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Wood Handbook - Wood as Engineering Material

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Courtesy of Forest Product Laboratory (FPL)This handbook is intended as an aid to more efficient use of wood as a construction material. It provides engineers, architects, and others with a source of information on the physical and mechanical properties of wood and how these properties are affected by variations in the wood itself.......

Text of Wood Handbook - Wood as Engineering Material




Wood HandbookWood as an Engineering Material

The use oftrade or firm namesis for information only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department ofAgriculture or the ForestProducts Society of any product or service. This publication reportsresearch involvingpesticides.It does not containrecommendations for their use, nor does it implythat the uses discussed herehave beenregistered. All uses of pesticides must be registered by appropriate Stateand/orFederal agencies beforethey can be recommended.

Reprintedfrom ForestProductsLaboratory General Technical ReportFPL-GTR-1 13 with the consentof the USDAForestService, ForestProductsLaboratory. Printedin 1999 by the ForestProductsSociety. ISBN 1-892529-02-5 Printedin the UnitedStatesofAmerica FPS catalogueno. 726999045000

Cover photo courtesy of the Southern Forest ProductsAssociation.

ConteiitsPreface v Acknowledgments vii Contributors xi


Commercial Lumber

HardwoodLumber 51 SoftwoodLumber 57 Purchase ofLumber 512 CommonlyUsed LumberAbbreviations 518References520

Characteristicsand Availability of Commercially ImportantWoodTimber Resourcesand Uses SpeciesDescriptions 13 U.S. Wood Species 13 Imported Woods 117References134 12


Grades and Design Properties Lumber Stress Responsibilities and Standards for StressVisuallyGradedStructural Lumber 63 Machine-Graded Structural Lumber 6'7 AdjustmentofProperties for DesignUs 6ilReferences614






Bark, Wood, Branches,and Cambium Sapwoodand Heartwood 22 Growth Rings 22 Wood Cells 23 ChemicalComposition 23 SpeciesIdentification 2-4References24



Nails 72 Spikes 78 Drift Bolts 79 WoodScrews 79 Lag Screws 7il Bolts 714Connector Joints 718 Multiple-Fastener Joints 724 Metal Plate Connectors 725 Fastener Head Embedment 726 References 727 Staples78


Physical Properties

of Wood

and Moisture Relations

Appearance Shrinkage


MoistureContent 3537

Weight,Density,and SpecificGravity 311 WorkingQualities 315 DecayResistance 315 Thennal Properties 315 ElectricalProperties 321 Coefficient Friction 322 of NuclearRadiation 323References323


Structural AnalysisEquations Deformation Equations 8i Stress Equations 84 Stability Equations 88References811


Adhesive Bonding ofWood Materials


Mechanical Properties of Wood

OrthotropicNatureofWood 41 Elastic Properties 42 VibrationProperties Wood426

Adhesionto Wood 91 Surface Properties ofWoodAdherends 92 Physical Properties ofWoodAdherend 96Adhesives99

Strength Properties 43425

Mechanical Properties ofClearStraight-Grained Natural Characteristics Affecting Mechanical Effects ofManufacturing and Service Environments 434 References 444

BondingProcess 915 Bonded Joints 918 Testingand PerformanceReferences923


Properties 427



Wood-Based Composites and Panel ProductsScope 102 Types ofConventional Composite


Materials 103 AdhesiveConsiderations 103 Additives 104 GeneralManufacturing Issues 104 Standards for WoodBasedPanels 104 Plywood 106 Particle and Fiber Composites 1013WoodNonwoodComposites References 10301024

Finishing of Wood FactorsAffecting Finish Performance 151 Control ofWater or Moisturein Wood 5--9 Types ofExteriorWood Finishes 1514 Application ofWood Finishes 1519 Finish Failure or Discoloration 1524 Finishingof InteriorWood 1530 Finishesfor Items Used for Food 1532 Wood Cleaners and Brighteners 1533 Paint Strippers 1533 Lead-BasedPaint 1535References1536


Glued Structural Members


StructuralCompositeLumber 111 Glulam 113 Glued MembersWith Lumberand Panels 1112 Structural Sandwich Construction 1116References1121

Use of Wood In Building and Bridges Light-Frame Buildings 161 Post-Frameand Pole Buildings 16-4 Log Buildings 16-6 Heavy Timber Buildings 16-6


169 1610

Considerations for Wood Buildings References 1614


Drying and Controlof Moisture Content and Dimensional Changes DeterminationofMoisture Content 121 RecommendedMoistureContent 123 Drying ofWood 125 Moisture ControlDuring Transit and Storage 1214 DimensionalChangesin Wood 1215 DesignFactorsAffectingDimensional Change 1218 Wood Careand InstallationDuring Construction 1218References1220


Fire Safety FireSafety DesignandEvaluation 171 FirePerformance Characteristics ofWood Flame-Retardant Treatments 1712References1713



Round Timbersand Ties Standards and Specifications MaterialRequirements 181


1.3 Biodeteriorationof Wood

Availability 182 Form 183 Weight and Volume Durability 18-6Strength Properties References 188


Fungus Damageand Control 131 Bacteria 138 Insect Damageand Control 138 MarineBorerDamage and ControlReferences1315




14 Wood PreservationWood Preservatives142

Specialty Treatments Plasticizing Wood 191 Modified Woods 19-4 Paper-Based PlasticLaminates References 1914


Preservative Effectiveness 1412 Effect ofSpecieson Penetration

Preparationof Applicationof Handlingand SeasoningofTimberAfter Treatment 1424 Quality Assurancefor TreatedWood 1425References1426

1412 Timberfor Treatment 1417 Preservatives 1419






PrefaceEfficientuseofour nation's timberresourceis a vital concern. Becausea majoruse ofwood in the UnitedStates is in construction, particularlyhousingconstruction, good practicein this endeavor can have a profound impact on the resource.This handbook is intendedas an aid to more efficientuse ofwood as a construction material. It providesengineers, architects, and otherswith a source ofinformation on the physicalandmechanical properties ofwood andhow these properties are affected by variations in the wood itself.Continuingresearchandevaluation techniques hold promisefor wider and more efficientutilization ofwood and for more advanced industrial, structural, and decorative uses. This handbookwas preparedby the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL),a unit ofthe researchorganizationofthe Forest Service, U.S. Department ofAgriculture.The Laboratory, established in 1910, is maintainedat Madison, Wisconsin, in cooperation with the UniversityofWisconsin.It was the first institution in the world to conductgeneralresearchon wood and its utilization.The accumulation of infonnationthat has resultedfrom its engineering and allied investigations ofwood and wood products over nine decadesalong with knowledge ofeveryday construction practicesand problemsis the chiefbasis forthis handbook. The Wood Handbookwas first issued in 1935, and sI[ightly revised in 1939, as an unnumberedpublication.Further revisions in 1955, 1974, and 1987were publishedby theU.S. Department ofAgricultureas AgricultureHandbook No. 72. This current work is a complete revisionofthe 1987 edition. This revisionwas necessaryto reflectmore recentresearchaccomplishments and technological changes. The audienceforthe WoodHandbookis fairlybroad.Therefore, the coverage ofeach chapteris aimedat providing a general discussion ofthe topic,with references included for additional information. Past versions ofthe WoodHandbooktended to report only the findings and applications ofFPL research. Although the handbook is not intendedto be a state-of-the-art review,this approach would now leave significantgaps in some important areas. The currentedition has broadenedthe sources of information to provide bettercoverageofimportant topics.The organizationofthis version ofthe Wood Handbookis similarto previousones,with some modifications:

Plywood(chapter 11 in thepreviousversion), insulation board,hardboard, medium-density fiberboard (part of chapter21 in thepreviousversion),and wood-based particle panelmaterials (chapter 22 in thepreviousversion) are now included in a new chapter on wood-basedcomposites and panelproducts. Structural sandwichconstruction (chapter 12 inthepreviousversion) is now includedin thechapteron glued structuralmembers.

Moisture movementandthermal insulation in light-frame structures (chapter 20 in thepreviousversion) arenow part of a new chapter on use ofwood in buildingsand bridges. Bentwood members(chapter13 in the previousversion), modified woods, and paper-based laminates (chapter 23 in the previousversion)are now includedin a chapteron specialtytreatments.

Consistentwith movementby many U.S. standards agenciesand industry associations towarduse ofmetric units and nearuniversal implementation ofmetricusage in the international community, units ofmeasurement in this version ofthe hsndbook areprovidedprimarilyin metricunits, with customary inchpound equivalents as secondary units. All conversions in i;his handbook to metricunits, including conversions ofempirically derived equations, are direct(or soft) conversions from previouslyderivedinchpound values. At some futuretime, metricexpressions may needto be derived from a reevaluation

oforiginal research.


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cktww1gmentsthe We gratefully acknowledge extraordinary effortofthe following individuals in theirreview ofthe final draftofthis entirevolume.Theireffort has substantially enhancedthe clarity, consistency, and coverage ofthe Wood Handbook.Donald Bender WoodMaterials & Engineering Laboratory Washington StateUniversity Pullman,Washington Arthur Brauner Forest Products Society Madison, Wisconsin Bradford Douglas American Forest & PaperAssociation Washington,DC Thomas McLain Department ofForest Products Oregon StateUniversity Corvallis,Oregon

RussellMoodyMadison, Wisconsin Michael O'Halloran APAThe Engineered Wood Association Tacoma, Washington

DavidGreen USDAForest Service, Forest ProductsLaboratoryMadison, Wisconsin

ErwinSchaffer Sun City West, Arizona


Department ofForestryand NaturalResources Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana

Contributors to the Wood Handbookare indebtedto the following individuals and organizations for their early technical reviewofchapter manuscripts.

Terry Amburgey Forest Products Laboratory MississippiState University Mississippi State, Mississippi Jon Arno Troy, Minnesota B. Alan BendtsenMadison, Wisconsin

Richard Caster Weyerhaeuser Company Tacoma, Washington

KevinCheung WesternWoodProductsAssociationPortland, Oregon

StephenClark Northeastern LumberManufacturers AssociationCumberland Center, Maine

A. WilliamBoehner Trus Joist MacMillan Boise, Idaho

R. MichaelCaldwell

RichardCook NationalCasein Company Santa Ana,CaliforniaWilliam Crossman AtlantaWoodIndustries Savannah, Georgia

AmericanInstitute ofTimber Construction Englewood,Colorado DonaldCarrNAHBNational Research Center UpperMarlboro, Maryland



Energy Products ofIdaho CoeurD'Alene, Idaho

JohnKressbach Gillette, New Jersey RobertKundrot NestleResins CorporationSpringfield, Oregon Steven Lawser WoodComponent Manufacturers Association Marietta, Georgia

DonaldDeVisser West Coast LumberInspectionBureau Portland,OregonBradford Douglas American Forest and PaperAssociation Washington,DC

Phillip Line

Stan Elberg NationalOakFlooringManufacturers Association Memphis,Tennessee Paul Foehlich SouthernCypress Manufacturers Association Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania BarryGoodell Forest Products Laboratory UniversityofMaine Orono,Maine KevinHaileHP&VA

American Forest & PaperAssociation Washington,DC Joseph Loferski Brooks ForestProductsCenter Blacksburg, Virginia

MapleFlooring Manufacturers AssociationNorthbrook, Illinois

ThomasMcLain Department ofForest Products OregonStateUniversity Corvallis,Oregon DavidMcLean Civil Engineering Department Washington State University Pullman, Washington RodneyMcPhee Canadian Wood CouncilOttawa, Ontario, Canada

Reston, Virginia DanielHare The CompositePanel AssociationGaithersburg, Maryland

R. Bruce HoadleyForestiyDepartment UniversityofMassachusetts Amherst,Massachusetts DavidHonDepartment ofForest Resources

MichaelMilota Oregon StateUniversityCorvallis, Oregon JeffreyMorrell Department ofForest Products Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon National Hardwood LumberAssociation Memphis, Tennessee Darrel Nicholas

ClemsonUniversity Clemson, South Carolina

Robert Hunt WesternWood ProductsAssociation Portland,Oregon

LisaJohnsonSouthernPine InspectionBureauPensacola, Florida

Tom Jones SouthernPine Inspection BureauPensacola, Florida

ForestProductsLaboratory MississippiStateUniversity Mississippi State, MississippiMichael O'Halloran APAThe Engineered WoodAssociation Tacoma, Washington

CharlesJourdain CaliforniaRedwoodAssociationNovato, California


Perry Peralta Department ofWoodandPaper Science North CarolinaState University

Ramsey Smith

Raleigh,North Carolina

Louisiana Forest ProductsLaboratory Baton Rouge,Louisiana

William Smith DavidPlackett ForintekCanadaCorporation Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada DavidPollock CivilEngineeringDepartment Washington State University Pullman, Washington RedwoodInspection Service Mill Valley, California Alan Ross Inc. KopCoat Pittsburgh,PennsylvaniaThomas Searles American LumberStandards Committee Germantown, MarylandSUNYESF

WoodProductsEngineering Syracuse, New YorkEdward Starostovic PFS/TECOCorporations Madison, Wisconsin

LouisWagner American Hardwood AssociationPalatine, Illinois Eugene Wengert Department ofForestry Universityof Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Michael Westfall

RedCedar Shingle& Handsplit ShakeBureauBellevue, Washington Borjen Yeh APAThe Engineered WoodAssociation Tacoma, Washington

JamesShawWeyerhaeuser Company Tacoma, Washington

BradleyShelley West CoastLumberInspectionBureau Portland,Oregon


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CoiitributorsThe following staff ofthe Forest ProductsLaboratory contributed to the writing,revision, and compilationofinformationcontained inthe Wood Handbook.

MarkA. DietenbergerResearch General Engineer

Roger M. Rowell

Supervisory Research Chemist

David W. GreenSupervisory Research General Engineer

William T. Simpson Research Forest Products Technologist Lawrence A. SoltisResearch General Engineer

David E. Kretschmann Research GeneralEngineer

RolandHernandezResearch GeneralEngineer

Anton TenWoldeResearch Physicist

Terry L. HighleyRebecca E. Ibach Chemist

Ronald W. WolfeResearch General Engineer

Supervisory ResearchPlant Pathologist(retired)

Charles B. Vick Research Forest Products Technologist Robert H. White Supervisory WoodScientist

Jen Y. LiuResearch General Engineer

Kent A. McDonald ResearchForest Products Technologist (retired) Regis B. MillerBotanist

R. Sam WilliamsSupervisory ResearchChemist

Jerrold E. Winandy

Research Forest Products Technologist

Russell C. Moody

John A. Youngquist

Supervisory Research GeneralEngineer(retired)

Supervisory Research GeneralEngineer






Characteristics and Availability of Commercially Important WoodsRegis B. Miller

ContentsTimber Resourcesand Uses12 1212

hroughouthistory, the unique characteristic; and comparative abundance ofwood havemade ita naturalmaterial forhomesand other structures, furniture,tools,vehicles,and decorative objects. Today, for the same reasons,wood is prized fora multitudeofues. All wood is composed of cellulose, lignin,hemicelitloses, andminor amounts (5% to 10%) ofextraneous matera1scontained in a cellular structure. Variations in the characteristics and volume ofthese components anddifferences in cellular structure makewoodsheavyor light, stiffor flexible, and hard or soft. Thepropertiesofa singlespecies are relatively constantwithinlimits;therefore, selectionofwood by species alonemay sometimes be adequate.However,to use woodto itsbestadvantage and most effectively inengineering applications, specific characteristics orphysicalproperties must be considered. Historically, somespeciesfilledmany purposes,whi [e other less available or less desirable species servedonly one or two needs. For example, becausewhite oak is tough, strong, and durable,it was highly prized for shipbuilding, bridges, cooperage, barn timbers, farmimplements, railroadc:rossties, fenceposts, and flooring. Woodssuch as black walnutand cheriywere usedprimarily forfurniture and cabinets. Hickory was manufactured into tough, hard, and resilientstriking-tool handles, and blacklocustwas prized forbarn timbers.What theearlybuilderor craftsman learned by trial and errorbecamethe basisfor deciding whichspecies were appropriate for given use in terms oftheir characteristics. Itwas commonlyaccepted that wood from treesgrown in certain locations undercertainconditions was stronger,more durable, more easily worked with tools, or fmergrainedthan 'vood fromtrees in other locations. Modernresearchon wood has substantiated that location and growth conditions do significantly affectwoodproperties. The gradualreductions in use ofold-growth forestsinthe UnitedStateshas reducedthe supplyoflargeclear logs for lumber andveneer. However, the importance ofhigh.quality logs has diminished as new concepts ofwood use have been introduced. Second-growth wood,the remaining old-growth forests, and importscontinueto fill theneeds for wood in the qualityrequired. Wood is as valuablean engineering material as ever,and in many cases,technological advances have madeit evenmore useful.

Hardwoodsand Softwoods

Commercial SourcesofWoodProducts

Use Classes and Trends SpeciesDescriptions 13 U.S. Wood Species Hardwoods 13Softwoods110 11713



Hardwoods 117Softwoods References133





The inherent factors that keepwood inthe forefrontofraw materials are many and varied,but a chiefattribute is its availabilityin many species, sizes, shapes, and conditions to suit almost every demand. Wood has a high ratio ofstrength toweightand a remarkable recordfor durability andperformance as a structural material.Dry wood has good insulating propertiesagainst heat, sound, and electricity. It tends to absorb and dissipatevibrationsunder some conditions of use, andyet it is an incomparable materialfor such musical instrumentsas the violin. The grain patternsand colors of wood make it an estheticallypleasingmaterial,and its appearance may be easily enhanced by stains, varnishes, and other finishes.It is easily shaped with tools lacquers, and fastenedwith adhesives, nails, screws,bolts,and dowels. Damagedwood is easily repaired,andwood structures are easily remodeledor altered.In addition,wood resists oxidation,acid, saltwater,and other corrosiveagents, has high salvagevalue, has good shock resistance, can be treated with preservatives and fire retardants, and can be combined with almost any other materialfor both functional and estheticuses.

or sap in thetree. Typically,hardwoodsare plants with broad leavesthat, with few exceptions inthe temperateregion, lose theirleaves in autumn orwinter. Most imported

tropicalwoods are hardwoods. Botanically, softwoods are Gymnosperms or conifers; the seedsare naked(not enclosed in theovaryoftheflower). Anatomically, softwoods are nonporousand do not containvessels. Softwoods are usually cone-bearing plants withneedle-or scale-like evergreen leaves. Some softwoods, such as larches andbaldcypress, losetheirneedles during autunm orwinter. Majorresources ofsoftwood species are spreadacrossthe UnitedStates, except forthe Great Plains whereonly small areas are forested. Softwood species are often loosely grouped hi three generalregions,as shownin Table 11. Hardwoods also occur in all parts ofthe UnitedStates, although most grow east ofthe Great Plains. Hardwoodspeciesare shown by region in Table 12.

Commercial Sources

of Wood Products

Timber Resources and UsesIn theUnitedStates,more than 100 wood species areavailable to the prospectiveuser, but all are unlikely to be available in any one locality.About 60 nativewoodsare ofmajor commercial importance. Another30 species are commonly importedin the form oflogs, cants, lumber, and veneerfor industrialuses, the buildingtrade, and crafts.A continuing programoftimberinventoryis in effect in the United Statesthroughthe cooperation ofFederaland State agencies, andnewinformation onwood resources is published in State and Federalreports. Two ofthe most valuable sourcebooksare AnAnalysisofthe Timber Situationin the UnitedStates 19892040 (USDA 1990) and The 1993 RPA TimberAssessment Update(Haynesand others 1995). Current information on wood consumption, production, imports,and supply and demandis publishedperiodically by theForest Products Laboratory (Howard1997) andis availablefrom the Superintendent Documents, U.S. of GovernmentPrinting Office, Washington, DC.

Softwoodsare availabledirectlyfromthe sawmill, wholesale and retail yards, or lumberbrokers.Softwoodlumberand plywood are used in construction for forms,scaffolding, framing, sheathing, flooring, moulding,paneling, cabinets, poles and piles, and many other buildingcomponents. Softwoods may also appearinthe form ofshingles, sashes, doors, and other millwork,in addition to some rough products such as timberand round posts. Hardwoods are used in construction for flooring, architectural woodwork, interiorwoodwork, and paneling. These items areusuallyavailable from lumberyards andbuildingsupply dealers. Most hardwoodlumberand dimensionstock are remanufactured into furniture,flooring, pallets,containers, dunnage,and blocking. Hardwoodlumberand dimension

Table 11. Major resources of U.S. softwoodsaccording

to regionWestern



Incense-cedar Port-Orlord-cedar Douglas-fir Whitefirs Western hemlock Western larch Lodgepolepine Ponderosapine Sugar pine Western white pine Western redcedar Redwood Engelmannspruce

Hardwoods and SoftwoodsTrees are dividedintotwo broad classes, usually referredto

as hardwoods and softwoods. These names can be confusingsince some soitwoodsare actuallyharderthan somehardwoods, andconverselysomehardwoodsare softerthan some softwoods. For example,softwoods such as longleafpine and Douglas-firare typicallyharderthanthe hardwoods basswood and aspen. Botanically, hardwoodsare Angiosperms; the seedsare enclosedin the ovary ofthe flower. Anatomically, hardwoodsare porous;that is, they containvesselelements. A vessel elementis a wood cell with open ends;when vessel elementsare set one above another,they form a continuous tube (vessel),which servesas a conduitfortransporting water

Northern white-cedar Atlanticwhite-cedar Balsam fIr Baldcypress Eastern hemlock Fraserfir Fraserfir Southern Pine Jack pine Eastern redcedar

RedpineEastern white pine Eastern redcedar Eastern spruces Tamarack



Table 12. Major resources of U.S. hardwoods according to regionSouthern

Species DescriptionsInthis chapter, each species or groupofspecies is described in terms ofits principallocation, characteristics, and uses. Moredetailedinformation on the properties ofthese and other species is given in various tables throughoutthis handbook. Information onhistoricaland traditionaluses isprovidedfor some species. Commonandbotanicalnames follow the Checklist ofUnitedStates Trees (Little 1979).

Northernand Appalachia Ash Aspen Basswood BuckeyeButternut


Ash Basswood American beechButternut Cottonwood

RedalderOregon ashAspen

Elm Hackberry Pecan hickory True hickory Honeylocust Blacklocust Magnolia Soft maple Red oaks Whiteoaks Sassafras Sweetgum American sycamore Tupelo Black walnut

American beech Birch Black cherry American chestnuta Cottonwood Elm Hackberry

Black cottonwood Californiablackoak Oregon white oak Bigleaf maple


U.S. Wood SpeciesHardwoodsAlder, RedRed alder(Alnus rubra)grows along the Pacific coastbetweenAlaskaand California. It is the principalhardwoodfor commercial manufacture ofwoodproductsin Oregon and Washington and the most abundant commercial hardwood species in these two states. The wood ofred aldervaries from almostwhite to pale pinkishbrown, and there is no visibleboundarybetween heartwoodand sapwood. Red alder is moderatelylight in weightand intermediate inmost strengthpropertiesbut low in shock resistance.It hasrelatively low shrinkage. The principaluse ofred alderis for furniture, butit i also used for sashand door panel stockand other millwork.

True hickoryHoneylocust Black locust Hard maple Soft maple Red oaks Whiteoaks American sycamore Black walnut Yellow-poplar


chestnut isno longer harvested,but chestnut lumber fromsalvaged timbers canstillbe found on the market.

stockare available directlyfromthe manufacturer, through wholesalers andbrokers,and from someretail yards. Both softwoodand hardwoodproductsare distributed the throughout United States. Localpreferencesandthe availability ofcertainspecies may influence choice,but a wide selectionofwoodsis generallyavailable forbuilding construction, industrialuses, remanufacturing, andhome use.

Ash (White Ash Group) of Importantspecies the white ash group are American whiteash (Fraxinusamericana),green ash (F. pennsylvanica), blue ash (F. quadrangulata),and Oregon ash (F. latfo/ia).The firstthree species grow in the eastern halfofthe United States. Oregon ash grows alongthe Pacific Coast. The heartwoodofthe white ash group is brown, andthe sapwoodis light-colored ornearly white. Second-growth treesare particularly soughtafter becauseofthe inherent qualities ofthe wood from these trees: it is heavy, strong, hard, and stiff, and ithas high resistanceto shock. Oregon ash has somewhat lowerstrengthpropertiesthan American white ash, but it is used for similarpurposeson the WestCoast. American white ash is used principallyfor nonstriking tool handles,oars, baseballbats, and other sporting and athletic goods. Forhandles ofthe bestgrade, somehandle specifications call for not less than 2 nor more than 7 growthrings per centimeter(notless than 5 normore than 17 growth rings perinch). The additional weightrequirementof 690 kg/rn3(43 lbfft3) or more at 12% moisturecontent ensures high qualitymaterial.Principaluses for the white ash group are decorative veneer, cabinets, furniture,flooring, millwork, and crates.

Use Classes and TrendsThe productionand consumptionlevels ofsome ofthe many use-classifications for wood are increasing withthe overall nationaleconomy,and othersare holding aboutthe same. The most vigorouslygrowingwood-basedindustries are those that convertwood to thin slices (veneer), particles (chips, flakes),or fiberpuips andreassemble the elementsto producevarioustypes ofengineered panelssuch as plywood, particleboard, strandboard, veneerlumber, paper,paperboard, and fiberboardproducts. Another growingwood industry is theproduction of laminated wood.Foranumber ofyears,the lumberindustry has producedalmost the same volume of wood peryear.Modestincreases haveoccurred inthe productionofrailroadcrossties, cooperage, shingles, and shakes.



Ash (Black Ash Group)The black ash group includesblack ash (F. nigra) and pumpkinash (F. profunda). Black ash grows in the Northeast and Midwest, and pumpkinash in the South.

The heartwoodofblack ash is a darkerbrownthan that of American white ash; the sapwoodis light-colored or nearly white. The wood ofthe black ash group is lighterin weight (basic specific gravity of0.45 to 0.48)than that ofthe white ash group (>0.50). Pumpkinash, American white ash, and green ash that grow in southernriverbottoms, especiallyin areas frequentlyfloodedfor long periods, produce buttresses that contain relativelylightweightand brash wood. Principaluses forthe black ash group are decorative veneer, cabinets,millwork,furniture,cooperage, and crates.

The heartwoodofbasswood is pale yellowishbrown with occasional darkerstreaks.Basswoodhas wide, creamywhite orpalebrownsapwoodthat mergesgraduallyinto heartwood. When dry, the wood is without odoror taste. It is soft and light in weight,has fme, even texture,and is straightgrainedand easy to work with tools. Shrinkage in width and thicknessduring diying is rated as high; however, basswood seldom warps in use.Basswood lumberis used mainly in venetianblinds, sashes and door frames, moulding, apiary supplies,woodenware, andboxes. Somebasswood is cut for veneer,cooperage, excelsior, andpulpwood, and it is a favoriteofwood carvers.

Beech, American grandfolia),is nativeto theUnited States. It grows in the easternone-third ofthe UnitedStatesand adjacentCanadian provinces. The greatestproduction ofbeech lumberis in theCentral and Middle AtlanticStates.

of Only one species beech,American beech (Fagus

Aspen Aspen is a generallyrecognizednamethat is appliedto bigtooth(Populusgrandidentata) and quaking (P. tremuloides)aspen.Aspen does not includebalsam poplar (P. balsamfera) and the other speciesofPopulus that areincludedin thecottonwoods.In lumberstatisticsofthe U.S. Bureau ofthe Census, however, the term cottonwood includesall the preceding species. Also, the lumberofaspen and cottonwoodmay be mixed in trade and sold as either poppleor cottonwood. The name poppleshould not beconfusedwith yellow-poplar(Liriodendrontulipfera), also knownin the trade as poplar. Aspen lumber is produced principally in the Northeasternand Lake States, with some production in the RockyMountainStates.

In somebeechtrees, colorvaries from nearly white sapwood to reddish-brown heartwood. Sometimes there is no clearline ofdemarcation betweenheartwoodand sapwood. Sapwood may be roughly7 to 13 cm (3 to 5 in.) wide. The wood has little figureand is ofclose, uniformtexture. It has no characteristic taste or odor.The wood ofbeech is classed as heavy,hard, strong, high in resistanceto shock, and highlysuitablefor steam bending. Beech shrinks substantially and therefore requires careful drying.It machines smoothly, is an excellentwood for turning, wears well, and is rathereasily treatedwith preservatives. Most beech is used for flooring, furniture,brush blocks, handles, veneer, woodenware, containers, and cooperage. Whentreatedwith preservative, beech is suitableforrailway ties.

The heartwoodofaspen is grayish white to light grayish brown. The sapwoodis lightercoloredand generallymerges gradually into the heartwoodwithoutbeing clearly marked. Aspenwood is usually straightgrained with a fine, uniform texture. It is easily worked.Well-dried aspen lumber does not impartodor or flavorto foodstuffs. Thewood ofaspenis lightweight and soft. It is low in strength, moderatelystiff, andmoderatelylow in resistance to shock and has moderately high shrinkage. Aspen is cut for lumber,pallets, boxes and crating, pulpwood, particleboard, strandpanels, excelsior, matches,veneer, and miscellaneousturnedarticles. Today, aspen is one ofthepreferred species foruse in oriented strandboard, a panel productthat is increasinglybeing usedas sheathing.

BirchThe threemost important speciesare yellowbirch (Betula sweetbirch (B. lenta),and paper birch alleghaniensis), (B. papyrjfera). Thesethree species are the sourceofmost birch lumberand veneer. Other birch species ofsome commercialimportance are riverbirch (B. nigra), gray birch (B. populfo1ia),and westernpaper birch (B. papyrfera var. commutata). Yellow,sweet,and paper birch grow principally in theNortheastand theLake States;yellow and sweet birch alsogrow along the Appalachian Mountainsto northern Georgia. Yellow birch has white sapwoodand light reddish-brown heartwood. Sweetbirch has light-colored sapwoodand dark brown heartwoodtinged with red. For both yellow and sweet birch, the wood is heavy, hard, and strong, and it has good shock-resisting ability. The wood is fine and uniform in texture.Paper birch is lowerinweight, softer, and lower in strength than yellowand sweetbirch. Birch shrinks considerablyduringdrying.

BasswoodAmericanbasswood(Tilia americana)is the most important ofthe native basswood species;next in importance is white basswood (T. heterophylla),and no attemptis made to distinguish between these species in lumberform.In commercialusage, "whitebasswood"is used to specify the white

wood or sapwoodofeither species.Basswoodgrowsin the eastern halfofthe UnitedStatesfrom the Canadian provinces southward. Most basswoodlumbercomesfrom the Lake, Middle Atlantic, and Central States.


Yellowand sweetbirch lumberis usedprimarilyfor the manufacture offurniture, boxes, baskets, crates, woodenware, cooperage, interiorwoodwork,and doors; veneerplywoodis used for flushdoors, furniture, paneling, cabinets, aircraft, and other specialtyuses. Paperbirch is used for toothpicks, tonguedepressors, ice creamsticks,and turnedproducts, including spools, bobbins, smallhandles, and toys.

The heartwoodofblackcherryvariesfrom light to dark reddishbrown and has a distinctive luster. The nearly white sapwoodis narrowin old-growth trees and widerin secondgrowthtrees. The wood has a fairlyuniformtexture and very good machiningproperties. It is moderatelyheavy,strong, stiff, and moderately hard; it has high shockresistance and moderately high shrinkage. Black cherryis very dimensionally stable after drying. Black cheny is usedprincipally for furniture, fme veneer panels,and architectural woodwork. Otheruses include burial caskets, woodenware, novelties, patterns, andpaneling.

BuckeyeBuckeyeconsistsoftwo species,yellowbuckeye(Aesculus octandra) and Ohiobuckeye (A. glabra). These species range from the Appalachians ofPennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolinawestwardto Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Buckeye is not customarily separated from other species whenmanufactured into lumberand can be used forthe same purposes as aspen(Populus),basswood(Tilia), and sapwood ofyellow-poplar(Lfriodendrontu1ipfera).

Chestnut, AmericanAmericanchestnut(Castanea dentata) is also known as sweetchestnut. Before this species was attackedby ablight inthe I920s, it grewin commercial quantities from New Englandto northernGeorgia. Practically all standingchestnut has beenkilled by blight, and most suppliesofIhe lumbercomefrom salvaged timbers.Because ofthe species' naturalresistance to decay, standing deadtrees in the Appalachian Mountains continued to provide substantial luantities oflumberfor several decadesafter the blight,butthis source is now exhausted.

The white sapwoodofbuckeyemerges gradually into the creamyor yellowishwhite heartwood. The wood is uniform in texture, generallystraight grained, light in weight,weak whenused as a beam, soft, and low in shock resistance. It is rated low on machinability such as shaping,mortising, boring, and turning. Buckeyeis suitablefor pulping for paper; in lumberform,it has been usedprincipallyfor furniture, boxes and crates, food containers, woodenware, novelties, andplaningmillproducts.

ButternutAlso called whitewalnut,butternut (.Juglans cinerea) grows from southernNew Brunswick and Mainewest to Minnesota. Its southernrange extendsinto northeastern Arkansas and eastwardto westernNorth Carolina. The narrow sapwoodis nearly white and heartwoodis light brown,frequentlymodifiedbypinkish tonesordarkerbrown streaks. The wood is moderatelylight in weight (aboutthe same as easternwhite pine), rather coarse textured,moderately weak in bendingand endwise compression, relatively low in stiffhess, moderatelysoft, and moderately high in shock resistance. Butternut machineseasily and finishes well.In many ways, butternutresemblesblack walnutespecially when stained, but it does not have the same strength

The heartwoodofchestnutis grayishbrownorbrown and darkenswith age. The sapwoodis very narrowand almost white. The wood is coarse in texture;growth rings are made conspicuous by severalrows of large, distinctpores st the beginningofeach year's growth. Chestnutwood is inoderately lightin weight,moderatelyhard, moderatelylow in strength, moderately low in resistance to shock, and low in stiffness. It dries well and is easy to work with tools. Chestnutwas onceused for poles,railroadcrossties, furniture, caskets, boxes, shingles, crates,and corestock f veneer panels.At present,it appearsmost frequently as wotmy chestnutfor paneling, interiorwoodwork, and pictureframes.


or hardness.

Principal uses are forlumberand veneer, whichare further manufactured into furniture, cabinets,paneling, interior woodwork, andmiscellaneous rough items.

Cherry, BlackBlack cherry (Prunus serotina) is sometimes knownas cherry,wild black cherry, and wild cherry. It is the only nativespecies ofthegenus Prunus ofcommercial importance for lumberproduction. Black cherryis foundfrom southeastern Canadathroughoutthe easternhalfoftheUnited States. Productionis centered chieflyin the MiddleAtlanticStates.

Cottonwood Cottonwoodincludesseveralspecies ofthe genus Populus. Most important are easterncottonwood (P. deltoide"and varieties), alsoknownas Carolinapoplarand whitewood; swamp cottonwood (P. heterophylla), alsoknown a; cottonwood, river cottonwood, and swamppoplar; black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa);and balsampoplar (P. ba1samfera).Easternand swamp cottonwood giow the throughout easternhalf ofthe UnitedStates. Greatest productionoflumberis in the SouthernandCentral States. Black cottonwood grows on the West Coast and in western Montana, northern Idaho,and westernNevada.Balsam poplargrowsfrom AlaskaacrossCanadaand in thenorthern Great Lakes States. The heartwoodofcottonwood is grayish white to light brown.The sapwoodis whitish and mergesgraduallywith theheartwood. The wood is comparatively uniformintexture andgenerallystraightgrained.It is odorlesswhen well dried. Easterncottonwood is moderatelylow in bending and15


compressive strength, moderatelystiff, moderately soft, and moderatelylow in ability to resist shock. Most strength propertiesofblack cottonwood are slightly lowerthan those ofeasterncottonwood. Both easternand blackcottonwood have moderatelyhigh shrinkage. Some cottonwood is difficultto work with tools becauseofits fuzzy surface, which is mainly theresult oftensionwood (see discussion ofReaction Wood in Ch. 4). Cottonwood is used principallyfor lumber, veneer, pulpwood,excelsior, andfuel. Lumberand veneerare used primarilyfor boxes, crates,baskets,and pallets.

Most hackberryis cut into lumber; small amounts are used for furniture parts,dimension stock, and veneer.Species ofthe pecan hickory group include bittemut hickory

Hickory (Pecan Group)

(Carya cordformis), pecan (C. illinoen.sis), water hickory (C. aquatica), and nutmeghickory (C. myristicjformis). Bittemuthickorygrows throughout eastern half ofthe the UnitedStates; pecanhickory,from centralTexas and Louisiana to Missouriand Indiana; water hickory,from Texas to SouthCarolina;and nutmeg hickory, in Texas and Louisiana. The sapwoodofthis group is white ornearly white and relatively wide. The heartwoodis somewhatdarker. The wood is heavy and sometimes has very high shrinkage.

ElmSix speciesofelm grow in the easternUnitedStates: American (Ulmusamericana),slippery (U rubra), rock

as white, water, and gray elm; slipperyelm as red elm; rock elm as cork and hickory elm; wingedelm as wahoo;cedar elm as red and basket elm; and Septemberelm as red elm. Americanelm is threatenedby two diseases, DutchElm disease and phloemnecrosis,whichhave killedhundreds of thousandsoftrees.

(U thomasii),winged (U alata), cedar (U crassfo1ia),and September(U serotina) elm. American elm is alsoknown

Heavy pecan hickory is usedfortool and implementhandles and flooring. The lowergrades are usedforpallets. Many highergrade logs are sliced toprovide veneerfor furniture anddecorative paneling.

Sapwood of elm is nearly white and heartwoodlight brown, often tinged with red. Elm may be dividedinto two general classes,soft and hard, based onthe weight and strength of thewood. Soft elm includesAmericanand slippery elm. It is moderatelyheavy, has high shockresistance,and is moderately hard and stiff. Hard elm includesrock, winged, cedar, and Septemberelm. These species are somewhat heavierthan soft elm. Elm has excellentbending qualities. Historically, elm lumberwas used forboxes, baskets, crates, and slack cooperage; furniture; agricultural supplies and implements; casketsand burial boxes; and wood components in vehicles. Today,elm lumberand veneer are used mostly for furniture and decorative panels. Hardelm is preferred for uses that require strength.

United States. The species most importantcommercially are shagbark (Carya ovata), pignut(C. glabra), shelibark (C. laciniosa), andmockernut(C. tomentosa).The greatest commercial production ofthetrue hickories for all uses is in theMiddleAtlantic and Central States,with the Southern and South Atlantic Statesrapidly expanding to handle nearly halfofall hickorylumber. The sapwoodofthe true hickory group is white and usually quite wide, exceptin old, slow-growing trees. The heartwood is reddish. The wood is exceptionally tough, heavy, hard, and strong, and shrinks considerably in drying. For some purposes, both ringsper centimeter(or inch) and weightare limitingfactorswhere strength is important. The major use for high qualityhickory is for tool handles, whichrequirehigh shock resistance. It is alsousedfor ladder rungs, athleticgoods, agriculturalimplements, dowels, gymnasium apparatuses, poles, and furniture. Lowergrade hickory is not suitablefor the special uses ofhigh quality hickorybecauseofknottiness or othergrowth features and low density.However, the lowergrade is useful for pallets and similar items. Hickory sawdust, chips, and some solid wood are usedto flavor meat by smoking.

Hickory (True Group) Truehickories are foundthroughoutthe easternhalfofthe

HackberryHackberry(Celtisoccidentalis)and sugarberiy(C. laevigata) supplythe lumberknown in the trade as hackberry. Hackberrygrowseastofthe Great Plainsfrom Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Oklahoma northward, exceptalong the Canadianboundary.Sugarberry overlapsthe southern part ofthe the hackberryrange and growsthroughout Southernand SouthAtlantic States. Sapwoodofboth speciesvariesfrom pale yellowto greenish or grayishyellow. The heartwoodis commonly darker. The woodresembleselm in structure.Hackberrylumberis moderately heavy. It is moderatelystrong in bending, moderately weak in compressionparallelto grain, moderatelyhard to very hard, and high in shock resistance,but low in stiffliess. Hackberryhas high shrinkagebut keeps its shapewell duringdrying.

HoneylocustThe wood ofhoneylocust (Gleditsiatriacanthos) has many desirable qualities,such as attractive figureand color, hardness, and strength, but it is little usedbecauseof its scarcity. Although the naturalrange ofhoneylocust has been extended by planting,this species is foundmost commonlyin the easternUnitedStates, exceptforNew Englandand the South Atlanticand GulfCoastalPlains.


Sapwoodis generallywide and yellowish, in contrastto the light red to reddish-brown heartwood.The wood is very heavy,very hard, strong in bending,stiff, resistantto shock, and durable when in contact with the ground. Whenavailable, honeylocust is primarilyused locally for fenceposts and generalconstruction. It is occasionally used with other species in lumberforpallets and crating.

Magnolia lumberis usedprincipally in the manufacture of furniture,boxes, pallets, venetian blinds, sashes, doors, veneer,and miliwork.

Maple, HardHard mapleincludessugarmaple (Acer saccharum)and black maple(A. nigrum). Sugarmaple is also known as hard androck maple, and blackmaple as black sugarmaple. Maplelumberis manufactured principally in theMiddle Atlanticand Great Lake States, whichtogether accountfor about two-thirds ofproduction.

Locust, BlackBlack locust(Robiniapseudoacacia) is sometimes called yellow orpost locust.This species grows from Pennsylvania along the Appalachian Mountainsto northernGeorgia and Alabama. It is also nativeto westernArkansasand southern Missouri.The greatestproduction ofblack locust timberis in Tennessee,Kentucky, West Virginia,and Virginia.

Locusthas narrow, creamywhite sapwood. The heartwood, when freshlycut, varies from greenish yellow to darkbrown. Black locustis very heavy, very hard, very resistant to shock, and very strong and stiff. It has moderately low shrinkage. The heartwoodhas high decayresistance. Black locust is used for round, hewed,or splitmine timbers as well as fenceposts, poles, railroadcrossties, stakes, and fuel. Otheruses are for rough construction, crating, andmine equipment. Historically,blacklocust was importantfor the manufactureofinsulator pins andwoodenpegs used in the construction ofships, for whichthe woodwaswell adapted becauseofits strength, decayresistance, andmoderate shrinkageand swelling.

The heartwoodis usuallylightreddish brown but sometimes white with a considerably darker. The sapwoodis commonly slight reddish-brown tinge. It is roughly 7 to 13 cm ormore (3 to 5 in. or more)wide. Hardmaplehas a fine,uniform texture. It is heavy,strong, stiff, hard, and resistantto shock and has high shrinkage. The grain ofsugarmaple is generally straight,but birdseye,curly, or fiddlebackgrain is often selectedforfurniture or novelty items. Hardmaple is used principally for lumberand veneer. A largeproportionis manufactured intoflooring, furniture, cabinets,cuttingboards and blocks,pianos, billiard :ues, handles,novelties, bowlingalleys, dance and gymnasium floors, spools,and bobbins.

Maple, SoftSoft mapleincludes silver maple(Acersaccharinumj., red maple(A. rubrum),boxelder(A. negundo),andbigleaf maple (A. macrophyllum). Silvermaple is also knownas hite, river, water,and swamp maple;redmaple as soft, water, scarlet,white,and swamp maple;boxelderas ash-leaved, three-leaved, and cut-leaved maple;andbigleafmapleas Oregon maple. Soft mapleis found in the easternUnited Statesexcept for bigleafmaple, which comes from PacificCoast.

MagnoliaCommercialmagnoliaconsistsofthree species:southern magnolia(Magnoliagrand/1ora), sweetbay (M virginiana), and cucumbertree (M acuminata).Othernamesfor southern magnoliaare evergreenmagnolia,big laurel, bull bay, and laurelbay. Sweetbay is sometimes called swamp magnolia.


The lumberproducedby all three speciesis simplycalled magnolia.The natural range ofsweetbay extendsalongthe Atlanticand GulfCoastsfrom Long Islandto Texas, and that ofsouthernmagnoliaextends fromNorth Carolina to Texas. Cucumbertree growsfrom the Appalachians to the Ozarksnorthwardto Ohio. Louisiana leads in the production ofmagnolialumber. Sapwoodofsouthernmagnoliais yellowishwhite, and heartwoodis light to dark brown with a tinge ofyellow or green.The wood, which has close, uniform textureand is generallystraightgrained,closelyresembles yellow-poplar (Lfriodendron tulip([era). It is moderately heavy, moderately low in shrinkage, moderatelylow in bendingand compressive strength, moderatelyhard and stiff, and moderately high in shockresistance.Sweetbay is much like southern rnagnoha. The wood of cucumbertree is similarto that ofyellowpoplar (L. tulip jfera); cucumbertree that growsin the yellowis notseparatedfrom that species on themarket. poplarrange

Heartwood and sapwoodare similarin appearance to hard maple: heartwoodofsoft mapleis somewhatlighterincolor and the sapwood, somewhat wider.The wood ofsoft maple, primarily silver and red maple, resemblesthat ofhard maple but is not as heavy,hard, and strong.

Soft mapleis used forrailroadcrossties, boxes,pallets, crates,furniture, veneer, woodenware, andnovelties,

Oak (Red Oak Group)Most red oak comesfrom the EasternStates.The principal species are northern red(Quercusrubra), scarlet (Q. occinea), Shumard (Q. shumardil),pin (Q. palustris), Nuttall (Q. nuttallii),black (Q. velutina), southernred (Q.jzlcata), chenybark(Q.falcata var.pagodaefolia),water (Q. nigra), laurel (Q. laur(folia),and willow(Q. phellos) oak.

The sapwoodis nearly white and roughly2 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in.) wide. The heartwoodis brown with a tinge of red. Sawn lumberofthe red oak group cannotbe separated by species on the basis ofwood characteristics alone.


Red oak lumbercan be separatedfrom white oak by the size and arrangement poresin latewood and becauseit generof lacks tyloses in the pores. The open pores ofred oak ally makethis species group unsuitablefortightcooperage, unlessthe barrels are lined with sealer or plastic.Quartersawn lumberofthe oaks is distinguished by the broad and conspicuous rays. Wood ofthe red oaks is heavy. Rapidly grownsecond-growth wood is generallyharderandtougher than fmertexturedold-growth wood.The redoaks havefairly high shrinkagein drying. The red oaks areprimarilycut into lumber, railroadcrossties, mine timbers,fence posts, veneer, pulpwood, and fuelwood.Ties,mine timbers,and fenceposts requirepreservative treatmentfor satisfactory service. Redoak lumberis remanufactured into flooring, furniture, general millwork, boxes, palletsand crates, agriculturalimplements, caskets, woodenware, and handles. It is alsousedin railroadcars and boats.

characteristic odor of sassafras. The wood is moderately heavy, moderately hard, moderatelyweak in bendingarid endwise compression, quite high in shock resistance,anI resistantto decay. Sassafras was highlyprizedby the Indiansfor dugoutcanoes, and some sassafraslumberis still used for smallboats. Locally, sassafras is used for fence posts and rails and for generalmillwork.

Sweetgumstyracflua) grows from southwestern Connecticut westwardinto Missouriand southward o the GulfCoast. Almost all lumberis produced in the Southern and South Atlantic States.Sweetgum (Liquidambar

Oak (White Oak Group)White oak lumbercomes chiefly from the South, South Atlantic, and Central States, including the southernAppalachianarea. Principal species are white (Quercus alba), chestnut (Q. prinus), post (Q. stellata), overcup (Q. lyrata), swampchestnut (Q. michauxii),bur (Q. macrocarpa), chinkapin (Q. muehlenbergii), swampwhite (Q. bicolor), and live (Q. virginiana) oak.

The lumberfrom sweetgum is usuallymarkedas sap gum (the light-colored sapwood) or redgum (the reddish-brown heartwood). Sweetgum oftenhas a form ofcross grain caFled interlockedgrain, and it must be dried slowly. When quartersawn, interlocked grain producesa ribbon-type stripe that is desirable for interiorwoodworkand furniture.The wood is moderately heavy andhard. It is moderately strong,moderately stiff, and moderately high in shockresistance.Sweetgum is used principally for lumber, veneer,plywood, slack cooperage, railroad crossties, fuel,pulpwood, boxes and crates, furniture, interiormoulding,and millwork.

The sapwoodofthe white oaks is nearly white and roughly 2 to 5 cm or more (1 to 2 in. or more) wide. The heartwood is generallygrayishbrown.Heartwoodporesareusually pluggedwith tyloses, whichtend to make the wood impenetrable by liquids.Consequently,most white oaks are suitable for tight cooperage. Many heartwood poresofchestnut oak lack tyloses. The wood ofwhite oak is heavy, averaging somewhat greater in weightthanred oak wood. Theheartwood has gooddecay resistance. Whiteoaks are usuallycut into lumber, railroadcrossties, cooperage, mine timbers,fenceposts, veneer, fuelwood, and many other products. High-quality white oak is especially sought for tight cooperage. Live oak is considerably heavier and strongerthan the other oaks, and it was formerly used extensivelyforship timbers.An important use ofwhite oak is for plankingand bent parts ofships andboats; heartwood is often specified becauseofits decay resistance. Whiteoak is also used for furniture,flooring, pallets, agricultural implements,railroadcars, truck floors,furniture,doors, and millwork.

Sycamore, AmericanAmericansycamore (Platanusoccidentalis) is knownas and sometimes as buttonwood, buttonball-tree, and sycamore in theUnited Kingdom,planetree.Sycamoregrows from Maineto Nebraska,southwardto Texas, and eastwardto Florida.

The heartwoodofsycamore is reddishbrown;the sapwcod is lighterin color and from 4 to 8 cm (1-1/2 to 3 in.) wide. The woodhas a fine texture and interlockedgrain. It has high shrinkagein drying; is moderatelyheavy, moderately hard, moderately stiff, and moderately strong;and has goodresistance to shock. Sycamore is used principally for lumber, veneer,railroad crossties, slack cooperage, fenceposts, and fuel. The lumber is used for furniture, boxesarticular1ysmallfood containers), pallets,flooring, handles, and butcherblocks.Veneeris used for fruitandvegetablebaskets and somedecorative panels and door skins.

TanoakTanoak(Lithocarpusdensflorus) has recentlygained some commercial value, primarilyin Californiaand Oregon.It is alsoknownas tanbarkoak becausehigh-grade tanninwas once obtainedfrom the bark in commercial quantities. This speciesis found in southwestern Oregonand south to Southern California,mostlynear the coast but also in the Sierra Nevadas.

Sassafraseasternhalfofthe UnitedStates,from southeastern Iowaand easternTexaseastward.Sassafras is easily confusedwith blackash, whichit resembles in color, grain, and texture. Sapwoodis light yellow, and heartwoodvaries from dull grayishbrownto dark brown, sometimes with a reddishtinge. Freshly cut surfaces havethe18

Sassafras(Sassafras albidum)ranges throughmost ofthe

Sapwood oftanoak is light reddishbrownwhenfirst cut and turns darkerwith age to becomealmost indistinguishable from heartwood,whichalso ages to dark reddishbrown. The wood is heavyand hard; exceptfor compression perpendicular to grain,the wood has roughlythe same strength properties as those ofeasternwhite oak. Tanoakhas highershrinkage duringchying than does white oak, and it has a tendency to collapse during drying. Tanoak is quite susceptible to decay, but the sapwoodtakes preservativeseasily. Tanoak has straightgrain, machinesand glues well, and takes stains readily.

heavy, hard, strong, and stiff, andhas goodresistancto shock.Black walnutis well suitedfor naturalfinishes. Because of its goodpropertiesand interestinggrain pattern, blackwalnut is much valuedfor furniture, architectural woodwork, anddecorative panels. Otherimportantuses are gunstocks, cabinets,and interiorwoodwork.

Becauseofits hardness and abrasion resistance, tanoakis excellent for flooring inhomesorcommercial buildings. It is alsosuitable for industrialapplications such as truck flooring. Tanoaktreatedwith preservative has beenused for railroad crossties. The wood has beenmanufactured into baseball bats with good results, and it is also suitablefor veneer, both decorative and industrial, and for high qualityfurniture.

Willow, Black Black willow (Salixnigra) is the most importantof the many willowsthat grow in the United States. It is the only willow marketedunder its own name. Most black wllow comes from the Mississippi Valley, from Louisiana 1:0 southern Missouriand Illinois. The heartwoodofblack willow is grayishbrown or ight reddishbrownand frequently containsdarkerstreaks. The sapwoodis whitish to creamy yellow.The wood is miform in texture,with somewhat interlockedgrain, and light in weight.It has exceedingly low strength as a beam or post, is moderately soft, and is moderatelyhigh in shock res:Lstance. It has moderatelyhigh shrinkage. Black willow is principally cut into lumber. Small iLmounts are used for slack cooperage, veneer, excelsior, charcoal, pulpwood, artificial limbs,and fenceposts. The lumberis remanufactured principally into boxes,pallets,crates caskets, and furniture.

TupeloThe tupelo group includes water (Nyssaaquatica),black (N. sylvatica), swamp(N. sylvaticavar. bWora), and Ogeechee(N. ogeche)tupelo. Watertupelo is also knownas tupelo gum, swamptupelo, and sourgum; black tupelo, as blackgumand sourgum; swamp tupelo, as swampblackgum,

blackgum,and sourgum;and Ogeecheetupelo, as sourtupelo, gopherplum, and Ogeecheeplum. All exceptblack tupelo grow principally in the southeasternUnitedStates. Black tupelo grows in the easternUnitedStatesfrom Maine to Texas and Missouri.About two-thirdsoftheproduction oftupelo lumberis from Southern States.

Yellow-PoplarYellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipfera) is alsoknownas poplar,tulip-poplar, and tulipwood. Sapwoodfrom yellowpoplar is sometimes calledwhite poplar or whitewood. Yellow-poplar grows from Connecticut and New York southward to Florida and westwardto Missouri.Th greatest commercial production ofyellow-poplar lumberis in the South and Southeast. Yellow-poplar sapwood is white and frequently seveialcentimeterswide. The heartwoodis yellowishbrown, sometimes streaked with purple, green,black, blue, or red. These wood. colorations do not affectthe physicalproperties of The wood is generally straight grainedand comparatively uniformin texture. Slow-grown wood is moderately light in weightand moderatelylow in bendingstrength, moderately soft, andmoderatelylow in shock resistance.The wood has moderately high shrinkage when driedfrom a green condition, but it is not difficultto dry and is stable after drying. Much ofthe second-growth wood is heavier, harder,and stronger than that ofoldertrees that have grownmore slowly.

Woodofthe differenttupelo species is quite similarin appearance and properties. The heartwoodis light brownish gray and merges gradually into the lighter-colored sapwood, whichis generally many centimeterswide. The wood has fine,uniformtexture and interlocked grain. Tupelowood is moderately heavy,moderatelystrong, moderately hard and stiff, and moderatelyhigh in shock resistance. Buttressesof treesgrowing in swampsor floodedareas contain wood that is much lighterin weightthan that from upper portions of thesame trees. Becauseofinterlocked grain, tupelo lumber care in drying. requires Tupelo is cut principally for lumber, veneer, pulpwood, and somerailroadcrossties and slack cooperage. Lumbergoes into boxes, pallets, crates,baskets,and furniture.


Walnut, BlackBlack walnut(Juglans nigra), alsoknown as American black walnut,rangesfrom Vermontto the Great Plainsand southward into Louisiana and Texas. Aboutthree-quarters of walnut wood is grown in the Central States.

The heartwoodofblackwalnutvaries from lightto dark brown;the sapwoodis nearly white and up to 8 cm (3 in.) wide in open-grown trees. Black walnut is normallystraight grained,easily workedwith tools, and stable in use. It is

The lumberis used primarilyfor furniture,interior moulding, siding, cabinets,musical instruments, and structural components. Boxes,pallets,and crates are made from lowergrade stock. Yellow-poplar is also madeinto plywoodfor paneling, furniture,piano cases, and variousother specialproducts.


and cooling towers. Second-growth wood is used for siding and millwork, including interiorwoodworkand paneling. Peckycypress is used forpanelingin restaurants,stores, and other buildings.

Douglas-FirDouglas-fir(Pseudotsugamenziesii) is also knownlocallyas red-fir, Douglas-spruce, andyellow-fir. Itsrange extendsfrom the RockyMountains tothe PacificCoast and from Mexico to central British Columbia. Sapwood ofDouglas-fir is narrowin old-growth treesbut trees maybe as much as 7 cm (3 in.) wide in second-growth ofcommercial size.Youngtrees ofmoderate to rapid growth havereddishheartwood and are calledred-fir. Verynarrowringedheartwoodofold-growth trees may be yellowish

Figure 11. Cypress-tupelo swamp near New Orleans, LA. Species includebaldcypress (Taxodium distichum)), tupelo(Nyssa), ash (Fraxinus), willow (Salix), and elm (Ulmus). Swollenbuttressesand "knees" are typically present in cypress.

SoftwoodsBaldcypress Baldcypress or cypress(Taxodium distichum) is also known as southern-cypress, red-cypress, yellow-cypress, andwhite-

cypress.Commercially, the terms tidewaterred-cypress, gulfcypress,red-cypress (coasttype),and yellow-cypress (inland type) are frequently used.Abouthalf ofthe cypress lumber comesfrom the SouthernStates and about a fourthfrom the SouthAtlantic States (Fig. 11). Old-growth biddcypress is no longerreadily available, but second-growth wood isavailable.

brownand is knownonthe market as yellow-fir.The wood ofDouglas-firvarieswidelyin weightand strength. When lumberofhigh strengthis neededfor structural uses, selectioncan be improvedby selectingwood with higherdensity. is Douglas-fir used mostlyforbuildingand construction in the form of lumber, marine fendering(Fig. 1-2), purposes piles, andplywood. Considerable quantitiesare used for railroad crossties, cooperagestock,mine timbers,poles, and fencing. Douglas-fir lumberis used in the manufactureof variousproducts, including sashes, doors, laminated beams, generalmillwork,railroad-carconstruction, boxes,pallets, and crates. Small amounts are used forflooring, furniture, ship and boat construction, and tanks. Douglas-firplywood has found application inconstruction, furniture,cabinets, marineuse, and other products.

Firs, True (Eastern Species) Balsam fir (Abies balsamea)growsprincipally in New England,New York,Pennsylvania, and the Great Lake States. Fraserfir (A. fraseri)growsin the Appalachian Mountainsof Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee.The wood ofthe easterntrue firs, as well as the westerntrue firs, is creamy white to pale brown. The heartwoodand sapwoodare generallyindistinguishable. The similarityof wood structure in the true firs makes it impossibleto distinguishthe species by examinationofthe wood alone. Balsam and Fraserfirs are lightweight, have low bendingand compressive strength, aremoderatelylow in stiffness, are soft, and have low resistance to shock. The easternfirs are used mainly for pulpwood, although some lumberis producedforstructuralproducts, especially in New Englandand the Great Lake States.

Sapwoodofbaldcypress is narrow andnearly white.The color ofheartwoodvarieswidely,rangingfrom lightyellowish brownto dark brownishred, brown,or chocolate. The wood is moderatelyheavy,moderatelystrong, and moderatelyhard. The heartwoodofold-growth baldcypress is one ofthemost decay resistantofU.S. species, but second-growthwood is only moderatelyresistantto decay. Shrinkage is moderatelylow but somewhat higherthan that ofthecedars and lower thanthat ofSouthernPine. The wood ofcertainbaldcypress treesfrequently containspocketsor localized areas that havebeenattackedby afungus. Such wood is knownas pecky cypress.The decay causedby this fungus is stoppedwhen the wood is cut into lumberand dried.Peckycypress isthereforedurable and useful where water tightnessis unnecessary, appearance isnot important, or a novel effectis desired. When old-growth wood was available, baldcypress was used principally for buildingconstruction, especially whereresistance to decay was required. It was alsoused for caskets, sashes, doors, blinds, tanks, vats, ship and boat building,

Firs, True (Western Species)Six commercial species makeupthe westerntrue firs: subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa),California redfir(A. magnIca), grand fir(A. grandis),noble fir (A. procera), Pacific silver fir (A. amabilis),and white fir (A. concolor).The westerntrue firs are cut for lumberprimarilyin Washington,Oregon, California. western Montana, and northernIdaho, and they aremarketedas white firthroughouttheUnitedStates.

110 10


Figure 12.Woodis favored forwaterfrontstructures,particularly fendering, because of its shock-absorbing qualities. Thefendering on thisdock in Key West, FL, is made of creosote-treatedDouglas-fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii). Some tropical species are resistant to attackby decay fungi and marine borers and are used for marine construction without preservative treatment.

The wood ofthe westerntrue firs is similarto that ofthe easterntrue firs, whichmakes it impossible to distinguish thetrue fir speciesby examination ofthe wood alone. Western true firs are light in weightbut,with theexceptionof subalpine fir, have somewhat higher strength properties than does balsam fir. Shrinkage ofthe wood is low to moderately high. Lumberofthe westerntrue firs is primarilyused forbuilding construction, boxes and crates,planing-millproducts, sashes,doors, and generalmillwork.In house constru.ction, thelumberis used for framing, subflooring, and sheathing. Some westerntrue fir lumberis manufactured into boxes and crates.High-grade lumberfrom noble fir is used mainlyfor interiorwoodwork, moulding, siding, and sash and door stock. Some ofthe highestquality material is suitablefor aircraft construction. Otherspecialuses ofnoble firare venetian blinds and ladder rails.

Hemlock, Eastern Eastern hemlock(Tsugacanadensis)growsfrom NewEnglandto northernAlabamaand Georgia, and inthe Great Lake States. Othernames are Canadian hemlockandhemlock spruce. The production ofhemlocklumberis divided,fairly evenlyamongthe NewEngland States, MiddleAtlantic States,and GreatLake States. The heartwoodofeastern hemlockispale brownwith a reddishhue. The sapwoodis not distinctlyseparated from the heartwoodbut may be lighterin color. The wood is coarseand uneven in texture(old treestend to have considerable shake); it is moderatelylightweight,moderatelyhard, moderately low in strength, moderately stiff, and moderately low in shock resistance. Easternhemlockisusedprincipally for lumberandpulpwood. The lumberis usedprimarilyin buildingconstruction (framing,sheathing, subflooring, and roofboards) an in the manufacture ofboxes,pallets,and crates.



Hemlock, Western and Mountain is hemlock Western (Tsuga heterophylla) also knownas West Coast hemlock, Pacific hemlock, British Columbia hemlock,hemlockspruce,and westernhemlockfir. Itgrows along the Pacific coast ofOregonand Washington and in the northernRocky Mountains north to Canada and Alaska.A relativeofwesternhemlock,mountainhemlock(T. mertensiana) growsin mountainous countryfrom central California to Alaska.It is treated as a separatespecies in assigning lumberproperties. The heartwoodand sapwoodofwesternhemlockare almost white with a purplishtinge. The sapwood,which is sometimes lighterin color than the heartwood, is generallynot more than 2.5 cm (1 in.) wide. The wood often contains small, sound,black knots that are usually tight and dimensionallystable.Dark streaks are often found in the lumber; these are causedby hemlockbark maggotsand generally do not reduce strength. Westernhemlockis moderately light in weight and moderatein strength. It is alsomoderatein hardness,stiffness, and shockresistance. Shrinkage ofwestern hemlockis moderatelyhigh, aboutthe same as that of Douglas-fir(Pseudotsugamenziesii). Greenhemlocklumber contains considerably more water than does Douglas-firand requires longer kiln-dryingtime. Mountain hemlockhas approximately the same density as that ofwesternhemlock but is somewhat lower in bendingstrengthand stiffness. Westernhemlockand mountainhemlockare used principally for pulpwood, lumber, and plywood. The lumber is used primarilyforbuildingmaterial,such as sheathing, siding, subflooring, joists,studding,planking, and rafters, as well as inthemanufactureofboxes,pallets,crates,flooring, furniture, and ladders.

Larch, Western Western larch (Larix occidentalis) growsin western Montana, northern Idaho,northeastern Oregon,and on the eastern slope ofthe Cascade Mountains in Washington.About twothirds ofthe lumberofthis species is producedin Idaho and Montanaand one-thirdin Oregonand Washington. The heartwood ofwesternlarch is yellowishbrown and the sapwood, yellowishwhite. The sapwoodis generallynot more than 2.5 cm (1 in.) wide. The wood is stiff, moderately strong and hard, moderately high in shock resistance, ancl moderately heavy. It has moderatelyhigh shrinkage. The wood is usually straightgrained,splits easily, and is subject to ring shake. Knotsarecommonbut generallysmallarid tight.Western larchis used mainly for rough dimensionwood in buildingconstruction, small timbers,planks and boards,and railroadcrosstiesandmine timbers.It is used also for piles, poles, and posts. Some high-grade material is manufactured into interiorwoodwork, flooring, sashes, and doors. The properties ofwestern larch are similarto those ofDouglas-fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii), and these species are sometimes sold mixed.

Pine, Eastern WhiteEastern white pine (Pinus strobus) growsfrom Maineto

northern Georgiaand in the Great Lake States.It is also known as white pine,northernwhite pine, Weymouth pine, and soft pine.About one-halfthe production ofeasternwhite pine lumber occursin New England, about one-thirdin the Great Lake States, and most oftheremainder in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic States.

Incense-CedarIncense-cedar (Calocedrusdecurrens(synonym Libocedrus

decurrens))growsin California, southwesternOregon, and extreme westernNevada.Most incense-cedar lumber comesfrom the northern halfofCalifornia.

Sapwoodofincense-cedar is white or cream colored,and heartwoodis lightbrown,often tinged with red. The wood has a fme,uniformtexture and a spicyodor.Incense-cedar is light in weight,moderatelylow in strength, soft, low in shock resistance,and low in stiffness. It has low shrinkage and is easy to dry, with little checkingor warping.Incense-cedar is used principally for lumberandfenceposts. Nearly all the high-grade lumber isusedforpencils and

Theheartwoodofeastern white pine is lightbrown, often with a reddish tinge.It turns darker on exposureto air. The wood has comparatively uniformtexture and is straight grained.It is easily kiln dried, has low shrinkage,and ranks high in stability. It is also easy to work and can be reacily glued.Easternwhite pine is lightweight,moderatelysoft, moderately low in strength,low in shock resistance,and lowin stiffness.

Practicallyall easternwhite pine is converted into lumber, which is used in a great varietyofways. A large proportion, mostly second-growth knottywood or lower grades, is used for structural lumber. High-grade lumberis used for patterns for castings. Otherimportantuses are sashes,doors, furniture, interiorwoodwork, knottypaneling, caskets, shadeand map rollers, andtoys.

venetianblinds; some is used for chests and toys.Much incense-cedar wood is more or less pecky; that is, it contains wood causedby advanced pocketsor areas ofdisintegrated oflocalizeddecay in thelivingtree. Thereis no furstages ther developmentofdecay once the lumberis dried. This low-quality lumberis usedlocally for rough construction where low cost and decayresistanceare important. Because of its resistance to decay,incense-cedar is well suitedfor fenceposts. Other uses are railroadcrossties, poles, and splitshingles.112

Pine, JackJack pine (Pinus banksiana),sometimesknown as scrub,

gray, and blackpine in the United States, grows naturallyin

the GreatLake Statesand in a few scatteredareas inNew Englandand northern NewYork. Jack pine lumber is sometimesnot separated from the other pines with which it grows, including red pine (Pinus resinosa) and easternwhite pine (Pinus strobus).

Sapwoodofjackpine is nearly white; heartwoodis light brownto orange.Sapwoodmay constitute one-halformore ofthe volume ofa tree. The wood hasa rathercoarsetexture and is somewhatresinous.It is moderatelylightweight, moderatelylow in bendingstrengthand compressive strength, moderatelylow in shock resistance,and low in stiffness. It alsohas moderatelylow shrinkage. Lumberfrom jackpine is generallyknotty. Jack pine is used for pulpwood, box lumber, andpallets. Less important uses includerailroadcrossties, minetimber, slack cooperage,poles,posts, and fuel.

Pine, Jeffrey (see Pine, Ponderosa) Pine, LodgepoleLodgepolepine (Pinus contorta), also knownas knotty, black, and sprucepine, growsin the RockyMountainand Pacific Coastregionsas far northward as Alaska. Wood for lumberand other productsis producedprimarilyin the centralRockyMountainStates;other producingregions are Idaho, Montana,Oregon,and Washington. The heartwoodoflodgepole pine varies from lightyellowto lightyellow-brown.The sapwoodis yellowor nearly white. Thewood is generallystraight grainedwith narrow growth rings. The wood is moderatelylightweight,is fairlyeasy to work, and has moderatelyhigh shrinkage. It is moderately low in strength,moderatelysoft, moderatelystiff, and moderately low in shock resistance.Lodgepole pine is used for lumber, mine timbers, railroad crossties, and poles. Less important uses includeposts and fuel.Lodgepolepine is being used increasingly for framing, siding, millwork,flooring, and cabin logs. Figure 13.Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in an open or park-like habitat.

Pond pine is usedfor general construction, railwaycrossties, posts,and poles. The lumberofthis speciesis also graded as aminor species in gradingrules forthe Southern Pinespecies group.

Pine, PonderosaPonderosa pine (Pinusponderosa)is also knownas Donder-

Pine, PitchPitch pine (Pinus rigida) grows from Mainealong the mountainsto easternTennessee and northernGeorgia. The heartwoodis brownishred and resinous;the sapwoodis wide and light yellow.The wood ofpitch pine is moderately heavyto heavy,moderatelystrong,stiff, and hard, and moderately high in shock resistance. Shrinkage ranges from moderatelylow to moderatelyhigh. Pitch pine is usedfor lumber, fuel, and pulpwood. The lumber is classified as a minor species in gradingrules for the Southern Pine speciesgroup.

osa, westernsoft, westernyellow,bull, andblackjackpine. Jeffreypine(P.jeffieyi),whichgrowsin close association with ponderosapine in Californiaand Oregon, is usually marketedwith ponderosa pineand sold underthat nme. ponderosa pine producing areas are in Oregon. WashMajor ington, and California (Fig. 13). Other importantproducing areas are in Idaho and Montana; lesseramounts come from thesouthernRockyMountainregion, the Black T4ili:; of South Dakota, and Wyoming. The heartwoodofponderosapine is light reddishbrown,and thewide sapwoodis nearly white to pale yellow.The wood oftheouterportions ofponderosapine ofsawtimber size is generallymoderatelylight in weight,moderatelylow in strength, moderately soft, moderately stiff, and mode:ately low in shock resistance. It is generally straightgrainedand has moderatelylow shrinkage. It is quite uniform in texture and has little tendency to warp and twist.Ponderosa pine is used mainly for lumberand to lesser extentfor piles, poles, posts, mine timbers,veneer, and railroadcrossties. The clear wood is used for sashes, doors, blinds, moulding,paneling, interior woodwork, and built-in casesand cabinets. Low-grade lumber is used forboxes and crates. Much intermediate- orlow-grade lumberis usd for sheathing, subflooring, and roofboards. Knottyponderosa pine is used for interior woodwork.


Pine, PondPondpine (Pinus serotina) grows in the coastalregionfrom New Jerseyto Florida. It occursin smallgroups or singly, mixed with other pines on low flats.

Sapwoodofpondpine is wide and pale yellow;heartwoodis dark orange.The wood is heavy,coarsegrained,andresinous. Shrinkage is moderatelyhigh. The wood is moderately strong,stiff, moderatelyhard, and moderatelyhigh in shockresistance.


Pine, Red Red pine (Pinus resinosa)is frequently calledNorwaypine and occasionallyknownas hard pine and pitch pine. This species growsin New England,New York, Pennsylvania, and the Great Lake States. The heartwoodofred pine varies from pale redto reddish brown. The sapwoodis nearly white with a yellowishtinge and is generallyfrom 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in.) wide. The wood resemblesthe lighterweightwood ofthe Southern Pine speciesgroup. Latewoodis distinct in the growthrings. Red pine is moderatelyheavy,moderatelystrong and stiff, moderatelysoft, and moderatelyhigh in shock resistance. It is generallystraightgrained,not as uniformin texture as easternwhite pine (Pinus strobus), and somewhat resinous. The wood has moderatelyhigh shrinkage, but it is not difficultto dry and is dimensionally stable when dried.

stable whenproperly dried. shrinkage but are dimensionally To obtain heavy,strong wood ofthe southernpines for structural purposes,a densityrule has been writtenthat specifies a certain percentage oflatewood and growth ratesfor structural timbers. The denserandhigher strength southernpines are extensivelyused in the form of stringers in construction offactories, warehouses, bridges,trestles, and docks, and also for rooftrusses,beams,posts,joists, and piles. Lumberoflower densityand strengthis also used for buildingmaterial,such as interiorwoodwork, sheathing, and subflooring, as well as boxes, pallets,and crates. SouthernPine is usedalso for tight and slack cooperage. Whenusedfor railroadcrossties, piles, poles,mine timbers, and exterior decking, it is usually treatedwith preservatives. The manufacture ofstructuralgrade plywoodfrom SouthernPine is a major wood-using industry, as is the production ofpreservative-treated lum ber.

Redpine is used principallyfor lumber, cabinlogs, and pulpwood,and to a lesser extent for piles, poles, posts, and fuel.The lumberis usedfor many ofthe same purposesas for easternwhite pine (Pinus strobus). Red pine lumberis used primarilyforbuildingconstruction, includingtreated lumberfor decking, siding, flooring, sashes, doors,generalmillwork, and boxes, pallets, and crates.

Pine, SpruceSpruce pine (Pinus glabra), also known as cedar, poor,

Pine, Southern A numberofspecies are includedin the group marketedas

Walter,and bottom white pine, is classifiedas a minor species in the Southern Pine speciesgroup. Spruce pine growsmost commonly on low moist lands ofthe coastal regionsofsoutheastern SouthCarolina,Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and northernandnorthwesternFlorida.

SouthernPine lumber. The four major SouthernPine species andtheirgrowthrangesare as follows: (a) longleafpine (Pinuspalustris), easternNorth Carolinasouthwardinto Floridaandwestwardinto easternTexas; (b) shortleafpine New York and NewJersey (P. echinata),southeastern southwardto northernFloridaand westwardinto eastern Texas and Oklahoma;(c) loblollypine (P. taeda), Maryland southwardthrough the Atlantic CoastalPlain and Piedmont Plateau into Floridaandwestwardinto easternTexas; (d) slashpine (P. elliottii), Floridaand southernSouth Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi,and Louisiana east of the Mississippi River. Lumberfrom these fourspecies is classified as SouthernPine by the grading standards ofthe industry. Thesestandardsalso classifylumberproducedfrom the longleafand slash pine species as longleafpine ifthe lumberconforms tothe growth-ring and latewood requirements ofsuch standards.SouthernPine lumberis produced principallyin the Southernand SouthAtlantic States. Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, Arkansas, andLouisianalead in SouthernPine lumberproduction. The wood ofthese southernpines is quitesimilar in appearance. Sapwoodis yellowishwhite andheartwood, reddish brown. The sapwoodis usuallywide in second-growth stands. The heartwoodbeginsto form whenthe tree is about 20 years old. In old, slow-growth trees, sapwoodmay be only 2 to 5 cm (ito 2 in.) wide. Longleafand slashpine are classified as heavy,strong, stiff, hard, and moderatelyhigh in shock resistance. Shortleafand loblollypine are usually somewhat lighter in weightthan is longleaf.Allthe southernpines have moderately high114

The heartwoodofsprucepine is light brown, and the wide sapwoodis nearly white. Sprucepine wood is lower in most strengthvaluesthan the wood ofthe major SouthernPine species group. Spruce pine comparesfavorablywith the westerntrue firs in important bendingproperties,crushing strength (perpendicular and parallelto grain),and hardness. It is similarto denserspeciessuch as coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda in shearparallelto grain. In the past, spruce pine was principally used locally for lumber, pulpwood, and fuelwood. The lumberreportedly was usedforsashes, doors,and interiorwoodworkbecause ofits low specific gravityand similarityofearlywoodand latewood. In recentyears,sprucepinehas been used forplywood.

Pine, Sugar

ofpine, is sometimes called Californiasugarpine. Mostsugarpine lumbergrows in Californiaand southwesternOregon.

Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana),the world's largest species

of The heartwood sugarpine is buffor lightbrown, sometimestinged with red. The sapwoodis creamy white. The wood is straight grained,fairly uniform in texture, and easy to work with tools. It has very low shrinkage, is readily dried withoutwarpingor checking, and is dimensionally stable. Sugar pine is lightweight,moderatelylow in strength, moderatelysoft, low in shock resistance,and low in stiffness.

Sugar pine is used almost exclusively for lumberproducts. The largestvolumeis usedfor boxes and crates, sashes, doors, frames,blinds, generalmillwork,buildingconstruction, and foundrypatterns. Like easternwhitepine (Pinus strobus), sugarpine is suitable foruse in nearlyevery part ofa housebecauseofthe easewith whichit can be cut, its dimensionalstability, and its good nailing properties.

weight,stiff, moderately strong and hard, and moderately resistantto shock.Port-Orford-cedar heartwoodis highly resistantto decay. The wood shrinksmoderately, has little tendencyto warp,and is stable after drying.Some high-grade Port-Orford-cedar was onceused iu the manufacture ofstorage batteryseparators, matchsticks, and specialtymillwork. Today,other uses are archery supplies, sash and door construction, stadiumseats, flooring, interior woodwork, furniture,andboats.

Pine, Virginia Virginiapine (Pinus virginiana),also known as Jerseyand scrubpine, growsfrom New Jerseyand Virginiathroughout theAppalachian region to Georgia and the Ohio Valley. It is classifiedas a minorspeciesin thegradingrules for the SouthernPine species group.The heartwoodis orange,and the sapwoodis nearlywhite andrelativelywide. The wood is moderately heavy,moderately strong, moderatelyhard, andmoderatelystiffandhas moderatelyhigh shrinkageandhigh shock resistance. Virginiapine is used for lumber, railroadcrossties, mine timbers,and pulpwood.

Redcedar, EasternEastern redcedar(Juniperusvirginiana)grows throughoutthe

easternhalfofthe UnitedStates,exceptin Maine, Florida, and anarrow strip along the GulfCoast, and atthe higher elevations in the Appalachian MountainRange. Commercial production is principally in the southernAppalachianand Cumberland Mountain regions. Anotherspecies,southern redcedar(.1 silicicola),growsover a limited areain the South Atlanticand GulfCoastal Plains.

Pine, Western WhiteWesternwhite pine (Pinus monticola) is alsoknown as Idahowhite pine or white pine. About four-fifths ofthewood for lumberfromthis species is from Idahoand Washington; smallamountsare cut inMontanaand Oregon.

The heartwoodofredcedaris bright or dull red, andthe narrowsapwoodis nearly white.The wood ismoderately heavy, moderately low in strength, hard, and high ia shock resistance, but low in stiffness. It has very low shriiikage and is dimensionally stable after drying. The texture is fine and uniform, and the wood commonly has numeroussmall knots. Eastern redcedarheartwoodis very resistantto decay. The greatest quantity ofeasternredcedaris used for fence posts. Lumberis manufactured into chests, wardrobes, and closet lining. Otheruses include flooring, novelties pencils, scientific instruments, and smallboats. Southernredcedar is used forthesame purposes. Eastern redcedaris reDuted to repel moths, but this claim has not been supported by research.

The heartwoodofwesternwhite pine is creamcolored to light reddishbrown and darkenson exposureto air. The sapwoodis yellowishwhite and generallyfrom 2 to 8 cm (ito 3 in.) wide. The wood is straightgrained,easy to work, easily kiln-dried, and stable afterdiying. This species is moderatelylightweight,moderatelylow in strength, moderatelysoft, moderatelystiff, andmoderatelylow in shock resistance and has moderately high shrinkage.Practically all western white pine is sawn into lumber, which is used mainly for buildingconstruction, matches,boxes, patterns, and miliworkproducts,such as sashes and door frames.In buildingconstruction, lower-grade boards are used

Redcedar,WesternWestern redcedar(Thujaplicata)grows in the Pacific Northwestand along the PacificCoast to Alaska. It is also calledcanoe-cedar, giantarborvitae, shinglewood, and Pacific redcedar. Western redcedarlumberis producedprincipally in Washington, followed by Oregon,Idaho, and Montana.

for sheathing, knottypaneling, and subflooring. High-grade material is made into siding ofvarious kinds, exteriorand interiorwoodwork, and millwork.Westernwhite pine has practicallythe same uses as easternwhitepine (Pinus sfrobus)and sugarpine (Pinus lambertiana).

Port-Orford-CedarPort-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana)is sometimes knownas Lawson-cypress, Oregon-cedar, and white-cedar. It growsalong the Pacific Coast from Coos Bay, Oregon, southward to California.It does not extendmore than 64 km (40 mi) inland. The heartwoodofPort-Orford-cedar is light yellow to pale brown.The sapwoodis narrowand hard to distinguishfrom theheartwood. The wood has fme texture, generally straight grain, and a pleasantspicy odor. It is moderately light-

The heartwood ofwestern redcedaris reddishor pinkish brownto dull brown, and the sapwoodis nearly white. The sapwoodis narrow, often not more than 2.5 cm (1 ia.) wide. The wood is generallystraightgrained andhas a unform but rather coarsetexture. It has very low shrinkage. This species is lightweight, moderatelysoft, low in strength whenused as a beam orposts, and low in shockresistance. The heartwood is very resistantto decay. Westernredcedaris usedprincipally for shingles, lumber, poles, posts,and piles. The lumberis usedfor exterior siding, decking, interiorwoodwork, greenhouse construction, ship and boat building, boxes and crates, sashes, and doors.


RedwoodRedwood(Sequoiasempervirens) growson the coast of California and sometrees are amongthe tallest in the world. A closely related species, giant sequoia(Sequoiadendron giganteum),is volumetrically larger and grows in a limited area in the SierraNevadasofCalifornia, but its wood is used in very limitedquantities. Othernames for redwoodare coast of redwood,Californiaredwood,and sequoia. Production redwoodlumber is limitedto California, but the market is nationwide.

The heartwoodofredwoodvariesfrom light "cherry"red to dark mahogany.The narrow sapwoodis almost white. Typical old-growth redwoodis moderatelylightweight, moderately strong and stiff, and moderatelyhard. The wood is easy to work, generallystraightgrained,and shrinks and swells comparatively little. The heartwoodfrom old-growth trees has high decayresistance;heartwoodfrom second-growth trees generally has low to moderatedecay resistance. Most redwood lumberis used forbuilding. It isremanufactured extensivelyinto siding, sashes, doors, blinds, millwork, casket stock, and containers. Becauseofits durability, redwood is useful for coolingtowers,decking,tanks, silos, wood-stavepipe,and outdoorfurniture.It is used in agriculturefor buildingsand equipment. Its use as timbers and large dimension in bridges and trestlesis relatively minor. Redwood splits readily and plays an important role in the manufacture ofsplitproducts,such as posts and fence material.Some redwoodveneeris producedfor decorativeplywood.

The heartwoodofEngelmann spruce is nearly white,with a slight tinge ofred. The sapwoodvaries from 2 to 5 cm (3/4to 2 in.) in width and is often difficultto distinguish from the heartwood. The wood has mediumto fine texture and is withoutcharacteristic odor.Engelmannspruceis rated as lightweight, and it is low in strengthas a beam or post. It is also soft and low in stiffhess, shock resistance,and shrinkage. The lumbertypicallycontains many smallknots. Engelmann spruceis usedprincipally for lumberand for minetimbers,railroadcrossties, and poles. It is usedalso in buildingconstruction in the form ofdimensionlumber, flooring, and sheathing. Ithas excellent propertiesforpulp andpapermaking.

Spruce, SitkaSitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)is a large tree that grows along the northwestern coast ofNorth Americafrom Cali forniato Alaska. It is also known as yellow,tideland,western, silver, and west coast spruce.Much Sitka spruce timber is grownin Alaska, but most logs are sawn into cants for exportto PacificRim countries. Materialfor U.S. consurnption is producedprimarilyin Washingtonand Oregon.

Spruce, EasternThe term easternspruce includes three species: red (Picea rubens),white (P. glauca), andblack (P. mariana). White and blacksprucegrow principally in the Great LakeStates andNew England, andred sprucegrowsin New England and the AppalachianMountains.

The heartwoodofSitka spruce is a light pinkish brown. The sapwoodis creamy white and shadesgraduallyinto the heartwood;the sapwoodmay be 7 to 15 cm (3 to 6 in.) wi