy and, ifPossible, on the Basis of Carbon 14 Analysis. Create "Families" of Manuscripts on the Basis ofComparing Quotations of the Scriptures by ChurchFathers, Known to Be Living in Particular Regions, withMSS with Same Readings. Dont "Count" Manuscripts but "Weigh" Them. Give Priority to Older and More Difficult Readings and ANumber of Other Text Critical Principles. 15. Other Selected TextCritical Principles Assume that Mark was the Earliest Gospel to be Written. Harmonistic Readings are Later Readings. The More Difficult Reading is the More Original. The More Semitic Reading is the More Original. The Reading Which Could Have Given Rise to the Othersis the More Original. The Reading Most in Accord with the Style of the Author isthe More Original 16. Two of the Most Significant TextCritical Problems are in the Gospels The Endings of Mark (Mk 16:9-20, and TwoOthers, following Mk 16:8) The Pericope of the Woman Caught in Adultery (John7:53-8:1) In some other MSS, this story follows Jn7:36, rather than 7:52. In still others, it follows Jn 7:44and it is even found in Lukes Gospel following Lk21:38 or, according to a corrector of one MS, followingLk 24:53, i.e. at the very close of Lukes gospel. 17. Some Gospel FragmentsThe Manuscript Evidence 45. Example Here has Parts of Luke13-14 Dated ca. 250 CE, Acquired by Sir ChesterBeatty of London in 1930-31 and Now in theBeatty Museum in a suburb of Dublin, Ireland 18. 52 The Oldest Fragment of the Greek NewTestament,Dated ca. 125 CE, (3 X 2 inches)Parts of John 18:31-33, 37-38Bought in Egypt byBernard P. Grenfell and eventually given to theUniversityLibrary, Manchester, UK and placedamong a collection of manuscriptsknown as the JohnRectoRylands Papyri Verso 19. One of the Oldest Complete Greek Bibles:Old and New Testamentsa = Codex SinaiticusSome Leaves First Found ca.1850 byConstantin von Tischendorf In a Bin Being Usedto Start the Fire in the Kitchen at the GreekOrthodox monastery of St. Catherineat the base of a traditional 20. A Page of Codex SinaiticusOne of Two Oldest Complete Copies of NTProbably Prepared in Alexandria, along with Codex B (Vaticanus)DATED TO FOURTHCENTURY CENow on Display in theBritish Museum, London, along withA = Alexandrinus 21. B = Codex Vaticanus,Uncial, 4th Century CE ProbableProvenance:Held in theAlexandria, Egypt, Vatican Library Perhaps Even since the 15thfrom the SameCenturyScriptorium Which Produced Codex Sinaiticus 22. Constantines Letter to Eusebius (ca. 325 CE) Victor Constantinus, Maximus Augustus, to Eusebius. It happens, through the favoring providence of God, our Savior, that greatnumbers have united themselves to the most holy church in the city which iscalled by my name [Constantinople]. It seems, therefore, highly requisite, sincethat city is rapidly advancing in prosperity in all other respects, that the numberof churches should also be increased. Do you, therefore, receive with allreadiness my determination on this behalf. I have thought it expedient to instructyour Prudence to order fifty copies of the sacred Scriptures, the provision anduse of which you know to be most needful for the instruction of the Church, tobe written on prepared parchment in a legible manner, and in aconvenient, portable form, by professional transcribers thoroughly practiced intheir art.The Bishop of the diocese has also received instructions by letter fromour Clemency to be careful to furnish all things necessary for the preparation ofsuch copies; and it will be for you to take special care that they be completedwith as little delay as possible. Eusebius, Life of Constantine IV.36 23. Eusebius on the Delivery of these Codices Such were the emperors commands, which were followed by theimmediate execution of the work itself, which we sent him inmagnificent and elaborately bound volumes of a threefold andfourfold form. [NOTE: It may well be that Codices and B were two "first draft"experimental copies for those 50 ordered by the EmperorConstantine, but, because of their preliminary nature (note, e.g., the 3 columns per page of Vaticanus with modest illuminationand the four columns per page of Sinaiticus withoutillumination), they were never circulated or used, so theymanaged to survive from antiquity.] Eusebius, Life of Constantine IV.37 24. Gospel Harmonies One Gospel Harmony Seems to Have Been Used by JustinMartyr (103-165 CE) in His Writings (See the HarvardDissertation by Arthur J. Bellinzoni, The Sayings of Jesusin the Writings of Justin Martyr. Supplements to NovumTestamentum (Leiden: Brill, 1967). Original Thesisdefended in 1963. Another harmony was composed by a RomanChristian, Tatian (ca. 120 180 CE), and titled Diatessaron("One Through Four"). It survives today in an old Syriacversion and a few other more recent translations, such asArabic. A third harmony in commentary form was also produced inRome by St. Augustine (13 November 354 28 August 430CE). See his de Consensu Evangelistarum ("Concerningthe Harmony/Consensus of the Evangelists"). 25. The Best Work on Tatian (ca. 110-180 CE)in English by William L. Peterson 26. If Marks GospelIs a Conflation of Mt and Lk, ThenThere seems to be a tradition of conflation in Rome from The Gospel of Mark (1st century CE), Through a conflated text of the gospels used by JustinMartyr (ca. 103 165 CE) And the Diatessaron of Tatian (110 180 CE). To Saint Augustine of Hippo Regius and, later, Rome, (354-430 CE). 27. Source Criticism What is the relationship between and among theSynoptic Gospels (Mt, Mk, Lk)? Did One of the Synoptics Use One or More of theOther Synoptics? Which of the Synoptics wrote First? Second? Third? What Other Sources Did the Synoptic EvangelistsAlso Likely Use? 28. External Patristic Evidence What Can We Learn About the Character of Each of the SynopticGospels, Their Interrelationships, and the Sequence of TheirComposition from Testimonies of the Some of the Oldest ChurchFathers? Papias (60-130 CE) Clement of Alexandria (150-215 CE) Irenaeus (130-200 CE) Origen (185-254 CE) Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340 CE) Jerome (342-420 CE) Augustine (354-430 CE) 29. Fragments of Papias of Hierapolis (60-130CE), Knew the Apostle John and Polycarp,an Early Martyr And, for you, I shall not hesitate also to classify withthe Sacred Scriptures whatever at anytime I had bothduly learned from the Presbyters and dulyremembered, being absolutely confident of their truth.For I was not one to take pleasure, like so maypeople, in those who talk at great length, but in thosewhose teaching is true; nor in those who rememberthe directives of others, but in those who rememberthe ones given by the Lord to the Faith and that comefrom the Truth itself. 30. Papias 1 (continued) If then indeed someone who had followed thePresbyters happened to come along, I used to inquireabout the words of the Presbyters --- what Andrew orPeter had said, or what Philip, or what Thomas orJames or what John or Matthew, or any other discipleof the Lord, --- and what Aristion and thepresbyter, John, disciples of the Lord, were stillsaying. For I reckoned that whatever is taken out ofBooks is not as useful to me as the (utterances) of aliving and abiding voice. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.3-4. 31. Papias 2 And this, the Presbyter [John?] used to say,"Mark, being the recorder (hermeneutes) of Peter, wrote accurately but not in order whatever he (Peter) remembered of the things either said or done by the Lord. For he (Mark) had neither heard the Lord nor followed him but later (heard and followed) Peter, as I said; who used to make his discourses according to the chreias, but not making, as it were, a literary composition of the Lords sayings; so that Mark did not err at all when he wrote certain things, just as he (Peter) recalled them. For he had but one intention, not to leave out anything he had heard nor to falsify anything in them"This is what was related by Papias about the (Gospel) of Mark. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.15 32. Papias 3 But about (that gospel) of Matthew, this was said,"For Matthew composed the Logia in a Hebraic style;* but each recorded them as he was in a position to."*Alternatively, the Greek words Hebraisti dialektw could beunderstood as "in the Hebrew dialect," i. e. Aramaic. Laterscholars of the Church, in fact, took these words to mean thatMatthew originally wrote his gospel in either Hebrew or Aramaicand Jerome actually claims to have seen a Hebrew version ofMatthew, when he was in residence in Bethlehem. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.16 33. Clement of Alexandria, (150 ca 215 CE)Student of Pantaenus, Teacher of OrigenIn the Catechetical School of Alexandria, Egypt This work is not a writing artf