Zen Classics: Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism · PDF fileZen Classics is a sequel to The Zen Canon, published by Oxford Uni- versity Press, in which we began to explore

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)

Text of Zen Classics: Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism · PDF fileZen Classics is a...

Zen Classics:Formative Texts in the History of Zen





Zen Classics

This page intentionally left blank

Zen Classics

Formative Texts in the History

of Zen Buddhism

edited by steven heine anddale s. wright


1Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that furtherOxford Universitys objective of excellencein research, scholarship, and education.

Oxford New YorkAuckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong KarachiKuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City NairobiNew Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto

With offices inArgentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France GreeceGuatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal SingaporeSouth Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam

Copyright 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016


Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataZen classics: formative texts in the history of Zen Buddhism /edited by Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright.p. cmIncludes bibliographical references and index.Contents: The concept of classic literature in Zen Buddhism /Dale S. WrightGuishan jingce and the ethical foundations of Chan practice /Mario PoceskiA Korean contribution to the Zen canon the Oga hae scorui /Charles MullerZen Buddhism as the ideology of the Japanese state /Albert WelterAn analysis of Dogens Eihei goroku /Steven HeineRules of purity in Japanese Zen /T. Griffith FoulkZen koan capping phrase books /Victor Sogen HoriImagining Indian Zen /Michel MohrMeditation for laymen and laywomen / David Riggs.ISBN-13 978-0-19-517525-7; 978-0-19-517526-4 (pbk.)ISBN 0-19-517525-5; 0-19-517526-3 (pbk.)1. Zen literatureHistory and criticism. 2. Zen Buddhism.I. Heine, Steven, 1950 II. Wright, Dale S.

BQ9264.2.Z455 2005294.3'85dc22 2004066287

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of Americaon acid-free paper



We thank Cynthia Read and Oxford University Press for their inter-est in the project. We are also grateful for the support provided byour respective institutions in the preparation of the manuscript. Spe-cial thanks go to several assistants who worked on the manuscript,including Sandy Avila, Kelly Kuylen, Adiene Rodas, and CristinaSasso.

This page intentionally left blank


Abbreviations, ix

Contributors, xi

Introduction: The Concept of Classic Literature inZen Buddhism, 3Dale S. Wright

1. Guishan jingce (Guishans Admonitions) and the EthicalFoundations of Chan Practice, 15Mario Poceski

2. A Korean Contribution to the Zen Canon: The OgaHae Seorui (Commentaries on Five Masters on theDiamond Sutra), 43Charles Muller

3. Zen Buddhism as the Ideology of the Japanese State: Eisai andthe Kozen gokokuron, 65Albert Welter

4. An Analysis of Dogens Eihei Goroku: Distillationor Distortion? 113Steven Heine

5. Rules of Purity in Japanese Zen, 137T. Griffith Foulk

viii contents

6. Zen Koan Capping Phrase Books: Literary Study and the Insight NotFounded on Words or Letters, 171G. Victor Sogen Hori

7. Imagining Indian Zen: Toreis Commentary on the Ta-mo-to-lo chanching and the Rediscovery of Early Meditation Techniques during theTokugawa Era, 215Michel Mohr

8. Meditation for Laymen and Laywomen: The Buddha Samadhi (JijuyuZanmai) of Menzan Zuiho, 247David E. Riggs

Appendix:PinyinWade-Giles Conversion Table, 275

Index, 281


T Taisho shinshu daizokyo [Japanese Edition of the Buddhist Canon](Tokyo: Daizokyokai, 19241935).

Z Zoku zokyo [Dai Nihon zokuzokyo] (Kyoto: Zokyo shoin, 19051912).XZJ Xu zangjing (Taipei: Xinwenfeng, 19681970; reprint of Dai Nihon


This page intentionally left blank


T. GRIFFITH FOULK is professor of religion at Sarah LawrenceCollege and co-editor-in-chief of the Soto Zen Translation Projectbased in Tokyo. He was trained in both Rinzai and Soto Zen monas-teries in Japan and has published extensively on the institutionaland intellectual history of Chan/Zen Buddhism.

STEVEN HEINE is professor of religious studies and historyand director of the Institute for Asian Studies at Florida Interna-tional University. Heine has published numerous books and articlesdealing with the life and thought of Dogen and the history and phi-losophy of Zen Buddhism, including Dogen and the Koan Tradition:A Tale of Two Shobogenzo Texts (1994), The Zen Poetry of Dogen:Verses from the Mountain of Eternal Peace (1997), Shifting Shape,Shaping Text: Philosophy and Folklore in the Fox Koan (1999), Open-ing a Mountain: Koans of the Zen Masters (2001), and Zen Canon:Understanding the Classic Texts (co-edited with Dale S. Wright, 2004).

G. VICTOR SOGEN HORI, a former monk in the Daitokujibranch of Japanese Rinzai Zen, is associate professor of Japanese re-ligion in the Faculty of Religious Studies at McGill University inMontreal. He has published Zen Sand: The Book of Capping Phrasesfor Koan Practice, a translation with commentary of the Rinzai Zenmonks handbook of capping phrases for koans (2003), and is activein the Montreal Buddhist communities.

MICHEL MOHR presently works as a full-time researcher atthe International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism, HanazonoUniversity, with a position of professor. He is in charge of directingthe Zen Knowledge Base project initiated by Urs App. Mohr ob-

xii contributors

tained a doctorate in 1992 from the University of Geneva (Switzerland), wherehe was working as assistant of the Japanese Department between 1987 and1992. His publications include Trait sur Buisable Lampe du Zen: (17211792) etsa vision de Treatise on the Inexhaustible Lamp of Zen: [Torei and His Vision ofAwakening], 2 vols. (1997).

CHARLES MULLER is professor, Faculty of Humanities, Toyo GakuenUniversity (Japan). His publications include The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment:Korean Buddhisms Guide to Meditation (1999), and Patterns of Religion (1999)[co-author]. He is also the founder and managing editor of the H-BuddhismBuddhist Scholars Information Network (http://www2.hnet.msu.edu/buddhism/) and Chief Editor of the online Digital Dictionary of Buddhism(http://www.acmuller.net/ddb).

MARIO POCESKI is an assistant professor of Buddhist studies at the Uni-versity of Florida. His research focuses on the history of Buddhism in latemedieval China. Currently he is finishing a book on the history and doctrinesof the Hongzhou school of Chan. His earlier publications include Manifestationof the Tathagata: Buddhahood According to the Avatamsaka Sutra (1993) and Sun-Face Buddha: The Teachings of Ma-tsu and the Hung-chou School of Chan (2001).

DAVID E. RIGGS is currently a researcher at the International Center forJapanese Studies in Kyoto. He has taught at the University of California SantaBarbara and the University of Illinois. He received his Ph. D. from the Uni-versity of California Los Angeles, where his dissertation was entitled The Re-kindling of a Tradition: Menzan Zuiho and the Reform of Japanese Soto Zenin the Tokugawa Era.

ALBERT WELTER is associate professor of religious studies at the Uni-versity of Winnipeg, specializing in Chinese and Japanese Buddhism. His pre-vious publications include articles on Chinese Chan, and a book-length studyof the Chan scholiast Yung-ming Yen-shou. He is currently preparing severalmanuscripts for publication, including a translation of the Kozen gokokuron.

DALE S. WRIGHT is David B. and Mary H. Gamble Professor of ReligiousStudies and Asian Studies at Occidental College. His area of specialization andresearch is Buddhist philosophy, particularly Hua-yen Buddhism and Chan/Zen Buddhism. His publications include Philosophical Meditations on Zen Bud-dhism (1998), The Koan: Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism (co-edited withSteven Heine, 2000), and Zen Canon: Understanding the Classic Texts (co-editedwith Steven Heine, 2004), as well as numerous articles in Philosophy East andWest, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, History and Theory, and else-where.


Zen Classics

This page intentionally left blank

Introduction: The Conceptof Classic Literature inZen Buddhism

Dale S. Wright

Zen Classics is a sequel to The Zen Canon, published by Oxford Uni-versity Press, in which we began to explore the variety of influentialtexts in the history of Zen Buddhism. In Zen Classics we continuethat exploration by shifting our primary focus from the Chinese ori-gins of Zen to the other East Asian cultures where the Zen traditioncame to fruition in subsequent eras. Here we invite scholars doingoriginal research on Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Zen literature tosurvey a single work or genre of works that, because of its powerand influence, has helped shape the Zen tradition and cause it to bewhat it is today.

It has by now become clear to those of us studying the Zen tra-dition of Buddhism that in spite of the powerful rhetorical opposi-tion mounted against the written word, the volume, variety, and in-fluence of Zen literature are enormous. Zen literature is one of theprimary ways in which the tradition communicates its teachings