it is a ppt about indian agriculture and wto implications.
Text of wto and indian agriculture
A moment comes, rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation,
long suppressed, finds utterance.
IMPLICATIONS OF WTO ON INDIAN AGRICULTURE SECTOR.
• TOPICS TO BE COVERED….1. GATT2. WTO 3. INDIAN AGRICULTURE.4. WTO AND INDIAN AGRICULTURE.
• General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade• GATT was formed in 1947 and lasted until
1994 • was replaced by the World Trade
Organization• On 1 January, 1948 the agreement was signed
by 23 countries.• GATT held a total of 8 rounds.
• Uruguay Round - 1986-1993 The Uruguay Round began in 1986. It was the
most ambitious round to date, hoping to expand the competence of the GATT to important new areas such as services, capital, intellectual property, textiles, and agriculture. 123 countries took part in the round.
• World Trade Organization• The WTO was born out of the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).• Headquarters : Geneva, Switzerland• Formation : 1 January 1995• Membership : 153 member states• Budget : 163 million USD
• It is an international organization designed to supervise and liberalize international trade.
• The WTO has 153 members, which represents more than 95% of total world trade.
• WTO cooperate closely with 2 other component IMF and World Bank.
• WTO is to ensure that global trade commences smoothly, freely and predictably.
• Transparency in trade policies.
• Work as a economic research and analysis centre.
• To create economic peace and stability in the world through a multilateral system based on consenting member states, that have ratified the rules of the WTO in their individual countries as well.
WTO Vs GATT
GATT• It was ad hoc & provisional.
• It had no provision for creating an organization.
• It allowed contradictions in local law & GATT agreements.
WTO• It is permanent.
• It has legal basis because member nations have verified the WTO agreements.
• More authority than GATT.
• It doesn't allow any contradictions in local law .
• Agriculture in India has a long history dating back to ten thousand years.
• Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output.
• Agriculture accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2007, employed 60% of the total workforce and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, is still the largest economic
• Yields per unit area of all crops have grown since 1950 due to application of modern agricultural practices and provision of agricultural credit and subsidies since Green revolution in India.
• However, international comparisons reveal that the average yield in India is generally 30% to 50% of the highest average yield in the world.
• The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), established in 1905, was responsible for the research leading to the "Indian Green Revolution" of the 1970s.
• The Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute develops new techniques for the design of agricultural experiments and specializes in statistical techniques for animal and plant breeding.
The low productivity in India is a result of the following factors:
• Overregulation of agriculture has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty.
• Government intervenes in labour, land, and credit markets. India has inadequate infrastructure and services
• Illiteracy, general socio-economic backwardness, slow progress in implementing land reforms .
• Inadequate or inefficient finance and marketing services for farm produce.
• The average size of land holdings is very small due to land ceiling acts and in some cases, family disputes.
• Such small holdings are often over-manned, resulting in disguised unemployment and low productivity of labour.
WTO AND INDIAN AGRICULTURE
• Introduction. After over 7 years of negotiations the Uruguay
Round multilateral trade negotiations were concluded on December 1993 and were formally ratified in April 1994 at Marrakesh, Morocco.
• The WTO Agreement on Agriculture was one of the main agreements which were negotiated during the Uruguay Round.
• The WTO Agreement on Agriculture contains provisions in 3 broad areas of agriculture.