Transcript
Page 1: Business process-reengineering

Business Process Reengineering

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Business Process Business Process ReengineeringReengineering

““Reengineering is the Reengineering is the fundamentalfundamental rethinking and rethinking and radicalradical redesign of business redesign of business processesprocesses to achieve to achieve dramatic dramatic improvements in critical, improvements in critical, contemporary measures of contemporary measures of performance such as cost, performance such as cost, quality, service, and speed.” quality, service, and speed.”

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Key WordsKey Words FundamentalFundamental

WhyWhy do we do what we do? do we do what we do? Ignore Ignore what iswhat is and concentrate and concentrate

on on what should be.what should be. RadicalRadical

Business Business reinventionreinvention vs. vs. business improvement business improvement

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Key WordsKey Words DramaticDramatic

Reengineering should be brought in Reengineering should be brought in “when a need exits for heavy blasting.”“when a need exits for heavy blasting.” Companies in deep trouble.Companies in deep trouble. Companies that see trouble coming.Companies that see trouble coming. Companies that are in peak condition.Companies that are in peak condition.

Business Process Business Process a collection of activities that takes one or a collection of activities that takes one or

more kinds of inputs and creates an more kinds of inputs and creates an output that is of value to a customer.output that is of value to a customer.

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What is a Process?What is a Process?

A specific ordering of work activities A specific ordering of work activities across time and space, with a across time and space, with a beginning, an end, and clearly beginning, an end, and clearly identified inputs and outputs: a identified inputs and outputs: a structure for action.structure for action.

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What is a Business What is a Business Process?Process?

A group of logically related tasks A group of logically related tasks that use the firm's resources to that use the firm's resources to provide customer-oriented results in provide customer-oriented results in support of the organization's support of the organization's objectivesobjectives

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Why Reengineer?Why Reengineer?

CustomersCustomers DemandingDemanding SophisticationSophistication Changing NeedsChanging Needs

CompetitionCompetition LocalLocal GlobalGlobal

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Customer Demands

• expect us to know everything• to make the right decisions• to do it right now• to do it with less resources• to make no mistakes• expect to be fully informed

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Why Reengineer?Why Reengineer?

CompetitionCompetition LocalLocal GlobalGlobal

ChangeChange TechnologyTechnology Customer PreferencesCustomer Preferences

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Business Process Reengineering

WHY ?

Integrate people, technology, & organizational culture

To Respond to rapidly changing technical & business environment and customer’s needs to achieve Big performance gains

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Why Organizations Don’t Why Organizations Don’t Reengineer?Reengineer?

ComplacencyComplacency

Political ResistancePolitical Resistance

New DevelopmentsNew Developments

Fear of Unknown and FailureFear of Unknown and Failure

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PerformancePerformance

BPR seeks improvements ofBPR seeks improvements of

CostCost QualityQuality ServiceService SpeedSpeed

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Implementing a Implementing a BPR StrategyBPR Strategy

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The C’s related toThe C’s related toOrganization Re-engineering Organization Re-engineering

ProjectsProjectsThe 3C’s of organization Re-engineering:

The 4C’s of effective teams:

- Customers

- Competition

- Change

- Commitment

- Cooperation- Communication

- Contribution

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Key StepsKey Steps

Select The Process & Appoint Process Team

Understand The Current Process

Develop & Communicate Vision Of Improved Process

Identify Action Plan

Execute Plan

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1.1. Select the Process & Select the Process & Appoint Process TeamAppoint Process Team

Two Crucial TasksTwo Crucial Tasks

Select The Process to be ReengineeredSelect The Process to be Reengineered

Appoint the Process Team to Lead the Appoint the Process Team to Lead the Reengineering InitiativeReengineering Initiative

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Select the ProcessSelect the Process

Review Business Strategy and Review Business Strategy and Customer RequirementsCustomer Requirements

Select Core ProcessesSelect Core Processes

Understand Customer NeedsUnderstand Customer Needs

Don’t Assume AnythingDon’t Assume Anything

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Select the ProcessSelect the Process

Select Correct Path for ChangeSelect Correct Path for Change

Remember Assumptions can Hide Remember Assumptions can Hide FailuresFailures

Competition and Choice to Go ElsewhereCompetition and Choice to Go Elsewhere

Ask - Questionnaires, Meetings, Focus Ask - Questionnaires, Meetings, Focus GroupsGroups

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Appoint the Process Appoint the Process TeamTeam

Appoint BPR ChampionAppoint BPR Champion

Identify Process OwnersIdentify Process Owners

Establish Executive Improvement Establish Executive Improvement TeamTeam

Provide Training to Executive TeamProvide Training to Executive Team

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Core Skills RequiredCore Skills Required

Capacity to view the organization as a wholeCapacity to view the organization as a whole

Ability to focus on end-customersAbility to focus on end-customers

Ability to challenge fundamental Ability to challenge fundamental assumptionsassumptions

Courage to deliver and venture into Courage to deliver and venture into unknown areasunknown areas

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Core Skills RequiredCore Skills Required

Ability to assume individual and Ability to assume individual and collective responsibilitycollective responsibility

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Use of ConsultantsUse of Consultants

Used to generate internal capacityUsed to generate internal capacity Appropriate when a implementation is Appropriate when a implementation is

needed quicklyneeded quickly Ensure that adequate consultation is Ensure that adequate consultation is

sought from staff so that the initiative sought from staff so that the initiative is organization-led and is organization-led and notnot consultant-drivenconsultant-driven

Control should Control should nevernever be handed over be handed over to the consultantto the consultant

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2.2. Understand the Current Understand the Current ProcessProcess

Develop a Process OverviewDevelop a Process Overview Clearly define the process Clearly define the process

MissionMission ScopeScope BoundariesBoundaries

Set business and customer Set business and customer measurements measurements

Understand customers expectations from Understand customers expectations from the process (staff including process team) the process (staff including process team)

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2.2. Understand the Current Understand the Current ProcessProcess

Clearly Identify Improvement Clearly Identify Improvement OpportunitiesOpportunities QualityQuality ReworkRework

Document the ProcessDocument the Process CostCost Time Time Value DataValue Data

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3.3. Understand the Current Understand the Current ProcessProcess

Carefully resolve any Carefully resolve any inconsistenciesinconsistencies Existing -- New ProcessExisting -- New Process Ideal -- Realistic ProcessIdeal -- Realistic Process

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3.3. Develop & Communicate Develop & Communicate Vision of Improved ProcessVision of Improved Process

Communicate with all employees so that Communicate with all employees so that they are aware of the vision of the futurethey are aware of the vision of the future

Always provide information on the Always provide information on the progress of the BPR initiative - good and progress of the BPR initiative - good and bad.bad.

Demonstrate assurance that the BPR Demonstrate assurance that the BPR initiative is both necessary and properly initiative is both necessary and properly managedmanaged

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3.3. Develop & Communicate Develop & Communicate Vision of Improved ProcessVision of Improved Process

Promote individual development by Promote individual development by indicating options that are availableindicating options that are available

Indicate actions required and those Indicate actions required and those responsibleresponsible

Tackle any actions that need resolutionTackle any actions that need resolution

Direct communication to reinforce new Direct communication to reinforce new patterns of desired behaviorpatterns of desired behavior

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4.4. Identify Action PlanIdentify Action Plan

Develop an Improvement PlanDevelop an Improvement Plan

Appoint Process OwnersAppoint Process Owners

Simplify the Process to Reduce Process Simplify the Process to Reduce Process TimeTime

Remove any Bureaucracy that may Remove any Bureaucracy that may hinder implementationhinder implementation

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4.4. Identify Action PlanIdentify Action Plan

Remove no-value-added activitiesRemove no-value-added activities

Standardize Process and Automate Standardize Process and Automate Where PossibleWhere Possible

Up-grade EquipmentUp-grade Equipment

Plan/schedule the changesPlan/schedule the changes

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4.4. Identify Action PlanIdentify Action Plan

Construct in-house metrics and Construct in-house metrics and targetstargets

Introduce and firmly establish a Introduce and firmly establish a feedback systemfeedback system

Audit, Audit, AuditAudit, Audit, Audit

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5.5. Execute PlanExecute Plan

Qualify/certify the processQualify/certify the process Perform periodic qualification reviewsPerform periodic qualification reviews Define and eliminate process problemsDefine and eliminate process problems Evaluate the change impact on the Evaluate the change impact on the

business and on customersbusiness and on customers Benchmark the processBenchmark the process Provide advanced team trainingProvide advanced team training

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Information Information Technology & Technology &

BPRBPR

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Benefits From ITBenefits From IT

Assists the Implementation of Assists the Implementation of Business ProcessesBusiness Processes Enables Product & Service InnovationsEnables Product & Service Innovations Improve Operational EfficiencyImprove Operational Efficiency Coordinate Vendors & Customers in the Coordinate Vendors & Customers in the

Process ChainProcess Chain

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BPR ChallengesBPR Challenges

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Common Problems with Common Problems with BPRBPR

Process Simplification is Common - Process Simplification is Common - True BPR is NotTrue BPR is Not

Desire to Change Not Strong EnoughDesire to Change Not Strong Enough Start Point the Existing Process Not a Start Point the Existing Process Not a

Blank SlateBlank Slate Commitment to Existing Processes Commitment to Existing Processes

Too StrongToo Strong REMEMBER - “If it isn’t broke …”REMEMBER - “If it isn’t broke …”

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Common Problems with Common Problems with BPRBPR

Process under review too big or too smallProcess under review too big or too small Reliance on existing process too strongReliance on existing process too strong The Costs of the Change Seem Too LargeThe Costs of the Change Seem Too Large BPR Isolated Activity not Aligned to the BPR Isolated Activity not Aligned to the

Business ObjectivesBusiness Objectives Allocation of ResourcesAllocation of Resources Poor Timing and PlanningPoor Timing and Planning Keeping the Team and Organization on Keeping the Team and Organization on

TargetTarget

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How to Avoid BPR How to Avoid BPR FailureFailure

To avoid failure of the BPR process it is recommended To avoid failure of the BPR process it is recommended that: that:

BPR must be accompanied by strategic planning, which BPR must be accompanied by strategic planning, which addresses leveraging Information technology as a addresses leveraging Information technology as a competitive tool. competitive tool.

Place the customer at the centre of the reengineering Place the customer at the centre of the reengineering effort, concentrate on reengineering fragmented effort, concentrate on reengineering fragmented processes that lead to delays or other negative impacts processes that lead to delays or other negative impacts on customer service. on customer service.

BPR must be "owned" throughout the organization, not BPR must be "owned" throughout the organization, not driven by a group of outside consultants. driven by a group of outside consultants.

Case teams must be comprised of both managers as Case teams must be comprised of both managers as well as those who will actually do the work. well as those who will actually do the work.

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How to Avoid BPR How to Avoid BPR FailureFailure

The Information technology group should be The Information technology group should be an integral part of the reengineering team an integral part of the reengineering team from the start. from the start.

BPR must be sponsored by top executives, who BPR must be sponsored by top executives, who are not about to leave or retire. are not about to leave or retire.

BPR projects must have a timetable, ideally BPR projects must have a timetable, ideally between three to six months, so that the between three to six months, so that the organization is not in a state of "limbo". organization is not in a state of "limbo".

BPR must not ignore corporate culture and BPR must not ignore corporate culture and must emphasize constant communication and must emphasize constant communication and feedback. feedback.

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SummarySummary Reengineering is a fundamental Reengineering is a fundamental

rethinking and redesign of business rethinking and redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic processes to achieve dramatic improvementsimprovements

BPR has emerged from key management BPR has emerged from key management traditions such as scientific management traditions such as scientific management and systems thinkingand systems thinking

Rules and symbols play an integral part of Rules and symbols play an integral part of all BPR initiativesall BPR initiatives

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SummarySummary

Don’t assume anything - remember Don’t assume anything - remember BPR is fundamental rethinking of BPR is fundamental rethinking of business processesbusiness processes