06/06/2022 1 Appendicular skeleton

Appendicular skeleton

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anatomy lecture 2

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Page 1: Appendicular skeleton


Appendicular skeleton

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The clavicle: collar bone, articulates medially with the manubrium of the sternum and laterally with the acromion of the scapula

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Scapula (shoulder blade)

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• Glenoid cavity articulates with the humerus

• Acromium articulates with clavicle

• Coracoid process projects anteriorly

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Humerus ( bone of the arm)


– Humerus is the only bone in the arm

– Head of humerus fits into glenoid cavity of scapula

– Distal & medially, trochlea articulates with the ulna

– Distal & laterally capitulum articulates with the radius

– the elbow joint. is a hinge joint that allows flexion and extension of the forearm.

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Ulna and Radius


The forearm contains two bones:the lateral bone is the radius the medial bone is the ulna

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In the anatomical position, the radius is lateral (thumb side); with pronation the palm faces posteriorly and the bones cross

Left forearm

Prone: body lying face downSuppine: body lying face up

Anatomical position

pronepronation moves the forearm into the prone position and supination moves it back to the anatomical position

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• Proximal is “wrist” – 8 carpal bones

• Palm of hand - 5 metacarpals

• Fingers (or digits) consist of miniature long bones called phalanges: thumb (“pollex”) has 2; fingers have 3: proximal, middle, distal


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Pelvic Girdle (Hip Girdle)

• Strongly attached to axial skeleton (sacrum)• Deep sockets• More stable than pectoral (shoulder) girdle• Less freedom of movement• Made up of the paired hip bones

– “Bony pelvis” is basin-like structure: hip bones plus the axial sacrum and coccyx

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Pelvic bones


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The femur is the bone of the thigh.

At its distal end articulation is with the tibia, but it also articulates anteriorly with the patella (knee cap).

The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body.

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The leg contains two bones:

The tibia is medial in position, is larger than the laterally positioned fibula, and is the weight bearing bone;

The fibula does not take part in the knee joint and forms only the most lateral part of the ankle joint-proximally

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The bones of the foot

• The bones of the foot consist of the tarsal bones the metatarsals, and the phalanges.

• There are seven tarsal bones, which are organized in two rows with an intermediate bone between the two rows on the medial side.

• Inversion and eversion of the foot, or turning the sole of the foot inward and outward, respectively, occur at joints between the tarsal bones.

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Types of movement


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