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WRITING CHEMICAL RESEARCH PAPERS. REFERENCES. Preliminary. References should have been decided at the outline and first draft stages Obtain digital or paper copy of each Accommodate any new references (e.g. newly published work or any overlooked references) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation




  • PreliminaryReferences should have been decided at the outline and first draft stagesObtain digital or paper copy of eachAccommodate any new references (e.g. newly published work or any overlooked references)Make sure you present the references according to the target journal style. Software such as Endnote can help here

  • Reference SystemsThere are two basic referencesystems:The Number SystemThe Harvard System1. Number system. This uses numbers in the text (e.g. report11, report (11), report [11], etc) with the references in the list arranged in numerical order

  • Reference Systems..Continued2. The Harvard System. This uses surnames and dates in the text (e.g. report (Bates, 2009), with references in the list arranged in alphabetical order. Titles of articles are usually included in this system

  • Journal StylesIndividual journal styles for references vary widely. The following details should be taken into account:Order of surnames and initialsUse of punctuationPosition of year of publication and use of bracketsStyle to indicate journal name, volume number and year of publicationStyle for referencing papers in edited volumes and books

  • Journal StylesContinuedSurnames and InitialsKim, S H and Lee, B Sor Kim, S H and B S Leeor S H Kim and B S LeeSurnames should be quoted in thesame order as in the cited paper

  • Journal StylesContinuedUse of punctuation. Note whether full stop (.), comma (,), semicolon (;), colon (:) or simply a space is used at a particular pointKim, S H or Kim, SH or Kim, S. H. or Kim S H (etc)Phys Chem, 56, 435 or Phys. Chem., 56, 435 or Phys. Chem., 56: 435 etc

  • Journal StylesContinuedPosition of year of publication and use of bracketsBates, G. B. (2009)(usually with Harvard System)...J. Chem. Soc. B, 1971, 123. or J. Chem. Soc. B, 123 (1971). etcThese styles usually accompany the number system

  • Journal StylesContinuedStyle for journal detailsHere, note the use of bold, italics or underline. Also is page range required?Org. Biomol. Chem., 1, 153-156 (2003).or Org. Biomol. Org., 1, 153 (2003)or Org. Biomol. Org., 2003, 1, 153-156 etcJournal title abbreviations are standard (see handout)

  • Journal StylesContinuedStyle for referencing articles in edited volumes and booksSmith L (1999), The development of probiotic foods, in Gibson G and Williams C, Functional foods, Cambridge, Woodhead, 5275. or Smith L. (1999) The development of probiotic foods, in Gibson G. and Williams C., Functional Foods. Woodhead, Cambridge, U.K.,5275. etc

  • Final ChecksWhen finished, check the following:The references are all in the correct styleThey are listed in the correct orderThey are accurate with regard to author names and sequence of namesThey are accurate with regard to journal name, volume, page(s) and date (and title, if required)They are all cited in the text

  • Examples of Reference Styles1. American Chemical Society (number system)(49) Oishi, T.; Ando, K.; Inomiya, K.; Sato, H.; Iida, M.; Chida, N. Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 151.(4) Palier, M. In Tobacco Alkaloids and Related Compounds; Euler, V., Ed.; Macmillan: New York, 1965; p. 37.

  • 2. Royal Society of Chemistry (number system)Analyst: 9 P. Ciosek, Z. Brzozka and W. Wroblewski, Sens. Actuators, B, 2006, 118, 454-460.25 K. H. Esbenson, Multivariate Data Analysis in Practice, Multivariate Analysis Publishers, Norway, 5th edn, 2001.Chem. Comm.:1 J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, Nat. Methods, 2005, 2, 910-919.2(a) R. G. Harvey, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1997;

  • 3. Angewandte Chimie (AC) and Tetrahedron Letters (TL) (Wiley) (number system)AC[1] G. D. Prestwich, in Natural Product Chemistry (Ed.: Atta-ur-Rahman), Springer, Berlin, 1986, p. 318-329.[3] G. D. Prestwich, S. H. Goh, Y. P. Tho, Experientia 1981, 37, 11-13.TL(26) Agnihotri, G.; Misra, A. K. Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 8113.(30) (a) Dittmer, D. C.; Hoey, M. D. in The Chemistry of Sulphinic Acids, Esters and Their Derivatives (Ed.: S. Patai), Wiley, Chichester, 1990, p. 239.

  • 4. Journal of Solution Chemistry (Springer) Verlag) (number system)

    38. Albert, R., Jeong, H., Barabasi, A.: Error and attack tolerance of complex networks.Nature 406, 378-382 (2000)

    2. Fersht, A. : Structure and Mechanismin Protein Science: A Guide to Enzyme Catalysis and Protein Folding. Freeman,New York (1999)

  • 5. Journal of Chromatography A (Elsevier) (number system)

    [13] E. Coelho, M.A. Coimbra, J.M.F. Nogueira, S.M. Rocha, Anal. Chim. Acta 635 (2009) 214.

    [16] L.K. Ng, in: J. Pawliszyn (Ed.), Application of Solid Phase Microextraction, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1999.

  • 6. Talanta (Elsevier) (number system)

    [22] J. Davies, H. Berndt, Anal. Chim. Acta 479 (2003) 215.

    [9] J.M. Concon, Food Toxicology, Marcel Dekker, New York,1998.

  • 7. Acta Crystallographica (Wiley-Blackwell) (Harvard system)

    Ferreira, F., Audoin, M. & Chemla, F. (2005). Chem. Eur. J. 11, 1385-1392.Sheldrick, G. M. (2007). SADABS. University of Gttingen, Germany.