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Earth’s Interior and Plate Tectonics Earthqua kes and Volcanoe s Earth’s Interio r and Plate Tectoni cs Mineral s and Rocks What is Earth’ s Interi or like Eviden ce for Plate Tecton ics What are Earthqu a Struct ure and Origin of Rocks How old are Rocks Volcan oes Weatheri ng and Erosion Erosio n Chemica l Weather ing Physica l Weather ing Transfor m Fault Boundari es Converge nt Plate Boundari es Divergen t Plate Coundari es Plate Tectonic s

17 2a earthquakes and volcanoes

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Page 1: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Earth’s Interior and Plate Tectonics

Earthquakes and

Volcanoes

Earth’s Interior

and Plate Tectonics

Minerals and Rocks

What is Earth’s Interior

like

Evidence for Plate Tectonics

What are Earthqua

Structure and

Origin of Rocks

How old are RocksVolcanoe

s

Weathering and Erosion

Erosion

Chemical Weatherin

g

Physical Weatherin

g

Transform Fault

Boundaries

Convergent Plate

Boundaries

Divergent Plate

Coundaries

Plate Tectonics

Page 2: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Vocabulary• Focus – the area along a fault at which slippage first

occurs, initiating an earthquake.• Epicenter – the point on Earth’s surface directly above

the focus.• P waves – primary waves; the longitudinal waves

generated by an earthquake

Page 3: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

P waves

Page 4: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

P waves

Page 5: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

2011 Japan Earthquake

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQfdl7y-blE

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zfxlzyOXlic&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRDpTEjumdo&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4GFLqsUexZ0

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLUmQrKOyuk&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ikus_TEaGI&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdhfV-8dbCE&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3AdFjklR50&feature=relmfu

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A 1976 earthquake near Guatemala City shattered this bridge in Agua Caliente, cutting off the city’s main supply route to the Atlantic. The 7.5-magnitude quake killed more than 23,000 people and left thousands more injured and homeless.

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A crane and several construction vehicles lay toppled on a fractured road in Kobe, Japan, after a 7.2-magnitude temblor shook the quake-prone country. The Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster of 1995 was one of the worst in Japan’s history, killing 6,433 people and causing more than $100 billion in damages.

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The San Andreas Fault scars Southern California’s Carrizo Plain like a battle wound. The 800-mile (1,300-kilometer) fault runs through western and southern California, dividing the Pacific and North American plates.

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Workers position support beams to steady tilting homes in San Francisco's Marina District after a disastrous earthquake hit the city in 1989. The 7.1-magnitude earthquake buckled highways and bridges, crushed cars, and toppled homes and buildings throughout the city.

Page 11: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

The Izmith, Turkey Temblor

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The Izmith, Turkey Temblor

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The Izmith, Turkey Temblor

Page 14: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

The Izmith, Turkey Temblor

Page 15: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

The Izmith, Turkey Temblor

Page 16: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Bagiou City, Philippines

Page 17: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Bagiou City, Philippines

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Bagiou City, Philippines

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Bagiou City, Philippines

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17.2 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Vocabulary• Focus• Epicenter• P waves• S waves• Surface waves• Seismology• Richter scale• vent

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17.2 Earthquakes and Volcanoes• Read: “Energy from

earthquakes is transferred through Earth by waves” (p568-569)

• Write on your cornell notes information on:– Longitudinal waves– Primary waves– Transverse waves– Secondary Waves

Page 22: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mayon Volcano, Philippines

Page 23: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mayon Volcano, Philippines

Page 24: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

Mt. Pinatubo Crater Lake

Page 25: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

Mt. Pinatubo Crater Lake

Page 26: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

Mt. Pinatubo Days Before Eruption

Page 27: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mt.

Pina

tubo

, Phi

lippi

nes

Mt.

Pina

tubo

: Firs

t Eru

ption

Page 28: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

3 Minutes after first Eruption

Page 29: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

5 Minutes after first Eruption

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Mt.

Pina

tubo

, Phi

lippi

nes

Mt.

Pina

tubo

: 7 m

inut

es a

fter

Page 31: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

Mt.

Pina

tubo

, Phi

lippi

nes

Mt.

Pina

tubo

: 10

min

utes

afte

r

Page 32: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

17.2 Kind of Volcanoes• Shield Volcano Magma rich in iron and

magnesiumVery fluidLava flows great distances

Eruption mildEruption occur several timesLava produces gently sloping

mountain

Page 33: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

17.2 Kinds of Volcanoes• Composite Volcano

Made up of alternating layers of ash, cinders and lava

Magma is thicker Gases are trapped in the

magma making explosive eruptions

Typically thousand meters high

Steeper cones than shield volcanoes

Page 34: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

17.2 Kinds of Volcanoes• Cinder Cone

Smallest and most abundant volcanoes

Tend to be active for a short time then become dormant

Vast quantities of ash and lava fall around vent that form the cone

Gas-trapped magma – explosive eruption

Page 35: 17 2a  earthquakes and volcanoes

17.2 Earthquakes and Volcanoes• Kinds of Volcanoes

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