Ability & Learning By Me

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  • 1. ABILITY & LEARNING
    Presented By:-
    Gautam Singh
  • 2. ABILITY : An individuals capacity to perform various tasks in a job
  • 3. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability
  • 4. ADVANTAGES
    Can identify physically able people without harming their wellbeing and the job
    Decreases cost related to disability, medical insurance, and other financial compensation
    Decreases absenteeism
    DISADVANTAGE
    Costly to administer
    Requirements should be confirmed through job analysis
    May contain age related bias
    ABILITY
  • 5. Components of learning
    LEARNING - Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
  • 6. Classical conditioning theory
    Operant conditioning theory
    Cognitive learning theory
    Social learning theory
    Theories of Learning
  • 7. Classical conditioning is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
    First described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist, in 1903, and studied in infants by John B. Watson (1878-1958)
    Classical conditioning
  • 8. Key Concepts:
    Unconditioned stimulus (Food)
    A naturally occurring phenomenon
    Unconditioned response (Salivation)
    The naturally occurring response to a natural stimulus
    Conditioned stimulus (Bell)
    An artificial stimulus introduced into the situation
    Conditioned response (Salivation with bell)
    The response to the artificial stimulus
    Classical Conditioning
  • 9. Reflex Involuntary response to a stimulus
    Conditioned reflex- learned reflex
    Unconditioned reflex spontaneous reflexes (Tears, sweating etc)
    Acquisition - Formation of a learned response to a conditioned stimulus through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus
    Extinction Elimination of cond response by removal of Ucs
    Spontaneous recovery - Re-emergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period
    Elements and processes of classical conditioning
  • 10. Generalization - The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus
    Discrimination - The ability to distinguish between different stimuli, tendency for a response to be elicited by one stimulus and not another (sometimes similar) stimulus
    Elements and processes of classical conditioning
  • 11. Greater number of pairing of Ucsans Cs
    Consistent pairing
    Strength of Ucs
    Lesser gap between Ucs and Cs
    Factors influencing classical conditioning
  • 12. Human beings are more complex than dogs
    Human brain can override simple conditioning
    Organizational set up is too complex is utilize the concepts of classical conditioning
    LIMITATIONS
  • 13. Operant conditioning investigates the influence of consequences on subsequent behavior.
    Operant conditioning investigates the learning of voluntary responses
    B.F Skinner introduced the concepts of operant conditioning
    Operant Conditioning
  • 14. It is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again
    The three-term model of operant conditioning (S--> R -->S) incorporates the concept that responses cannot occur without an environmental event (e.g., an antecedent stimulus) preceding it
    There are two types of consequences, positive and negative
    Basic Concepts of Operant Conditioning
  • 15. Shaping - Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response
    Key Concepts
    • Reinforcement is required to change behavior
    • 16. Some rewards are more effective than others
    • 17. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence
    OPERANT CONDITIONING
  • 18. Positive reinforcement
    Providing a reward for a desired behavior (Promotion)
    Negative reinforcement
    Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs (Removing extra work load)
    Punishment
    Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior ( Warning letter)
    Extinction
    Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation (Holding increments)
    Types of Reinforcement
  • 19. Continuous Reinforcement - A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated
    Intermittent Reinforcement - A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated
    Fixed-Interval Schedule - Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals
    Variable Interval Rewards given at different time
    Fixed Ratio - Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses
    Variable Ratio Rewards given at variable amount of output
    Schedules of Reinforcement
  • 20. Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information (Mayer)
    Learning takes place when new associations are formed and they are added to the existing information base
    Learning may not be manifested through behaviour
    Cognitive theories of learning
  • 21. Banduras Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling
    It explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences
    Social theories of learning
  • 22. Attention The model should be attended
    Retention Remembering the model when she / he is not available
    Reproduction Reproducing the image and practicing the newly learned behaviour
    Self-efficacy - Learner has to identify his or her ability to perform
    Motivation - Having a good reason to imitate, presence of positive consequences is important
    Necessary conditions for effective modeling
  • 23. Effective video clippings during training program can bring desired behaviour in the employees
    Team leader can act as a role model and influence the members
    Desired behaviours might be reinforced to delay extinction
    Application of social cognitive theory in organization
  • 24. Even the wisest mind has something yet to learn