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Page 1: Bones, joints, muscles

Bones, Joints and Muscles

Page 2: Bones, joints, muscles

Bones: 206 in human body Function:

– support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs– protect (eg) skull, vertebrae– mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate, inorganic

component– movement (eg) walk, grasp objects– blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow

Osteoblasts: secrete organic part of bone matrix = osteoid Osteocytes: mature bone cells, maintain bone matrix

Page 3: Bones, joints, muscles

Some Reminders about Bones Bone = bone tissue (type of CT) A Bone = an organ Compact vs. Spongy Bone Composition: Hydroxyapatite, protoplasm, collagen,

blood vessels, marrow Skeleton = bones, cartilage (avascular, no nerves, 80%

H2O), joints, ligaments Shapes of Bones

– Long, Flat, Irregular, Short Before 8 weeks, embryo is all cartilage

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Structure of Bone

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Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis

– Medullary Cavity– Nutrient Art & Vein

2 Epiphyses– Epiphyseal Plates– Epiphyseal Art & Vein

Periosteum– Outer: Dense irregular CT– Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts– Does not cover epiphyses– Attaches to bone matrix via collagen fibers

Endosteum– Osteoblasts, osteoclasts– Covers trabeculae, lines medullary cavity

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2 Types of Bone Formation

1) Intramembranous Ossification– Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle– Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes– Osteocytes maintain new bone tissue– Trabeculae forms between blood vessels– Grows into thickened plates at periphery = compact bone– Periosteum forms over it

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2 Types of Bone Formation :

2) Endochondral Ossification: All other bones – Begins with a cartilaginous model– Perichondrium becomes replaced by periosteum– Cartilage in diaphysis calcifies – Trabeculae forms from Periosteal bud

Periosteal bud = arteries & veins, cells forming bone marrow, osteoblasts, osteoclasts

– Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts– Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify

Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years

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Bone Growth & Remodeling GROWTH Appositional Growth = widening of bone

– Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum– Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts

Lengthening of Bone– Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts – Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)– Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side

REMODELING Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs to be replaced

– Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ , PO4 to body fluids from bone

– Osteoblasts-lay down bone secrete osteoid to form new bone

Ideally osteoclasts and osteoblasts work at the same rate!

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Joints (articulations)

Where parts of skeleton meet Allows varying amounts of mobility Classified by structure or function Arthrology: study of joints

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Classification of Joints

Function:– Synarthroses = no/little movement– Amphiarthroses = slight movement– Diarthroses = great movement

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Joints by Functional ClassificationType Movement Example

Synarthrosis None (minimal)

Sutures, Teeth,Epiphyseal plates,1st rib and costal cart.

Amphiarthrosis Slight Distal Tibia/fibulaIntervertebral discsPubic symphysis

Diarthrosis Great Glenohumeral jointKnee jointTMJ

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Joint Classification

Structure– Cartilagenous

Synchondrosis: connected by hyaline cartilage (synarthroses) Symphysis: connected by fibrocartilage (amphiarthroses)

– Fibrous Sutures: connected by short strands of dense CT (synarthroses) Syndesmoses: connected by ligaments (varies) Gomphosis: peg in socket w/short ligament (synarthroses)

– Synovial (diarthroses)

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Joints by Structural Classification

Structure Type ExampleCartilagenous Synchondrosis

SymphysisEpiphyseal platesIntervertebral discs

Fibrous SuturesSyndesmosesGomphosis

SkullDistal Tibia/fibulaTeeth in sockets

Synovial Glenohumeral jointKnee jointTMJ

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Components of SYNOVIAL JOINTS:(Structural Joint Classification continued)

Articular cartilage: hyaline; covers ends of both bones articulating Synovial (joint) cavity: space holding synovial fluid Articular capsule: Made of 2 layers

– Fibrous: external, dense CT for strength– Synovial membrane: internal, produces synovial fluid

Synovial fluid: viscous; lubricates and nourishes; contained in capsule and articular cartilages

Reinforcing ligaments: extracapsular/intracapsular Nerves + vessels: Highly innervated, Highly vascular Meniscus (some): fibrocartilage; improves the fit of 2 bones to increase


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Synovial Joint

pg 215

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Bursae & Tendon Sheaths Bursae: flat, fibrous sac

w/synovial membrane lining

Tendon Sheaths: elongated bursae that wraps around tendons

3 Factors in Joint Stability:– Muscle Tone – Ligaments – Fit of Articular Surfacepg 219

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Joint Shapes Hinge: cylindrical end of 1

bone fits into trough shape of other– angular movement-1 plane (eg)

elbow, ankle, interphalangal

Plane: articular surface in flat plane– Short gliding movement– (eg) intertarsal, articular processes

of vertebrae

pg 224

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Joint Shapes

Condyloid: egg-shape articular surface + oval concavity– side-to-side, back+forth movement– (eg) metacarpophalangeal (knuckle)

Pivot: round end fits into ring of bone + ligament– rotation on long axis– (eg) prox. radius/ulna, atlas/dens

pg 225

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Joint Shapes

Saddle: articular surface both concave + convex– side-to-side, back-forth movement– (eg) carpometacarpal jt of thumb–

Ball + Socket: spherical head + round socket– multiaxial movement– (eg) shoulder, femur

pg 225

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!Muscles!Function: 1) movement 2) maintain posture 3) joint stability 4) generate heat


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Special Features of Muscle Contractibility = cells generate pulling force Excitibility = nervous impulses travel through

muscle plasma membrane to stimulate contraction

Extensibility = after contraction muscle can be stretched back to original length by opposing muscle action

Elasticity = after being stretched, muscle passively recoils to resume its resting length

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Muscle System: uses levers to move objects

How it works: A rigid bar moves on fixed point when a force is applied to it, to move object

Lever = rigid bar = bone Fulcrum = fixed point = joint Effort = force applied = muscle contraction Load = object being moved = bone

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Movements of Muscles

Extension: increasing angle between body parts Flexion: decreasing angle between body parts

– Dorsiflexion vs. Plantarflexion– Inversion vs. Eversion

Abduction: moving away from the median plane Adduction: moving towards the median plane Rotation: moving around the long axis Circumduction: moving around in circles

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Elevation: lifting body part superiorly Depression: moving body part inferiorly Supination: rotating forearm laterally Pronation: rotating forearm medially Protraction: Anterior movement Retraction: Posterior movement

Movements of Muscles

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Muscle Basics to Remember

3 Types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth Origin vs. Insertion Direct vs. Indirect Attachments

– direct = right onto bone– indirect = via tendon/aponeurosis

more common leave bony markings = tubercle, crest, ridge, etc. Sometimes attach to skin

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Functional Muscle Groups

Agonist = primary mover of a muscle, major response produces particular movement– (eg) biceps brachii is main flexor of forearm

Antagonists = oppose/reverse particular movement, prevent overshooting agonistic motion– (eg) triceps brachii is antagonist to biceps brachii

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Functional Muscle Groups Synergists = muscles work together, adds extra

force to agonistic movement, reduce undesirable extra movement – (eg) muscles crossing 2 joints

Fixators = a synergist that holds bone in place to provide stable base for movement – (eg) joint stablilizers

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Naming Muscles

Location: (eg) brachialis = arm Shape: (eg) deltoid = triangle Relative Size: (eg) minimus, maximus, longus Direction of Fascicles: (eg) oblique, rectus Location of Attachment: (eg) brachioradialis Number of Origins: (eg) biceps, quadriceps Action: (eg) flexor, adductor, extensor

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Arrangement of Muscle Fibers

Parallel: long axis of fascicles parallel to axis of muscle; straplike (eg) biceps, sternocleidomastoid

Convergent: O = broad, I = narrow, via tendon; fan or triangle shaped (eg) pectoralis major

Circular: fascicles arranged in concentric circles; sphincter (eg) around mouth

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Arrangement of Muscle Fibers

Pennate: fascicles short + attached obliquely to tendon running length of muscle; featherlike– Unipennate = fascicles insert on only 1 side

(eg) flexor pollicis longus– Bipennate = fascicles insert both sides

(eg) rectus femoris– Multipennate = many bundles inserting together

(eg) deltoid

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Arrangements of Muscle Fascicles

pg 269

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More on Levers on the following pages

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First Class Lever Effort at 1 end Load at other end Fulcrum in middle (eg) scissors (eg) moving head up and down pg 267

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Second Class Lever Effort at 1 end Fulcrum at other end Load in middle (eg) wheelbarrel (eg) standing on tip toes (not common in body)

pg 267

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Third Class Lever Load at 1 end Fulcrum at other end Force in middle (eg) using a tweezers (eg) lifting w/biceps pg 267

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Mechanical Advantage

When the load is close to the fulcrum, effort is applied far from fulcrum

Small effort over large distance = move large load over short distance

(eg) Using a jack on a car

pg 266

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Mechanical Disadvantage

When the load is farther from the fulcrum than the effort, the effort applied must be greater than the load being moved

Load moved quickly over large distance

(eg) using a shovel

pg 266