Word processing Computer Literacy 1 15 September 2008
History of word processing Hand writing + totally free design (e.g. codex) error correction is hard, only one copy. Printing + design is quite free, + made by specialists (copy editor, editor, typographer, proofreader, printer), only high number of copies (>300), one correction per edition. Typewriter + fast and cheap, design is limited, one type face, monospace letters, error correction is complicated, only one copy.
Word processing with computers + Free Design, Free Design + easy error correction, modifying, retrieval, + flexible number of copies (printer to print shop), + structure can be separated from the formatting, structure can be separated from the formatting + formulas, tables, images, drawings can be included easily, formulastablesimagesdrawings + automatic spell checking, automatic spell checking + creating table of contents, index, cross references,table of contentsindexcross references + mail merge (connection with database), mail merge + recording repeating tasks (macro, scripts), recording repeating tasks + hypertext, hypertext no specialists (we are the editor, the typographer, proofreader and the printer).
Typographical units didot-point (p): 1 m = 2660 p (European) 1 p 0,3759 mm 12 p = 1 cic (cicero) 4,511 mm pica-point (pt): 1" 72 pt (English) pica-point use by computers 1 pt 0,3514 mm 12 pt = 1 pi (pica) = 4,2164 mm relative units of length: 1 ex: x-height, height of the letter x. 1 em: the actual letter height (equal to the width of letter m). Remark.: in most of the cases the MS Word uses the pica-point (pt), but when setting a value pt, pi, " (inch), mm, cm units may also be used.
Character encoding systems ASCII code set (ANSI X3.4-1968) Codes from 0 127 (7 bit), English small and capital letters, numerals, punctuation marks, some other characters, control characters. ASCII extensions (e.g. iso-8859-n, windows-1250) Codes from 128 255 (8 bit), accented letters, other special characters, different standards (DOS and Windows uses different code pages with automatic conversion in certain cases) Unicode (1991 , www.unicode.org) Unicode Codes from 0 65535 (16 bit), with extension, more than one million all letters of all languages have their own character set, the standard is still under extension (now: ISO 10646:2000). Code of the Enter (line-end character): DOS, Windows: 13 (Carriage Return, CR) + 10 (Line Feed, LF) UNIX, Linux: 10 (CR) Macintosh: 13 (LF) Character Map Browser
Shape of letters 1 Raster font: the shape of a letter is described as an image resolution cannot be changed, different screen and printer font is necessary due to the different resolution, all sizes need a separate set, + the shape may be optimized for the resolution and size (important for small sizes). Character formatting Windows XP raster fonts: Courier, MS Sans Serif, MS Serif, Small, Symbol. Capital A of MS Serif 24 pt Vector font: the shape is described by the center line no fill-in, otherwise similar to the outline fonts, used by CAD applications. Windows XP vector fonts: Modern, Roman, Script.
Shape of letters 2 Outline font: the contour of the letters are described by Bzier- curves, and the inner parts are filled-in (e.g. Open-Type, TrueType, Postscript fonts) + may be scaled, rotated, distorted, + same description may be used for screen and print, + kerning table, result of distortion is usually awkward, on screen in small size unreadable (needs substituting raster font), in small sizes not harmonic, 1 ex 1 em baseline Times New Roman letters Aj Character formatting
Typefaces and type styles Type face: an alphabet and other signs designed on the same principle. A Type face includes Type styles according to line-weight: light, normal, bold, demi, black, heavy,bold, demi letter-width: condensed, normal, extended, function: plain, italic or cursive (oblique, slanted), small caps, italic or cursivesmall caps decoration: filled, outline, shadow, superscript, subscript, chisel (emboss, engrave, etc.).outlineshadowsuperscript subscriptembossengrave The (existing) styles of a type faces is the Type Family. Remark: the styles may be generated by the computer from the plain style with geometric distortion. The cursive, bold and small caps should not be generated this way because the result is awkward. E.g. Times New Roman cursive vs. slanted (oblique): example Character formatting
Serif: the serif makes the text more readable on paper: it shows the baseline and so guides the eyes (e.g. Times New Roman ). Sans Serif: to be used in titles, headlines, posters, on screen (e.g. Arial, Verdana). Monotype, typewriter face: all letters has the same width (e.g. i and m ): text or numbers written above each other like a table (e.g. Courier New ). Proportional: each letter has a different width. Most of the type faces are this type. Classification of Type faces Character formatting
Historical classification of type faces Renaissance (Bembo, Garamond, Plantin, Centaur, Sabon) Baroque (Ttfalusi, Fournier, Caslon, Baskerville, Times) Classicistic (Bodoni, Didot, Walbaum, Thorne, Zapf Int.) Egyptienne (Rockwell, Memphis, Stymie, Karnak, Serifa) Grotesque (Futura, Helvetica, Univers) Clarendon (New Century Schoolbook, Extended, Primus) Varia (Optima, Clearface Gothic, Romic) Eclectic (Clearface, Cheltenham, Bookman, Korinna) Secession (Desdemona, Benguiat, Arnold Bcklin) Art Deco (Bernhard, Belwe, Anna, Industria) Constructivist (Bauhaus, Variex, Triplex) Epigraph (Medici, Charlemagne, Copperplate 31) Chisel and commercials (Stencil, Wide Latin, Chisel) Hand-writing (Regency, Zapf Chancery, Vivaldi, Mistral) Gothic (Linotext, Tudor, London) Non-Latin Character formatting
Using type styles Emphasis in text: cursive is used to emphasize a word, in a cursive text use normal, cursive expanding, underline is not attractive, former does not really emphasize, expandingunderline bold only the first words of a list (e.g. encyclopedia, dictionary), bold small caps is used for names, first letter is capital, small caps all caps is like we would shout, and hard to read. all caps Emphasis in headings: all caps, except of hand-written and gothic type faces (unreadable), all caps bold, small caps, underline, center aligned, etc. boldsmall capsunderlinecenter aligned Using different type faces helps understanding (emphasis), reviewing (hierarchy of headings, lists, table of contents, index, etc.). Guide to mixing of type faces: the mixed types should differ in more than one attributes, the difference between sizes should be well defined (at least 1.5 times), the different type faces should be in different classes (e.g. serif sans serif), in general: if there is a difference, it should be dramatic.
Using type styles examples
Type faces Character formatting
Type faces editable version informative (Arial Black) A A decorative (Gothic E) indifferent (Arial Narrow) B B attractive (Tiranti Solid) official, professional (Complex) CC loose (Intergraph Architectural) Character formatting
Some rules of typing Exactly one space between two words and after a sentence. Punctuation marks (comma, point, question mark, etc.) follow the word without any space, but a space is needed after them. Parenthesis includes the text without space, but spaces are needed around them. It is a bad habit to position the text with several spaces, it will be misaligned in the printed version. Use tabs or tables instead. The paragraph is finished with one Enter. A list in a text is also a sentence, so the punctuation marks should be placed; similar for the formulas. No full-stop after measure units (e.g. cm). Typing
Special characters Paragraph mark: (Enter key) Tabulator: (Tab key) New line (in a paragraph): (Shift-Enter) en space thousand separator: 1 000 000, in case of two authors: Michelson Morley Non-breaking space: Non-breaking space e.g. before units: 12kg, in date: 750BC, name of a king or queen: ElisabethII. Optional hyphen: Optional hyphen suggested place for hyphenation. Non-breaking hyphen: - Non-breaking hyphen otherwise the hyphen may followed by line break. Remark: these non-printing characters are shown only if the Show All button is on. Typing
Use of punctuation marks 1 quotes, apostrophes, primes quotation marks ( 99 shaped): Hungarian: nn nn nn ( U+201E, U+00AB, U+00BB, U+201D ) English: nn nn nn ( U+2018, U+201C, U+201D, U+2019 ) American: nn nn nn German: nn nn nn or nn nn nn French: nn nn nn apostrophe: Im fool ( 9 shaped) ( U+2019 ) foot, inch: 6' 10'' (straight prime) ( U+0027, U+0022 ) angle degree, minute, second: 151210 (slanted prime, U+00BA, U+2032, U+2033 ) Typing
Use of punctuation marks 2 hyphens, dashes em-dash (same length as letter m) em-dash as dash: always in pairs, like nnn nnn nnn (in English, without spaces), en-dash (same length as letter n) en-dash as dash: nnn nnn nnn (with spaces, in Hungarian), as long hyphen: 1848 49, Boyle Mariotte law. hyphen (shorter than en-dash) hyphen as a hyphen: one-by-one, Add-in, hyphenation (usually automatic). Typing
Use of punctuation marks 3 Replacements (red: incorrect): multiplication: a x b, ab division: a/b, ab parenthesis: nn /nn/ nn, nn (nn) nn zero: o, O, 0 small letter o, capital letter o, number zero one: I, l, 1, capital letter i, small letter l, number one some upper indices and fractions exist as special characters: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (depends on typeface) ellipse:...,..., three dots, three dots with spaces, ellipse character copyright: (c), Typing
Copyright Budapest University of Technology and Economics Departement of Architectural Representation Tams Fejr, 20022008.