Text of Working with Families. Influences Define Family Take a minute and write your definition of family
Working with Families
Define Family Take a minute and write your definition of family
Family A family is a group of two people or more (one of whom is the householder) related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together; all such people (including related subfamily members) are considered as members of one family. Census 20000
Family The family is a group of individuals with a continuing legal, genetic and/or emotional relationship. Society relies on the family group to provide for the economic and protective needs of individuals, especially children and the elderly. (1984) (2003) American Academy of Family Physicians
Family A family is a social group organized or governed by a repeatable set of rules. Jackson (1965) Family rules: Marital grid pro quo. Archives of General Psychiatry. 12: 589-594.
Family A family is people who live together who help and love each other. A second grade student. In Fuller and Olsen. 1998. Home-School Relations. Allyn and Bacon.
Circle of Courage During this slide presentation, think of these four characteristics in families and children: 1.Belonging 2.Independence 3.Generosity 4.Mastery
Census: U.S. Families
Percent of Children in Household Most children spend the majority of their childhood living with two parents; however, significant proportions of children have more diverse living arrangements. Information about the presence of parents and other adults in the family, such as the parent's unmarried partner, grandparents, and other relatives, is important for understanding children's social, economic, and developmental well-being.
Children in Household Type
Children in the U.S. The number of children determines the demand for schools, health care, and other services and facilities that serve children and their families.
U.S. Population In 1999, there were 70.2 million children in the United States, 0.3 million more than in 1998. This number is projected to increase to 77.2 million in 2020. The number of children under 18 has grown during the last half-century, increasing about half again in size since 1950. During the "baby boom" (1946 to 1964), the number of children grew rapidly. During the 1970s and 1980s, the number of children declined and then grew slowly. Beginning in 1990, the rate of growth in the number of children increased, although not as rapidly as during the baby boom. In 1999, there were approximately equal numbers of children--between 23 and 24 million--in each age group 0 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years of age.
Children vs. Adults 65 and Older In contrast, senior citizens (adults ages 65 and older) have increased as a percentage of the total population since 1950, from 8 to 13 percent. By 2020, they are projected to make up 17 percent of the population.
U.S. Children by Race Increases in the percentages of Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander children are due to both fertility and immigration. Much of the growth in the percentage of Hispanic children is due to the relatively high fertility of Hispanic women.
Speak Another Language at Home The percentage of children who speak English with difficulty varies by region of the country, from 2 percent of children in the Midwest to 11 percent of children in the West.
Births to Unwed Mothers Increases in births to unmarried women are among the many changes in American society that have affected family structure and the economic security of children. Children of unmarried mothers are at higher risk of having adverse birth outcomes, such as low birthweight and infant mortality, and are more likely to live in poverty than children of married mothers.
Births to Unwed Mothers In 1998, 33 percent of all births in the U.S. were to unmarried women.
National Ambient Air Quality In 1998, 24 percent of children lived in areas that did not meet at least one of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards, down from 31 percent in 1990. The Clean Air Act established Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards which are designed to establish limits to protect public health, including the health of sensitive populations such as asthmatics and children.
Type of Care Arrangement The type of child care received is related to the age of the child. Children from birth through age 2 were more likely to be in home-based care, either with a relative or nonrelative, than to be in center-based care. Forty-two percent were in home-based care (about 25 percent with a relative and 17 percent with a nonrelative), and about 16 percent were in center-based care in 1999.
Family Education According to Burton L. White, expert on early childhood and Project Director of Harvard University's Pre-School Project: "... the informal education that families provide for their children makes more of an impact on a child's total educational development than the formal educational system."
First Classroom Home is the first classroom. Parents are the first and most essential teachers (Boyer, 1991, p 33)
Brain Development MAKING CONNECTIONS A child is born with over 100 billion neurons or brain cells. These neurons form connections, called synapses, which make up the wiring of the brain.
Brain Development EARLY EXPERIENCES At age eight months an infant may have 1,000 trillion synapses. By age 10 the number of synapses decrease to about 500 trillion. The final number of synapses is largely determined by a child's early experiences, which can increase or decrease the number of synapses by as much as 25 percent.
Brain Development "USE IT OR LOSE IT!" The brain operates on a "use it or lose it" principle: only those connections and pathways that are frequently activated are retained. Other connections that are not consistently used will be pruned or discarded so the active connections can become stronger.
Brain Development DEFINING LANGUAGE SKILLS When an infant is three months old, his brain can distinguish several hundred different spoken sounds. Over the next several months, his brain will organize itself more efficiently so that it only recognizes those sounds that are part of the language he regularly hears. During early childhood, the brain retains the ability to relearn sounds it has discarded, so young children typically learn new languages easily and without an accent.
Brain Development THE POWER OF THE SPOKEN WORD The power of early adult-child interactions is remarkable. Researchers found that when mothers frequently spoke to their infants, their children learned almost 300 more words by age two than did their peers whose mothers rarely spoke to them. However, mere exposure to language through television or adult conversation provided little benefit. Infants need to interact directly with others. Children need to hear people talk to them about what they are seeing and experiencing, in order for their brains to fully develop language skills.
Brain Development THE LOVING TOUCH Warm, responsive caregiving not only meets an infant's basic, day-to-day needs for nourishment and warmth, but also responds to their preferences, moods and rhythms. Recent research suggests that this kind of consistent caregiving is not only comforting for an infant, it plays a vital role in healthy development. The way that parents, families and other caregivers relate and respond to their young children, and the way they respond to their children's contact with the environment, directly affect the formation of the brain's neural pathways.
Brain Development CREATING ONE STABLE BOND Researchers who examine the life histories of children who have succeeded despite many challenges, have consistently found that these children have had at least one stable, supportive relationship with an adult early in life.
Breast-feeding Breast-feeding is good for a baby -- and most experts say they believe it's also good for a baby's developing brain. Those who had been breast-fed for seven to nine months scored higher on IQ tests than those breast-fed for one month or less, according to a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association in May. A recent study by the University of Kentucky finds that breast-fed babies have an IQ three to five points higher than that of formula- fed babies. "Infants deprived of breast milk are likely to have lower IQ, lower educational achievement, and poorer social adjustment than breast-fed infants." Numerous studies show marked increases in various illnesses in children who are not breast-fed, including increases in otitis media, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory track infections. Bottle-fed babies in the U.S. are much more likely to have to be hospitalized and suffer a death rate double that of breast-fed infa