• 2.1 The Tangent and Velocity Problems


    What is a tangent?

    Tangent lines and Secant lines

    Estimating slopes from discrete data:


    1. A tank holds 1000 gallons of water, which drains from the bottom of the tank in halfan hour. The values in the table show the volume V of water remaining in the tank (ingallons) after t minutes.

    t (min) 5 10 15 20 25 30V (gal) 694 444 250 111 28 0


  • (a) If P is the point (15, 250) on the graph of V , find the slopes of the secant lines PQ whenQ is the point on the graph with t = 10 and t = 20.

    (b) Estimate the slope of the tangent line at P by averaging the slopes of the two secantlines.

    (c) Use a graph of the function to estimate the slope of the tangent line at P (representsrate at which water is flowing from the tank after 15 min).

    Average Velocity vs. Instantaneous Velocity

    Average velocity=

    Instantaneous velocity at time t=


    8. The displacement (in cm) of a particle moving back and forth along a straight line isgiven by the equation of motion s = 2 sint+ 3 cost, where t is measured in seconds.

    (a) Find the average velocity during each period.

    (i) [1,2] (ii) [1,1.1]

    (iii) [1,1.01] (iv) [1,1.001]

    (b) Estimate the instantaneous velocity of the particle when t = 1.


  • 2.2 The Limit of a Function

    Definition The limit of f(x), as x approaches a, equals L written as limxa

    = L if f(x) can

    be made arbitrarily close to L by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side) but notequal to a.

    Question What is the difference between f(a) = L and limxa

    f(x) = L?

    Estimating using a table

    Example: Create a table of values to estimate the limit.



    x6 1x10 1

    What about limx0




  • Conclusion: Although using a table is one way of estimating limits, this will not always givethe correct answer. So, we need to examine some other methods.

    One-Sided Limits


    f(x) = L if and only if limxa

    f(x) = L and limxa+

    f(x) = L

    Example: For the given graph of g state the value for each of the quantities, if it exists. Ifit doesnt exist, explain why.


    (a) limt0

    g(t) (b) limt0+

    g(t) (c) limt0


    (d) limt2

    g(t) (e) limt2+

    g(t) (f) limt2


    (g) g(2) (h)limt4




  • 2.3 Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws

    There are 11 limit laws listed on pages 108-110 in your book. Look these over to know whatyou can do with limits.

    Examples of limit laws in action:

    1. Given that limxa

    f(x) = 3, limxa

    g(x) = 0, and limxa

    h(x) = 8, find the limits that exist.

    (a) limxa

    [f(x) + h(x)] (c) limxa


    (f) limxa


    (g) limxa


    (h) limxa

    2f(x)h(x) f(x)

    Sometimes you can just plug in the numbers, and go. Other times algebraic manipulation(factoring, rationalizing the numerator, etc.) is needed.


    (a) limx2

    x2 4x 2

    (b) limx0

    x3 8x 2

    (c) limx3

    x3 8x 2

    (d) limx2

    x3 8x 2


  • (e) limx1

    x+ 3 2x 1

    When can and cant you evaluate a limit just by plugging in the relevant value of x?


    34. limx0+

    (1x 1|x|)

    37. (a) (i) limx2+

    [[x]] (ii) limx2

    [[x]] (iii) limx2.4


    (b) If n is an integer, evaluate (i) limxn+

    [[x]] and (ii) limxn


    (c) For what values of a does limxa

    [[x]] exist?


  • The Squeeze Theorem: If f(x) g(x) h(x) when x is near a (except possibly at a)and lim

    xaf(x) = lim

    xah(a) = L then lim

    xag(x) L.

    30. Prove that limx0+

    xesin(/x) = 0.


  • 2.4 Continuity

    Definitions: A function f is continuous at a number a if limxa

    f(x) = f(a). If f is notcontinuous at a, we say f is discontinuous at a. Also, f is continuous on an intervalif f is continuous at every number in the interval.

    This implies that three things need to happen for f to be continuous at a.




    What happens if 1 of these 3 properties is not satisfied?


    Types of discontinuities

    1. Removable 2. Infinite 3. Jump

    Example: Find the discontinuities (if any). List the domain of each function.

    a. f(x) =x 1

    x2 3x+ 2b. g(x) =

    {x 1 , x 1x+ 2 , x > 1


  • NOTE: If f and g are continuous at a and c is a constant, then f + g, f g, cf , fg, f/g(if g(a) 6= 0), and f g are also continuous at a.

    This tells us the following functions are continuous on their domains:

    Continuous from the left and right:

    Intermediate Value Theorem

    The Intermediate Value Theorem: Suppose that f is continuous on a closed interval[a, b] and let N be any number between f(a) and f(b), where f(a) 6= f(b). Then thereexists a number c in (a, b) such that f(c) = N .

    IVT is used in a variety of ways!

    1. Graphing Calculators

    2. Proving that roots exist for a function

    3. Tons of other applications


  • Example: Show that there exists a number whose cube is one more than the number itself.


  • 2.5 Limits Involving Infinity


    1. limxa

    f(x) = if the values of f(x) can be made as large as we please by taking xsufficiently close to a. Similar definition for .

    2. Let f be defined on (a,). Then limx

    f(x) = L if values of f(x) can be made as closeto L as we like by taking x sufficiently large. Similar for .

    Note: We also use limx

    f(x) = to indicate the function f is getting large as x becomeslarge. Similar remarks can be made by replacing either (or both) s with s.

    Some Important Examples

    1. arctanx: 2. tanx:

    3. ex: 4. lnx:




  • Asymptotes

    What is a vertical asymptote? How do we find them?

    What is a horizontal asymptote? How do we find them?

    Calculating Limits


    Compute the limits of y =x+ 5x2 25

    as x , and as x 5. Graph the function.


  • Compute limx

    (x2 x4 + 2).

    Graph y =2x3 16x3 27

    after finding the vertical and horizontal asymptotes.


  • 2.6 Tangents, Velocities, and Other Rates of Change

    Some of this should look familiar, we talked about it in .

    Recall our definitions of tangent line and secant line.

    Locally Linear

    The tangent line to the curve y = f(x) at the point P (a, f(a)) is the line through P withslope

    m = limxa

    f(x) f(a)x a

    provided that limit exists.

    Can also use an alternate definition:

    m = limh0

    f(a+ h) f(a)h

    Example: 6. (a) Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = x3 at the point (1,1)

    (b) Find an equation of the tangent line in part (a).


  • Applications

    For all rates of change (including velocity) the instantaneous rate of change is equal to the.

    26. The number N of locations of a popular coffeehouse chain is given in the table.

    Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002N 1886 2135 3501 4709 5886

    (a) Find the average rate of growth from

    (i) 2000 to 2002 (ii) 2000 to 2001 (iii) 1999 to 2000

    (b) Estimate the instantaneous rate of growth in 2000 by taking the average of two averagerates of change. What are its units?

    (c) Estimate the instantaneous rate of growth in 2000 by measuring the slope of the tangent.


  • 2.7 Derivatives

    Definition of Derivative at a point a:

    f (a) = limh0

    f(a+ h) f(a)h


    if this limit exists. This can also be written as:

    f (a) = limxa

    f(x) f(a)x a


    Example: Find the derivative of f(t) =

    1 + t at the number a.

    Equation of tangent line

    y f(a) = f (a)(x a)

    Example: If f(t) =

    1 + t, find f (3) and use it to find an equation of the tangent line tof at the point (3, 2).


  • Rate of Change

    instantaneous rate of change=limx0


    = limx2x1

    f(x2) f(x1)x2 x1

    SO...the derivative f (a) = inst. rate of change of y = f(x) with respect to x when x = a.

    When derivative is large, then .

    When derivative is small, then .


    25. A particle moves along a straight line w/ equation of motion s = f(t) = 100+50t4.9t2,where s is measured in meters and t in seconds. Find the velocity and speed when t = 5.

    Note 1: Velocity=

    Note 2: Speed=

    30. The quantity (in pounds) of a coffee that is sold at a price of p dollars per pound isQ = f(p).

    (a) What is the meaning of the derivative f (8)? What are its units?

    (b)Is f (8) positive or negative? Explain.


  • 2.8 The Derivative as Function

    Creating f from f :


    Lets look at some other notations for the derivative:

    Definition: A function f is differentiable at a if f (a) exists. The function f is differ-entiable on an open interval (a, b) if it is differentiable at every number in the interval.

    Theorem If f is differentiable at a, then f is continuous at a.

    When is a function not differentiable?

    1. 2. 3.


  • The converse of the above theorem is not true. Can you give me an example?

    Higher Derivatives

    We can also take the second derivative, third derivative, etc. of a function. In order to take ahigher derivative, .


    Position Functions and Higher Derivatives:

    39. The graph shows three functions. Determine which one is the position function of acar, the velocity function of the car, and the acceleration.


  • 2.9 What does f say about f?


    If f (x) > 0, then f is .

    If f (x) < 0, then f is .



    (a) On what intervals is f increasing or decreasing?

    (b) At what values of x does f have a local maximum or minimum?


    If f (x) > 0, then f is .

    If f (x) < 0, then f is .



    (c) On what intervals is f concave upward or downward?


  • An inflection point is a point on the graph where the second derivative changes sign, i.e.where the concavity changes.

    (d) State the x-coordinates of the point(s) of inflection.

    (e) Assuming f(0) = 0, sketch a graph of f .


    Given the following graph of f , sketch f and f .


  • Example:

    19. Sketch the graph of a function that satisfies: f (x) > 0 if |x| < 2, f (x) < 0 if |x| > 2,f (2) = 0, lim

    x2|f (x)| =, and f (x) > 0 if x 6= 2.

    An antiderivative of f is a function F such that F = f .

    If F is an antiderivative of f , so is .


    28. The graph of the velocity of a car is shown. Sketch the graph of the position function.