World History Chapter Three Ancient India and China.

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<ul><li><p>World HistoryChapter ThreeAncient India and China</p></li><li><p>Early Civilizations of India and PakistanSubcontinent large landmass that juts out from a continentBordered by Hindu-Kush and HimalayasServed as a partial barrier, but not completeThree zones: Fertile Gangetic PlainsDry Deccan PlateauCoastal Plains</p></li><li><p>Plateau raised level area of land Monsoon seasonal winds that blow from certain direction for part of the yearDepending on the direction, they bring rain or dry airDepend on the rains for crops</p></li><li><p>Indus Civilization</p><p>2600 B.C. Indus Valley CivilizationLasted 700 years and rivaled SumerHave not found any records of Kings and Queens, tax records. Only small clay sealsHarrapa and Mohenjo-Daro two cities considered possible sites for the capitol of Indus Civilization</p></li><li><p>Farming and TradeMost people were farmersGrew wheat, barley, melons, and datesAlso were merchants and tradersTraded cotton cloth, grains, copper, pearls, ivory</p></li><li><p>ReligionPolytheistic believed in many godsMother goddess source of creationBull and buffalo considered sacredBecame part of Indian culture especially the veneration of cattleVeneration special regard</p></li><li><p>DeclineCrude pottery replaced fine works from early onWriting stoppedMohen-Daro was abandonedWhat happened?Maybe deforestation</p></li><li><p>Aryan civilization</p><p>2000 B.C. 1500 B.C.Nomadic people came to India subcontinentBuilt no cities and left little behindVedas collection of hymns, chants, ritual instructions, and other religious teachingsLeft behind by AryansBecame sacred teachings</p></li><li><p>Eventually settled down and were no longer nomadsCultivated crops and bred cattleLed by rajahs, or chiefs, skilled war leader, elected to his positionOften fought with other rajahs to gain more territory</p></li><li><p>SocietyRanked according to occupationTop: Brahmins priestsMiddle: Kshatriyas warriorsBottom: Vaisyas herders, farmers, artisans, merchantsLowest: Sudras: farm workers, servants, laborers</p></li><li><p>Aryan Religious BeliefsPolytheistic Gods and goddesses embodied natural forces like the sky, sun, storms and fireIndra top god- god of warWeapon was a thunderboltVaruna god of order and creation</p></li><li><p>Brahmins offered sacrifices of food and drink to the godsIf they practiced religion correctly they could ask the gods for help when they needed itBegan to believe in a Brahman single godMystics tried to have direct contact with divine forces</p></li><li><p>LiteratureMahabharata Indias greatest epic100,000 versesTells of Aryan battles to win territoryRamayana tells of fantastic deeds of the hero Rama and his wife SitaRead passage from Mahabharata</p></li></ul>


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