Writing Clear Sentences How to avoid sentence fragments and run-on sentences.

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  • Writing Clear SentencesHow to avoid sentence fragments and run-on sentences.

  • What is a sentence?A sentence is a group of words that hasa subject person, place or thing doing an actiona verb an actionA capitalized first letter of the first word. end punctuation period, question mark, exclamation mark a complete thought.

  • Jack climbed the giant beanstalk. SubjectWho did the climbingVerbWhat Jack didPredicate (Optional)Jack climbed. is a complete sentence. What Jack climbedEnd punctuationSignals that the sentence is over.

  • Jack climbed the giant beanstalk. Is there anything we still need to know about this sentence? No? Then this sentence expresses a complete thought.

  • I traded our cow for magic beans. SubjectWho did the tradingVerbWhat I didPredicate (Optional)I traded. is a complete sentence. What I tradedEnd punctuationSignals that the sentence is over.

  • I traded our cow for magic beans. Is there anything we still need to know about this sentence? No? Then this sentence expresses a complete thought.

  • Stop! Unstated SubjectWho needs to stopVerbWhat I want you to doEnd punctuationSignals that the sentence is over. The exclamation point adds emotion or excitement. You

  • Stop! YouIs there anything we still need to know about this sentence? No? Then this sentence expresses a complete thought.

  • Did Jack win?SubjectWho did the winningVerbQuestions have two verbs. End punctuationSignals that the sentence is over and that it is a question.

  • Did Jack win?Is there anything we still need to know about this sentence? No? Then this sentence expresses a complete thought.

  • He is a sneaky boy. SubjectWho is a sneaky boy VerbState of beingPredicate (Optional)He is. is a complete sentence. He is what? End punctuationSignals that the sentence is over.

  • He is a sneaky boy. Is there anything we still need to know about this sentence? No? Then this sentence expresses a complete thought.

  • Now lets look at sentences that are missing something.

  • Whats missing?chased Jack down the beanstalk. Who chased Jack down the beanstalk?The giantSubjectWho did the chasing?

  • Whats missing?His parents did not him. His parents did not what?

  • Thats better. His parents did not believe him. Verb

  • Whats missing?After Jack stole the goose. Does the sentence tell us everything we need to know?No, it doesnt. We need to know more about what Jack does after he stole the goose.

  • Thats better. After Jack stole the goose, he snuck past the giant.

  • DO NOT WRITE IN BOOKS. Page 1, #1-101. Identify each group of words a sentence (S) or sentence fragment (SF). 2. For each fragment, rewrite the fragment as a complete sentence.(Hint: There are 5 fragments.)

  • Run-on SentencesWhen sentences try to say too much at once.

  • What is a run-on sentence?A run-on sentence is actually one or more sentences run together without proper punctuation and/or conjunctions. They usually happen when you are rushing to get your ideas down, but can be easily fixed.

  • Tarzan was raised by gorillas, he learned to swing on vines.

  • Tarzan was raised by gorillas, he learned to swing on vines.

  • Tarzan was raised by gorillas, he learned to swing on vines.

  • Tarzan was raised by gorillas. He learned to swing on vines. By changing the comma to a period, the two thoughts become two separate sentences.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer, he has wrestled a crocodile, he saved Jane from a sorcerer, he has many other adventures.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer, he has wrestled a crocodile, he saved Jane from a sorcerer, he has many other adventures.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer, he has wrestled a crocodile, he saved Jane from a sorcerer, he has many other adventures.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer, he has wrestled a crocodile, he saved Jane from a sorcerer, he has many other adventures.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer, he has wrestled a crocodile, he saved Jane from a sorcerer, he has many other adventures.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer, he has wrestled a crocodile, he saved Jane from a sorcerer, he has many other adventures.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer. He has wrestled a crocodile. He saved Jane from a sorcerer. He has many other adventures.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer, he has wrestled a crocodile, he saved Jane from a sorcerer, he has many other adventures.

  • Tarzan is a great adventurer. He has wrestled a crocodile, and saved Jane from a sorcerer. He has many other adventures.

  • The story of Tarzan is very popular, some people do not think that Tarzan is a good story for children, there is racism and sexism.

  • The story of Tarzan is very popular, some people do not think that Tarzan is a good story for children, there is racism and sexism.

  • The story of Tarzan is very popular, but some people do not think that Tarzan is a good story for children. There is racism and sexism in the story.

  • Now its time for you to practice. In the skinny blue book. Page 244, #1-15

  • Stringy SentencesWhen too many ideas are strung together in one sentence.

  • What is a stringy sentence?A stringy sentence is a type of run-on. It has too many ideas stuck together with and, but or or. They dont give the reader a chance to pause between ideas.

  • The ostrich is the largest living bird, and it stands nearly eight feet tall, and it weighs over three hundred pounds when it is fully grown, and this speedy bird can run up to forty miles an hour!How many different ideas are there in this sentence?

  • The ostrich is the largest living bird, and it stands nearly eight feet tall, and it weighs over three hundred pounds when it is fully grown, and this speedy bird can run up to forty miles an hour!

  • The ostrich is the largest living bird, and it stands nearly eight feet tall, and it weighs over three hundred pounds when it is fully grown, and this speedy bird can run up to forty miles an hour!

  • The ostrich is the largest living bird, and it stands nearly eight feet tall, and it weighs over three hundred pounds when it is fully grown, and this speedy bird can run up to forty miles an hour!

  • The ostrich is the largest living bird, and it stands nearly eight feet tall, and it weighs over three hundred pounds when it is fully grown, and this speedy bird can run up to forty miles an hour!

  • The ostrich is the largest living bird, and it stands nearly eight feet tall, and it weighs over three hundred pounds when it is fully grown, and this speedy bird can run up to forty miles an hour!Notice how the 4 ideas are all stuck together with and. There are several better ways to say this.

  • Giving each idea its own sentence is the easiest way. But

  • The ostrich is the largest living bird. It stands nearly eight feet tall, and it weighs over three hundred pounds when it is fully grown. This speedy bird can run up to forty miles an hour!keeping the middle two together is better.Why?

  • Ideas that are closely related should be linked together. It makes it easier for the reader to see how those ideas are related.

  • Make sure the ideas are strongly connected. If not, each idea should be in its own sentence.

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