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  • vzw Amazone asbl Middaglijnstraat 10 Rue du Mridien Brussel 1210 Bruxelles

    T +32 2 229 38 00 F + 32 2 229 38 01 [email protected] http://www.amazone.be

    Women and mass media

    State of the art report realized by Giulia Pozzi (in the framework of an internship at Amazone organized by SafariJob and Eurodesk)

    December 2012

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    2

    Table of contents

    Introduction

    Part 1: World level

    1) The United Nation Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace

    Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action 1995

    1.1 Overview

    1.2 Beijing Platform for Action: Women and Media

    a) Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the

    media and new technologies of communication

    b) Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media

    1.3 Results of Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: 15 years later

    2) A Roadmap for equality between women and men 2006-2010

    2.1 Overview

    2.2 Results of the Roadmap

    3) Global report on the status of women in News Media (IWMF)

    3.1 Overview: About the WAAC

    3.2 About the Global Media Monitoring Project 2010 (GMMP)

    3.3 Research methodology

    3.4 Report of 2010 Global Media Monitoring Project: Who makes the news?

    a) News subjects

    b) News content

    c) Delivering the news

    d) Internet news

    4) Global report on the status of women in News Media

    4.1 Overview: About the IMWF

    4.2 Research methodology

    4.3 General results

    a) Position held by women

    b) Under-representation, glass ceiling and relative parity

    c) Policies on gender equality

    d) Policies on sexual harassment

    e) Policies related to maternity, paternity and child care

    f) Salaries

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    3

    Part 2: European Level

    1) Global Media Monitoring Project

    1 News content

    2 News subject

    3 Delivering the news

    2) Global report on the status of women in News Media

    2.1 Nordic Europe

    a) Overview

    b) Position held by women

    c) Salary

    d) Gender-related company policies

    2.2 Western Europe

    a) Overview

    b) Occupational status of women

    c) Salary

    d) Gender-related company policies

    2.3 Eastern Europe

    a) Overview

    b) Occupational status of women

    c) Salary

    d) Gender-related company policies

    Part 3: Belgium

    1) Global Media Monitoring Project

    1.1 News subjects

    1.2 News content

    1.3 Delivering the news

    2) Etude comparative des politiques des rgulateurs membres du REFRAM en matire dgalit

    hommes-femmes (Comparative study on regulatory REFRAM members concerning equality between

    genders)

    2.1 Authorization and control

    2.2 Evaluation

    2.3 Co-regulation and auto-regulation

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    4

    3) Egalit, multiculturalit et inclusion sociale. Prsence et reprsentation des femmes dans les services

    de radiodiffusion (Equality, multiculturalism and social inclusion. Presence and representation of

    women in radio broadcasting services) - Representation of females image by broadcasting services

    3.1 Womens presence in broadcasting services

    3.2 Representation of females image by broadcasting services

    3.3 Journalistic treatment referred to case of violence against women

    3.3 Tools and assessments

    4) Baromtre de la Diversit et de lEgalit 2012 (2012 Diversity and Equality Barometer)

    4.1 Overview

    4.2 Female presence in television

    4.3 Journalists in the information

    4.4 Presenters of the entertainment

    4.5 Subjects identification Mentions

    4.6 Subjects identification Victims / authors of reprehensible acts / good example

    5) Panorama des bonne pratiques en matire dgalit et de diversit (Good practices Panorama as

    regards equality and diversity)

    Part 4: Gender stereotyping in mass media

    1) Egalit, multiculturalit et inclusion sociale. Prsence et reprsentation des femmes dans les services

    de radiodiffusion (Equality, multiculturalism and social inclusion. Presence and representation of

    women in radio broadcasting services) - Representation of females image by broadcasting services

    1.1 European actions

    1.2 Belgian laws

    2) Advisory Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men Opinion on Breaking gender

    stereotypes in the media

    3) Global Media Monitoring Project

    2.1 Gender stereotypes in traditional media

    2.2 Gender stereotypes in the Internet

    2.3 Gender stereotypes in European media

    2.4 Gender stereotypes in Belgian media

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    5

    Introduction

    The relationship existing between women and mass media has always been complicated.

    Indeed, in both working positions and mentions, their under-representation it is given.

    Many surveys have confirmed this tendency, which is not relegated on the local level, but

    it is largely widespread all-around the world. Womens image given by the media is a

    controversial topic as well and also an issue hard to regulate by law.

    The survey has been divided in for parts:

    The first one is focused on the world level and takes in consideration several researches:

    the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, A Roadmap for equality between

    women and men 2006-2010, the Global report on the status of women in News Media

    (IWMF), and the Global report on the status of women in News Media.

    The second part considers the European level from the point of view of the Global Media

    Monitoring Project, and the one of the Global report on the status of women in News

    Media (IWMF).

    The third part is focused on the Belgian level, and makes reference to the Global Media

    Monitoring Project, the Comparative study on regulatory REFRAM members concerning

    equality between genders, Equality, multiculturalism and social inclusion, the survey

    Presence and representation of women in radio broadcasting services, the one called

    2012 Diversity and Equality Barometer, and finally the booklet Good practices Panorama

    as regards equality and diversity.

    The fourth part, finally, is concentrated to female stereotyping in mass media. The main

    projects considered have been the Equality, multiculturalism and social inclusion.

    Presence and representation of women in broadcasting services, the Advisory Committee

    on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men Opinion on Breaking gender stereotypes in

    the media, and the Global Media Monitoring Project.

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    6

    Part 1: World level

    1) The United Nation Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality,

    Development and Peace Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action 1995

    http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/pdf/Beijing%20full%20report%20E.pdf

    1.1 Overview

    The Fourth World Conference on Women is an international meeting promoted by the

    United Nations in 1995 and focused on gender issues. 189

    Governments and more than 5,000 representatives from

    2,100 non-governmental organizations participated in this

    event1. The Conference was centered on female

    empowerment and mainstreaming. The first concept is

    referred to active participation of women in the decisional

    processes and to their acquisition of power. The second

    term, instead, concerns the necessity of introduce

    womens issues into general politics. For these reasons,

    during the Conference has also been underlined the

    importance of include gender equality in all public

    institutions and policies of the UN member States.

    The resulting documents of the Conference are the Beijing Declaration and the Platform

    for Action, two global commitments to achieve peace, development and equality for

    women worldwide. The overriding message of this Conference on Women was that the

    questions addressed in the Platform for Action are global and universal. The aims of the

    Platform for Action, that is an agenda for womens empowerment, are numerous, and

    they have been divided in different fields:

    Women and poverty;

    Educational and Training of Women;

    Women and health;

    Violence against Women;

    Women and armed conflict;

    Women and economy;

    Women in power and decision-making;

    Institutional mechanism for the advancement of Women;

    Human rights of Women;

    Women and Media;

    Women and the environment;

    1 http://www.wikigender.org/index.php/Fourth_World_Conference_on_Women

    Figure : Poster of the Fourth Global

    Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    7

    The Girl-child2.

    Seeing the aim of this research, I will focus only on the part named Women and Media.

    1.2 Beijing Platform for Action: Women and Media

    http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm#diagnosis

    The chapter referred to women and media is divided in two strategic objectives:

    Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in

    and through the media and new technologies of communication, and Promote a

    balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media3.

    a) Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-

    making in and through the media and new technologies of communication

    At the beginning of this chapter, a statement affirms that More women are involved in

    careers in the communications sector, but few have attained positions at the decision-

    making level or serve on governing boards and bodies that influence media policy. The

    lack of gender sensitivity in the media is evidenced by the failure to eliminate the

    gender-based stereotyping that can be found in public and private local, national and

    international media organizations4. Womens presence in the decision-making level of

    media and the persistence of gender stereotypes are therefore connected. The Action

    Plan continues providing for an active commitment of Governments, national and

    international media system, non-governmental organizations and media professional

    associations.

    The actions assigned to the Governments are:

    Support women's education, training and employment to promote and ensure

    women's equal access to all areas and levels of the media;

    Support research into all aspects of women and the media so as to define areas

    needing attention and action and review existing media policies with a view to

    integrating a gender perspective;

    Promote women's full and equal participation in the media, including

    management, programming, education, training and research;

    Aim at gender balance in the appointment of women and men to all advisory,

    management, regulatory or monitoring bodies, including those connected to the

    private and State or public media;

    2 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/index.html

    3 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm#diagnosis

    4 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm#diagnosis

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    8

    Encourage, to the extent consistent with freedom of expression, these bodies to

    increase the number of programmes for and by women to see to it that women's

    needs and concerns are properly addressed;

    Encourage and recognize women's media networks, including electronic networks

    and other new technologies of communication, as a means for the dissemination

    of information and the exchange of views, including at the international level, and

    support women's groups active in all media work and systems of communications

    to that end;

    Encourage and provide the means or incentives for the creative use of

    programmes in the national media for the dissemination of information on various

    cultural forms of indigenous people and the development of social and educational

    issues in this regard within the framework of national law;

    Guarantee the freedom of the media and its subsequent protection within the

    framework of national law and encourage, consistent with freedom of expression,

    the positive involvement of the media in development and social issues5.

    National and international media systems, instead, are responsible for the development

    of those mechanisms (freedom of expression and regulatory mechanism) that promote

    womens participation in decision-making positions and balanced portrayals of them.

    Governments or national machinery for the advancement of women should:

    Encourage the development of educational programmes for women for the

    purpose to produce mass media information;

    Encourage the use of communication tools, including new technologies, in order to

    favour womens participation in democratic process;

    Encourage womens participation aimed at the promotion of non-stereotyped and

    balanced portrayals of their image by the media.

    Finally, non-governmental organizations and media professional organizations are

    responsible to:

    Encourage the establishment of media watch groups that can monitor the media

    and consult with the media to ensure that women's needs and concerns are

    properly reflected;

    Train women to make greater use of information technology for communication

    and the media, including at the international level;

    Create networks among and develop information programmes for non-

    governmental organizations, women's organizations and professional media

    5 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    9

    organizations in order to recognize the specific needs of women in the media, and

    facilitate the increased participation of women in communication, in particular at

    the international level, in support of South-South and North-South dialogue

    among and between these organizations, inter alia, to promote the human rights

    of women and equality between women and men;

    Encourage the media industry and education and media training institutions to

    develop, in appropriate languages, traditional, indigenous and other ethnic forms

    of media, such as story-telling, drama, poetry and song, reflecting their cultures,

    and utilize these forms of communication to disseminate information on

    development and social issues6.

    b) Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media

    The principal actors identified in this part are National Governments, international

    organizations, mass media, advertisement organizations, non-governmental

    organizations and national machinery for the advancement of women. According to the

    Platform for Action, The continued projection of negative and degrading images of

    women in media communications - electronic, print, visual and audio - must be changed.

    Print and electronic media in most countries do not provide a balanced picture of

    women's diverse lives and contributions to society in a changing world. In addition,

    violent and degrading or pornographic media products are also negatively affecting

    women and their participation in society. Programming that reinforces women's

    traditional roles can be equally limiting. The world- wide trend towards consumerism has

    created a climate in which advertisements and commercial messages often portray

    women primarily as consumers and target girls and women of all ages inappropriately7.

    Governments and international organizations have the tasks of:

    Promote research and implementation of a strategy of information, education and

    communication aimed at promoting a balanced portrayal of women and girls and

    their multiple roles;

    Encourage the media and advertising agencies to develop specific programmes to

    raise awareness of the Platform for Action;

    Encourage gender-sensitive training for media professionals, including media

    owners and managers, to encourage the creation and use of non-stereotyped,

    balanced and diverse images of women in the media;

    Encourage the media to refrain from presenting women as inferior beings and

    exploiting them as sexual objects and commodities, rather than presenting them

    6 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm

    7 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm#object2

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    10

    as creative human beings, key actors and contributors to and beneficiaries of the

    process of development;

    Promote the concept that the sexist stereotypes displayed in the media are

    gender discriminatory, degrading in nature and offensive;

    Take effective measures or institute such measures, including appropriate

    legislation against pornography and the projection of violence against women and

    children in the media8.

    Instead, mass media and advertising organizations are in charge of:

    Develop, consistent with freedom of expression, professional guidelines and

    codes of conduct and other forms of self-regulation to promote the presentation of

    non-stereotyped images of women;

    Establish, consistent with freedom of expression, professional guidelines and

    codes of conduct that address violent, degrading or pornographic materials

    concerning women in the media, including advertising;

    Develop a gender perspective on all issues of concern to communities, consumers

    and civil society;

    Increase women's participation in decision-making at all levels of the media9.

    Finally, the media, non-governmental organizations and the private sector, in

    collaboration with national machinery for the advancement of women have to:

    Promote the equal sharing of family responsibilities through media campaigns

    that emphasize gender equality and non-stereotyped gender roles of women and

    men within the family and that disseminate information aimed at eliminating

    spousal and child abuse and all forms of violence against women, including

    domestic violence;

    Produce and/or disseminate media materials on women leaders, inter alia, as

    leaders who bring to their positions of leadership many different life experiences,

    including but not limited to their experiences in balancing work and family

    responsibilities, as mothers, as professionals, as managers and as entrepreneurs,

    to provide role models, particularly to young women;

    Promote extensive campaigns, making use of public and private educational

    programmes, to disseminate information about and increase awareness of the

    human rights of women;

    8 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm#object2

    9 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm#object2

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    11

    Support the development of and finance, as appropriate, alternative media and

    the use of all means of communication to disseminate information to and about

    women and their concerns;

    Develop approaches and train experts to apply gender analysis with regard to

    media programmes10.

    1.3 Results of Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: 15 years later

    http://daccess-dds-

    ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/305/76/PDF/N1030576.pdf?OpenElement

    Every 5 years after the adoption of Beijing Declaration and Platform Action, the UN

    Commission on the Status of Women have made a report to review the outcomes of the

    Fourth World Conference on Women. The last one is dated 2010 and it is focused on

    different thematic referred to 1995 Conference: after the assertion of the necessity to

    reaffirm and implement of Beijing Declaration and Platform Action, it takes in account

    Palestinian, HIV/AIDS and development issues. The Commission talks about the relation

    between women and media in two chapters: the first on is named Womens economic

    empowerment in the context of the global economic and financial crisis, and it is

    contained in Declaration 504/101 (Implementing the internationally agreed goals and

    commitments in regard to gender equality and empowerment of women):

    15. Strong measures are needed to eliminate stereotypical attitudes regarding the role

    of women and men in society, which limit womens participation in the labour market.

    The role of families in early gender socialization remains critical in the elimination of

    gender stereotypes. In addition, opportunities should be sought to enhance the role of

    the media in providing a more balanced and realistic portrayal of women, including in

    leadership positions11.

    The second one is contained is the Chapter Communication concerning the status of

    women, and it is referred to the link existing between mass media e violence against

    women:

    Sexual violence against women and girls, including rape, gang rape, forced prostitution,

    threats of rape, sexual harassment and incitement to sexual violence through gender

    stereotyping and the promotion of rape in new media, committed by private individuals,

    teachers, detainees, and military, security and law enforcement personnel, including in

    detention-related situations, as well as failure by States, resulting in a climate of

    10

    http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/media.htm#object2 11

    http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/305/76/PDF/N1030576.pdf?OpenElement page 46

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    12

    impunity, to exercise due diligence to prevent such violations, and to adequately and in a

    timely manner investigate, prosecute and punish the perpetrators, failure to provide

    adequate protection and support for victims and their families, including medical and

    psychological care, and failure to ensure access to justice12

    2) A Roadmap for equality between women and men 2006-2010

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0092:FIN:EN:PDF

    2.1 Overview

    The Roadmap for gender equality between women and men was approved by the

    European Commission in 2006. It is divided in two parts.

    In the first one it outlines six priority areas for EU action

    on gender equality for the period 2006-2010:

    1) equal economic independence for women and

    men;

    2) reconciliation of private and professional life;

    3) equal representation in decision-making;

    4) eradication of all forms of gender-based violence;

    5) elimination of gender stereotypes;

    6) promotion of gender equality in external and

    development policies13.

    The fifth chapter, elimination of gender stereotypes, is divided in three different subparts.

    For each area, the Roadmap identifies some priority objectives, whereof one is related to

    mass media:

    Elimination of gender stereotypes in education, training and culture;

    Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour market;

    And Elimination of gender stereotypes in the media, which affirms that The

    media have a crucial role to play in combating gender stereotypes. It can

    contribute to presenting a realistic picture of the skills and potential of women and

    men in modern society and avoid portraying them in a degrading and offensive

    manner. Dialogue with stakeholders and awareness-raising campaigns should be

    promoted at all levels14.

    12

    http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/305/76/PDF/N1030576.pdf?OpenElement page 90 13

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0092:FIN:EN:PDF page 2 14

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0092:FIN:EN:PDF page 8

    Figure : official cover of the Roadmap for

    Equality between Women and Men 2006

    - 2010

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    13

    The Roadmap also provides for the identification of different key actions, but a very little

    space is given to those actions related to gender image in mass media:

    support actions to eliminate gender stereotypes in education, culture and on the

    labour market by promoting gender mainstreaming and specific actions in the

    ESF, ICT programmes and in EU education and culture programmes, including EU

    Lifelong Learning strategy and the future Integrated Lifelong Learning programne;

    support awareness-raising campaigns and exchange of good practices in schools

    and enterprises on non-stereotyped gender roles and develop dialogue with media

    to encourage a non-stereotyped portrayal of women and men;

    raise awareness on gender equality in dialogue with EU citizens through the

    Commission's plan for Democracy, Dialogue and Debate15.

    In the second part, the Roadmap takes considers to improve governance for gender

    equality, asking the collaboration of politics at each level. Particularly, it is affirmed that

    The planned European Institute for Gender Equality will provide expertise, improving

    knowledge and heightening visibility on gender equality. () The implementation of

    gender equality methodologies such as gender impact assessment and gender budgeting

    (the implementation of a gender perspective in budgetary process) will promote gender

    equality and provide for greater transparency and enhance accountability16

    Indicators for monitoring progress are also provided, but unfortunately those related to

    the elimination of gender stereotypes in media are just described as to be further

    developed.

    2.2 Results of the Roadmap

    http://eur-

    lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2011:236E:0087:0099:EN:PDF

    A first evaluation on the results of Roadmap is contained in the 2011 Assessment of the

    2006-2010 Roadmap, which Welcomes the integration of gender equality as a priority

    into Community education and training programmes, with the aim of reducing

    stereotypes in society; regrets, however, that persistent gender stereotypes still serve as

    a basis for many inequalities; therefore calls on the Commission and the Member States

    to launch awareness-raising campaigns to break down stereotypes and traditional gender

    roles, in particular campaigns targeting men which highlight the need to share family

    responsibilities17. The Assessment is composed by two parts: Institutional level and

    15

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0092:FIN:EN:PDF page 8-9 16

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0092:FIN:EN:PDF page 11 17

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2011:236E:0087:0099:EN:PDF

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    14

    Policy areas aims. No references to gender stereotypes are contained in the chapter

    named institutional level. The Policy areas aims, on the other hand:

    Advocates policies and measures aimed at eradicating violence against women in

    every walk of life by promoting the human rights of women, combating gender

    stereotypes and all forms of discrimination in society and the family, not least in

    education, training, the media and politics;

    maintains that specific policies should be developed which promote gender

    equality, empower women, better educate individuals including through

    awareness-raising campaigns and promote lifelong learning strategies and

    specific measures for women;

    Emphasises the importance of combating stereotypes in all walks and at all stages

    of life, since these are one of the most persistent causes of inequality between

    men and women, affecting their choices in the field of education, training and

    employment, the distribution of domestic and family responsibilities, participation

    in public life and participation and representation in decision-making positions,

    and their choices regarding the labour market18.

    3) Global Media Monitoring Project

    The most important project on women and mass media ever realized at world level is the

    Global Media Monitoring Project. This project has been created by the World Association

    for Christian Communication (WAAC) and by others international organizations that

    promote communication rights for social change.

    3.1 Overview: About the WAAC

    http://www.waccglobal.org/#&panel1-2

    Based in London, the current WAAC was founded in 1975,

    even if its history began in 1950. It is an ecumenical

    organization who works according to the Christian

    perspective and promotes communication for social

    change. Specifically, it believes that communication is a

    basic human right that defines people's common humanity, strengthens cultures, enables

    participation, creates community, and challenges tyranny and oppression19. One of its

    main topics is media and gender justice.

    Based on this belief, WACC's general aims are:

    18

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2011:236E:0087:0099:EN:PDF 19

    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/who-is-wacc.html

    Figure : WACC logo

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    15

    to promote democratic forms of communication which encourage dialogue and

    debate, enhance people's creativity and solidarity, and respond to people's needs;

    to contribute towards building a communications environment that is open to all

    and founded on respect for human dignity;

    to support processes that lead to the democratization of the mass media including

    advocacy, reflection, policy development, and networking;

    to implement communication programs and to support projects that lead to the

    empowerment of people, especially the dispossessed and marginalized,

    indigenous peoples, refugees, migrants, women, children and people with

    disabilities20.

    3.2 About the Global Media Monitoring Project 2010 (GMMP)

    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/

    According to its website, the Global Media Monitoring Project is the largest and longest

    longitudinal study on the representation of women in the worlds media. It is also the

    largest advocacy initiative in the world on changing the

    representation of women in the media. It is unique in

    involving participants ranging from grassroots community

    organizations to university students and researchers to media

    practitioners, all of whom participate on a voluntary basis21.

    Each five years, this team collects all the worldwide

    information about representation of women in the media. This

    project was born in 1995 and it had four editions until now, so the last version available

    is dated 2010.

    The aims of the Global Media Monitoring Project are:

    to map the representation and portrayal of women in the worlds news media;

    to develop a grassroots research instrument;

    to build solidarity among gender and communication groups worldwide;

    to create media awareness;

    to develop media monitoring skills on an international level22.

    3.3 Research methodology

    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/gmmp-20092010-methodology.html

    The GMMPs methodology concerns both quantitative and qualitative monitoring. The first

    one is referred to numerical data, and its aim is to collect specific information on the

    20

    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/who-is-wacc.html 21

    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/gmmp-background.html 22

    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/gmmp-background.html

    Figure : Global Media Monitoring

    Project logo

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    16

    number of men and women in the worlds news, the role they plays in news making, the

    quantity of news related to them, etc. The second one concerns the qualitative analysis

    of quantitative data, to give a more complete picture of news content: For instance, we

    might find that women appear in 10 percent of stories about politics. But how do these

    stories actually portray women? In fact a story about a female politician may fall into as

    many stereotyped clichs as a story about a beauty queen23. The practical research

    takes place worldwide during a default day (last time was on 10 November 2009), and

    volunteers record data at regional and national level about newspapers, televisions and

    radios stories. 1,281 newspapers, television and radio stations were monitored in 108

    countries for the fourth GMMP. The research covered 16,734 news items, 20,769 news

    personnel (announcers, presenters and reporters), and 35,543 total news subjects.

    Internet news monitoring was introduced on a pilot basis for the first time in the GMMP.

    76 national news websites in 16 countries and 8 international news websites containing

    1,061 news items, 2,710 news subjects and 1,044 news personnel were studied24. After

    this analysis, all the data are sent to and combined by the base of the project (South

    Africa).

    3.4 Report of 2010 Global Media Monitoring Project: Who makes the news?

    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/images/stories/website/gmmp_reports/2010/global/g

    mmp_global_report_en.pdf

    The Global Media Monitoring Project is the worlds most

    significant and extended global research on gender in news

    media. Results of the Project are contained in the final report

    Who makes the news? As said before, the GMMP takes place

    every five years. Results of 1995, 2000 and 2005 previous

    editions have shown that women were extremely

    underrepresented in news coverage in contrast to men.

    Outcomes of 2010 analysis are not better.

    Underrepresentation, prevalence of stereotypes and

    insufficient media coverage are cited as real obstacles to equal

    opportunity of freedom of expression.

    The fourth Global Media Monitoring Project has seen an explosion in participation,

    particularly referred to Africa (especially French speaking countries), Asia, the Caribbean,

    23

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    http://whomakesthenews.org/images/stories/restricted/highlights/highlights_en.pdf

    Figure : official cover of the 2010

    report Who makes the news?

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    17

    the Middle East, the Pacific, Europe and North Africa. The expansion of the GMMP in Arab

    speaking countries is particularly noteworthy25.

    Results from each country had been elaborated to give a worldwide overview about

    women and mass media, especially referred to women as news subjects, reporters and

    presenters.

    a) News subjects

    One of the firsts important results given by the GMMP is the percentage of women as

    news subjects (intend as people whom the news is about or who are interviewed). Only

    24% of the people heard or read about in print, radio and television news are female. In

    contrast, 76% of the people in the news are male26. As it is possible to see in the table

    below (figure 6), these three medium give a similar coverage to women. The one that

    has had the best progress from 1995 to 2010 is print, whereas television has reported

    the most stagnant values. Nevertheless, all these Medias have had an increase about

    female presence in the news, but women and girls remain strongly underrepresented

    compared to men.

    These data are also rearranged and focused on world regions: the results are that Latin

    America is the most notable region, with a womens presence increase of 6 percentage

    points, and the Middle East is most stagnant one, with an increase of just 2 points. The

    apparent regression of womens presence in African media (from 22% to 19%) can be

    explained by the increase of African countries participating at the Project.

    Another variant took in consideration is the geographical level of the news. From 1995 to

    2010 womens average presence on media is passed from 17% to 24%, and particularly:

    at local level from 22% to 26%

    at National level from 14% to 23%

    25

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    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/images/stories/website/gmmp_reports/2010/global/gmmp_global_repo

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    Media 1995 2000 2005 2010

    Print

    16%

    17%

    21%

    24%

    Television 21% 22% 22% 24%

    Radio 15% 13% 17% 22%

    Overall 17% 18% 21% 24%

    Figure : percentage of female news subjects by medium, by year (Source: 2010 Who makes the news?)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    18

    at National and other levels (news involving other countries in addition to that in

    which story is coded) from 17% to 20%

    at foreign and International level from 17% to 26%

    Therefore, presence of women has grown at each geographical level, but it is still too low

    in comparison with mens one.

    In 2010, women outnumbered men only in four out of the 52 GMMP story sub-topics:

    News about the girl-child, including cultural attitudes and practices impinging on

    girls, education, health, economic exploitation, violence (69%)

    Family relations, single parents (58%)

    Women's participation in economic processes (58%)

    Changing gender relations, roles and relationships of women and men inside and

    outside the home (61%)

    On the other hand, females were underrepresented in all other stories, particularly those

    focused on:

    Economic indicators, statistics, business, trade, stock markets (14%)

    National defense, military spending, military training, military parades, internal

    security (13%)

    Sports, events, players, facilities, training, policies, funding (13%)

    Global partnerships (international trade and finance systems, e.g. WTO, IMF,

    World Bank, debt) (13%)

    Rural economy, agriculture, farming practices, agricultural policy, land rights

    (12%)

    The position occupied in news by women is an important data as well, and it gives a

    realistic image about the quality of female presence. Taking in consideration the period

    going from 2000 to 2010, the news frequently talking about women were those focused

    on:

    Homemaker, parent

    Student, pupil, schoolchild

    Child, young person (up to 18 years)

    Office or service worker, non-management worker in office, store, restaurant,

    catering

    Instead, positions less covered by women (according to media vision) were:

    Business person, executive, manager, entrepreneur, economist, financial expert,

    stock broker

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    19

    Sportsperson, athlete, player, coach, referee

    Science or technology professional, engineer, technician, computer specialist

    Police, military, para-military group, militia, prison officer, security officer, fire

    officer

    The interesting aspect of these data is that the image proposed by media tends to give a

    false conception of womens real occupation in the society: the picture painted through

    the news remains discordant with the reality; the world presented is one in which men

    outnumber women in almost all occupations. The highest disparity is in the professions.

    Of the total number of news subjects identified, portrayed or represented as educators,

    an overwhelming 69% are male, as health professionals (69%), as legal professionals

    (83%), as public/civil servants (83%), and as scientists (90%). Womens share in all

    professions is much higher in reality. The picture seen through the news becomes one of

    a world where women are almost absent as participants in work outside the home27.

    As person heard or interviewed in the news, usually women are part of the ordinary

    people category, a term referred to

    those citizens who provide witness

    accounts, share personal experiences

    or give popular opinion reflecting the

    ones of ordinary citizens (see figure

    7). On the other hand, men continues

    to dominate in the expert

    categories, which include those people

    providing comments based on

    expertise or specialist knowledge, or

    are spokespersons representing

    groups.

    Moreover, women are more likely not to be identified as workers, not to be associated to

    a profession or not to be pictured as participants in social, political or economic life. In

    contrast, men are usually identified as professionals in the entire range of functions in

    which they appear in the news, whether as spokespersons, as givers of popular opinion,

    as experts, or as eyewitnesses. Numerically the representation is highly overbalanced

    in favour of male, given that 75% of people speaking in the news are men.

    27

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    Figure : women portrayed as ordinary people (Source: 2010 Who

    makes the news?)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    20

    Another important aspect is that female news subjects

    are identified by family status four times more than men.

    As it is reported in GMMP Project, The overall continued

    patterns where women are almost 4 times as likely as

    men to be identified by their family status goes against

    efforts to assert womens autonomy as individuals with

    roles, rights and responsibilities in the broader society

    beyond the home and household. It also discursively re-

    draws a gender divide in familial responsibilities that in

    reality is being eroded by mens increasing childcare

    roles, as women work in paid labour outside the home28. These data do not change on

    the base of reporters gender.

    Finally, women appear in photographs in newspapers more than men (26% in contrast

    with 17%). A qualitative analysis of photographs found that while men are usually

    photographed from the head up or fully clothed, womens bodies are usually pictured in

    various states of undress.

    b) News content

    With the term news content is meant the centrality of women in media news. The

    GMMP research has found that women are the main subject only in 13% of stories. On

    average, the centrality of women in the news is increased from 2005, especially in

    politics/government, health/science and economy fields. Instead, female subjects

    are still not frequent in social/legal, crime/violence and celebrity news. The sex of

    reporters plays an important role regarding the centrality of women in the news:

    Breaking down the 2010 data by region reveals varying patterns. In Africa, Europe and

    Latin America, stories by female reporters are more likely to raise issues of gender

    equality or inequality than stories by male reporters. In Africa 7% of stories by female

    reporters compared to 4% by male reporters evoke (in)equality issues. In Europe the

    statistics are 7% of stories by women and 3% of stories by men while in Latin America

    the findings are 12% and 10% for female and male reporters respectively. The difference

    noted in North America is statistically insignificant while none at all was found in Asia and

    the Middle East. The Caribbean region is striking in that stories by male reporters (18%)

    are to a larger extent more likely to highlight (in)equality issues than stories by female

    reporters (10%)29.

    At world level, their centrality in the news is more frequent in:

    28

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    Figure : news subjects identified by family

    status, by sex (Source: 2010 Who makes

    the news?)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    21

    News about the girl child, including, cultural attitudes and practices impinging on

    girls, education, health, economic exploitation, violence (71%)

    Women in political power and decision-making (local, regional, national) (69%)

    Women's participation in economic processes (informal work, paid employment,

    unemployment, unpaid labour) (69%)

    Women's movement, activism, events, demonstrations, gender equality

    advocacy (62%)

    Gender-based violence, feminicide, harassment, domestic violence, rape,

    trafficking, genital mutilation (54%)

    Child abuse, sexual violence against children, trafficking, neglect (54%)30

    On the other hand, womens presence is nearly nonexistent in news referred to:

    Environment, nature, pollution, global warming, ecology, tourism (4%)

    Other labour issues, strikes, trade unions, negotiations, other employment and

    unemployment (4%)

    Science, technology, research, funding, discoveries, developments (4%)

    Economic crisis, state bailouts of companies, company takeovers and mergers

    (3%)

    Economic policies, strategies, models (national, international) (2%)

    Transport, traffic, roads (1%)

    Rural economy, agriculture, farming practices, agricultural policy, land rights

    (1%)31

    c) Delivering the news

    The number of female

    presenters and reporters

    is an important data as

    well. In 2010, women

    have presented 52% of

    stories on television and

    45% of them on radio

    (average combined total:

    49%). As it is possible to

    see in the figure 9, the

    2010 average percentage is lower than the 2005 one (53%). The regional statistics for

    30

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    http://www.whomakesthenews.org/images/stories/website/gmmp_reports/2010/global/gmmp_global_repo

    rt_en.pdf page 29

    Figure : stories by female presenters and reporters (Source: 2010 Who makes the

    news?)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    22

    radio show that only in Europe and in Middle East the percentage of female reporters

    equalizes mens one (50%). Sex disparity exists in all other regions, particularly in the

    Caribbean and Latin America, where women reporter are respectively 16% and 29%.

    This situation is partially overturned in the television field, where female presenters in

    the Caribbean and in Asia exceed men presenters (respectively 60% and 52%). Data

    show a good world representation of women from all the ages brackets and record an

    important increase especially in the one of 50-64 years old (from 7% in 2005 to 51% in

    2010). Despite these data, the world percentage of stories reported by women in 2010

    (49%) is decreased in relation to the 2005 one (53%) and it is returned at the 2000

    level.

    According to the GMMP report Closer scrutiny of the regional breakdown of news stories

    by sex of reporter by medium shows a common pattern. Across all mediums in all

    regions, stories by women comprise less than 50% of the total number of those reported,

    with the exception of stories on television in the Caribbean. In most regions, women

    report between 20% and 40% of all news stories. The Caribbean leads with the highest

    proportion of stories by newspaper female reporters (48%) as well as by female

    reporters on television (51%). The Caribbean is interesting given that at the same time,

    the region lags behind in the proportion of stories by female reporters on radio, at 26%.

    The Pacific region leads as the region with the highest proportion of stories on radio

    reported by women, at 42%. The region however is not much ahead of Europe where

    40% of radio stories are reported by women, Africa

    (38%) and Latin America (38%)32. A more specific

    analysis focused on percentage of female reporters

    from 2000 to 2010 shows that:

    Africa, Asia and the Caribbean were the most

    virtuous region, with a constant improvement of

    women reporters from 2000 to 2010;

    Europe, Middle Est and North America were the

    most stagnant regions;

    Latin America had an impressive performance

    from 2000 to 2005, passing from 27% to 44%,

    but it recorded a loss of female reporters in

    2010 (41%);

    Pacific lost 5 points percentage from 2005 to

    2010 and register the worst performance.

    32

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    Figure : stories by female reporters, by region

    (Source: 2010 Who makes the news?)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    23

    Overall, there was no repeat of the narrowing of the sex gap registered between 2000

    and 2005; the world percentage of stories reported by

    women (in 2010) remains at 37%, a finding exactly

    similar to the one uncovered33 in 2005.

    Focusing on the topic of stories reported by women, it

    is possible to notice that the percentage of female

    reporting is increased for all of them34 excepting the

    Science and Health one.

    Finally, data show that stories reported by women

    contain more female news subjects than these reported

    by men. This trend has persisted over the past ten

    years:

    In 2000 women were the subjects of 24% of

    news reported by female, in contrast to only 18% of

    news reported by males;

    In 2005 this ratio was 25% for female reporters

    and 20% for male ones;

    In 2010 the ratio was 28% for female reporters and 22% for male ones.

    These data reflect a really slow rate of progress during these ten years towards a more

    gender-based journalism.

    d) Internet news

    Overview

    Internet news is a 2010 novelty in GMMP, and it has been introduced thanks to the

    increasing importance of this medium at worldwide level. Internet is more and more

    displacing traditional Medias in technological advanced nations, and it is become

    significant for the Global Media Monitoring Project too. The research takes in

    consideration different aspects that influence the access at the information and

    communication technologies (ICT): We begin by recognizing that great divides exist in

    access to the internet and to ICTs between the global north and the global south. This

    uneven diffusion and adaptation of ICT products and access to the internet characterized

    as the digital divide operates both between and within countries and is manifested

    along geographic, gender, racial and class lines. Whilst a lot has been written about ICTs

    33

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    Social and Legal, Economy, Celebrity, Arts and Media, Sports, Crime and Violence, Politics and Government,

    Girl-Child.

    Figure : stories by female reporters, by

    scope (Source: 2010 Who makes the

    news?)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    24

    deepening existing inequalities between industrialized and

    developing countries, the digital divide is also present in

    technologically advanced countries, where internet-use still

    does not figure prominently in the lives of many citizens. In

    many regions of the world, particularly in Africa, South-East

    Asia and Latin America, internet use is still not widespread;

    news media audiences rely on the traditional print and

    broadcast mediums for news. Further, there is debate

    surrounding the gender-gap in patterns of access to, and use

    of ICTs35.

    Despite the original expectations, for which Internet was

    supposed to be a delocalized and different medium, the

    online-journalism has revealed itself as a modern instrument

    of traditional journalism: even in the era of social networks

    and of user-generated contents, traditional media houses and

    news agencies dominate the provision of news and

    information. This suggests that internet content and

    consumption, despite its potential to transcend national

    contexts, remains surprisingly localized36.

    The GMMP has analyzed 16 countries (see figure 12) for this

    pilot research. Only national and local major websites were selected for the monitoring,

    and many of them were linked with major media houses of their countries.

    Results

    The final results are not very different from

    the ones of traditional media. Crime/violence,

    politics and economy were the most diffuse

    topics, and only 23% of news subjects were

    female, in contrast with the 77% of male

    news subjects (see figure 13). In addition, the

    GMMP reported that women are portrayed as

    victim in 16% of cases, when only the 3% of

    men are: female news subjects are more than

    3 times as likely as men to be portrayed as

    35

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    China 5

    Japan 5

    Malaysia 4

    Taiwan 5

    Jamaica 3

    Austria 3

    Denmark 6

    Estonia 5

    Germany 4

    Netherlands 1

    Norway 3

    Sweden 7

    Iceland 5

    Austria 8

    New Zeeland 6

    Canada 6

    International

    media

    8

    Figure : participating countries and

    number of news websites monitored

    (Source: 2010 Who makes the news?)

    Topics Female Male

    Celebrity, Arts,

    Media, Sports

    23%

    77%

    Politics/Govern

    ment

    17% 83%

    Science/Health 33% 67%

    Crime/Violence 22% 78%

    The Girl-child 70% 30%

    Social/Legal 32% 68%

    Economy 24% 76%

    Global

    Average

    23% 77%

    Figure : main topics in Internet news by sex of subjects

    (Source: 2010 Who makes the news?)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    25

    victims in Internet news.

    Reporters in online news

    Also in online reported news it is possible to find a confirmation of the traditional media

    gender inequality: only 36% of news is

    reported by women, in contrast with those

    reported by men (64%) (see figure 14).

    These data reconfirm the inequality existing in

    the world of media, with just few exceptions:

    42% of political stories on the internet

    are by women, compared to 33% of the same

    in traditional print and broadcast media;

    47% of online social/legal news is

    reported by women, compared to 43% of the

    same in traditional media.

    In all the other fields, women reporters are quite rare. According to the GMMP, these

    data points to two conclusions:

    First, the dominance of male reporters in traditional mainstream news media is

    replicated in online news and is even more prominent in economic, crime/violence

    and celebrity news;

    Second, female reporters on politics/government are more likely to get stories

    published on the Internet than in traditional news media, if the striking positive

    difference in contrast to television, radio and print news is a reliable indicator.

    This is good news for female reporters given the historical trends of gross reporter

    sex imbalance in political stories in traditional media a topic that is of prime

    importance on the news media agenda37.

    37

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    Topics Female Male

    Celebrity, Arts,

    Media, Sports

    25%

    75%

    Politics/Govern

    ment

    42% 58%

    Science/Health 45% 55%

    Crime/Violence 31% 69%

    The Girl-child 0% 0%

    Social/Legal 47% 53%

    Economy 36% 64%

    Global

    Average

    36% 64%

    Figure : internet news stories reported, by sex of reporter

    (Source: 2010 Who makes the news?)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    26

    4) Global report on the status of women in News Media

    http://iwmf.org/pdfs/IWMF-Global-Report.pdf

    4.1 Overview: About the IMWF

    Another important research focused on women in/and mass media is the Global report on

    the status of women in News Media.

    This project was managed in 2011 by

    the International Womens Media

    Foundation (IWMF). Founded in 1990,

    the IWMF is a global network

    dedicated to reinforce the role of

    women in worldwide media which believes that there can be no full freedom of the press

    until women have an equal voice in the news-gathering and news dissemination

    processes.38 The researches related to the Global report on the status of women took

    place over a two-year period, between 2008 and 2010, including planning, development

    of the research design, hiring and training of staff, development of the research

    instrument, collection of data, processing of data, and writing of the report39. The Global

    Report assesses five things:

    1. The extent to which women have entered the journalism workforce

    2. The occupational roles women fill within news companies

    3. The rate at which women are paid

    4. The terms by which women are employed

    5. The extent to which news companies have adopted pro-equality policies for their

    newsrooms.

    4.2 Research methodology

    59 nations representing all the world regions have participated at the IWMFs research.

    This survey has taken in consideration just national and traditional (television,

    newspapers, radio) media. The data has been collected using a questionnaire and finally

    522 companies were interviewed for the study. This analysis compares the major findings

    by occupational level, salary, terms of employment and gender-related company policies

    across 7 regions. Unfortunately, this is the first IWMFs research related to gender and

    mass media, so there are not past data to make a comparison.

    Unlike the Global Media Monitoring Project (see above), the Global report on the status of

    women in News Media is more focused on the effective position of women inside

    newsrooms and media organizations, and it investigate over occupational level, salary,

    and gender friendly internal politics.

    38

    http://iwmf.org/pdfs/IWMF-Global-Report.pdf page 7 39

    http://iwmf.org/pdfs/IWMF-Global-Report.pdf page 15

    Figure : International Women's Media Foundation logo

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    27

    4.3 General results

    Figure : kinds of news companies surveyed across 7 regions. (N) Number of companies participating in study (Source:

    Global report on the status of women in News Media)

    As it possible to see in the table above, the newspapers represent almost half of the

    samples of this research (48% of the total). Radio and television stations are present

    nearly in the same proportion (respectively 24% and 28%).

    The IWMFs Global Report is focused on different issues:

    1) what extent women have entered the journalism workforce;

    2) womens status in the companies where they work;

    3) the rate at which women are paid;

    4) the terms by which women are employed;

    5) the extent to which news companies have adopted pro-equality policies.

    The first 4 questions require a comparison of womens status and pay to mens across

    regions. The last requires comparison of percentages of policy adoption across regions40.

    a) Position held by women

    The IWMFs research shows that approximately 170,000 people work in the journalistic

    field: 59,472 are women and 109,763 are men. These data aggregated demonstrate that

    men represent almost two-thirds (64.9%) of total journalistic workforce across the

    regions, whereas women represent only one-third (35.1%) of it. As it is possible to see in

    figure 17, men are numerically predominant in each work position:

    In governance, men are nearly three-fourth workers totality: 74.1% (compared

    with 25.9% of women) in governmental positions. Individuals employed in

    governmental positions of news company hierarchies are responsible for company

    financial decisions and stand over company operations.

    40

    http://iwmf.org/pdfs/IWMF-Global-Report.pdf page 22

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    28

    In top-level

    management men hold

    72.7% of offices

    compared with only

    27.3% of women. Top

    management level

    includes chief executive

    officers, publishers and

    directors general.

    In senior

    management, men hold

    61.3% of positions

    (nearly two-thirds) and

    women 38.7% (almost

    one-third). Senior

    management includes directors of news, presidents of news, bureau chiefs,

    managing editors, and similar titles. The average percentage is the outcome of

    the combinations between regional results. In this case, the worst result is the

    Asia and Ocean one (13% of women), and the best is the South African one

    (79.5%).

    In middle management, men occupy 71.3% of offices, and women only 28.7%.

    This field includes senior editors, design directors, chiefs of correspondents and

    senior personnel in finance. The very large difference among regions e.g.

    Nordic and Eastern Europe where men and women are nearly equal in

    percentages in middle management, a stark contrast to Asia and Oceana where

    women are very low (13%) contributes to the non-significant result across

    regions41.

    The senior professional level is the one in which it is possible to find a certain

    grade of gender equality, given that men who hold this position are 59% and

    women are 41%. This level includes senior writers, producers and anchors.

    In junior level professional, male return to be strongly dominant being 63.9%

    compared with 36.1% of women. Junior professionals include producers, writers,

    sub-editors, production assistants and correspondents. This is another instance

    of important differences among the regions becoming buried beneath the

    statistical outcomes. In the junior professional level, these differences are

    denoted by the near-parity of men and women at this rank in several regions,

    e.g., Americas and Western Europe, as compared to other regions, where there

    41

    http://iwmf.org/pdfs/IWMF-Global-Report.pdf page 25

    Figure : Occupational status across 7 regions (Source: Global report on the status of

    women in News Media)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    29

    was great gender disparity. Such disparity was seen in the region of Asia and

    Oceana, for example, where the ratio of men to women at the junior professional

    level was found to be nearly 3:142.

    In production and design men fill about two-thirds of the positions (65.6%),

    whereas women only a third (34.4%). This category includes photographers,

    illustrators, graphics designers, wardrobe designers and others creative roles in

    news production.

    In technical professional men hold almost three fourth of the jobs (73.2%), with

    women only a third (26.8%). This job category includes sound, lighting and

    camera personnel jobs associated with the production of broadcast news.

    In sales, finance and administration men fill nearly 64.4% of the positions, with

    women only 35.6%. Many supporting roles that are not directly related to news

    reporting are included in this category, e.g. human resources, accounting, public

    relations and marketing.

    The other category contains a range of job roles in news reporting and

    production that do not fit well into other occupational definitions. These may

    include freelance writers and consultants. Men comprise the majority (67.1%) of

    those in this category, compared to 32.9% women. However, the differences

    along gender lines differ region by region. Without a clear pattern, there was no

    statistical significance found in this job category43.

    b) Under-representation, glass ceiling and relative parity

    Figure : Dominant occupational patterns by gender across 7 regions (Source: Global report on the status of women in

    News Media)

    The under-representation profile is the most frequent one across all the regions. Totally,

    its percentage is 44% and it is extremely frequent in Sub-Saharan Africa. All the regions,

    42

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  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    30

    excepting Western and Eastern Europe, contain nations in which the under-

    representation of women is the most frequent pattern in journalism employing.

    The term glass ceiling is used to refer to an invisible but nonetheless real barrier that

    women encounter in the workplace44, and in essence it consist in several obstacles that

    compromise qualified women to reach a high-level career, such as institutionalized

    prejudices. Such prejudices are often implicit in the workplace, and they often explicate

    themselves in processes of hiring and promotion. The global percentage for grass ceiling

    reported by IWMF research is 34%: the figure 17 shows how this phenomenon is present

    almost in all regions, with the only exception of Nordic Europa.

    Relative parity between man and women on the journalistic workplace represents the

    lowest frequency, only 22%. The research affirms that in some nations there was found

    to be a pattern of relative parity between men and women in terms of occupational

    status, particularly at the news reporting levels (e.g., junior and senior professional) and

    higher (e.g., middle and top management, governance). This pattern was noted in 13 of

    59 nations (22%). All regions except Western Europe contained one or more nations

    with a pattern of relative parity in the news companies surveyed45.

    c) Policies on gender equality

    Internal policies for gender equality have been adopted in all regions at company-wide.

    The results go from 16% in Eastern Europe to 69% in both Western Europe and Sub-

    Saharan Africa. The results depend to the internal circumstances within different regions:

    e.g. in Eastern Europe the low percentage of policies on gender equality is explicable

    through the communist traditions, for which women had access at education and were

    encouraged to work outside their home. The IWMFs research found out that companies

    of European countries bounded to European Union, and the Nordic ones, have a good

    number of policies focused on gender equality but there are still some problems of parity:

    The study found more than half (57%) of the 32 companies surveyed in Nordic Europe

    and more than two-thirds (69%) of 47 companies surveyed in Western Europe had

    established a gender equality policy at the time of the study. In neither case does the

    level of womens participation in the journalism workforce seem to correspond to the

    presence of an internal gender-equity policy: Women are near parity with men in the

    Nordic European region (where 57% of companies have such a policy). While women are

    also near parity with men in terms of overall numbers in Western Europe, they

    experience a glass ceiling that limits their participation above the senior professional

    level46.

    44

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    http://iwmf.org/pdfs/IWMF-Global-Report.pdf page 28 46

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  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    31

    In North African regions and in Middle East only nearly one-fourth (27%) of the 38

    companies evaluated have adopted internal laws referred to gender equality. It is

    important to highlight the absence of such laws at the national level. The low presence of

    women in newsrooms it is not surprising.

    In the Americas, only one-third (38%) of the 119 companies evaluated have adopted

    policies on gender equality. However, there is a significant difference between womens

    representation in newsrooms between North and South America: in the first one, national

    policies on equal opportunities have been in existence for more than two decades and

    this has been reflected on both women presence in newsroom and throughout the

    professional hierarchy; in the second one, most of the counties do not have national and

    internal policies on gender equality on the workplace, and this is reflected on the low

    female presence in newsrooms.

    The relation between the existence of national laws on equal opportunities, company

    internal rules and female representation in newsrooms it is not always respected. This is

    the case of Asia and Oceana where, in some countries, the presence of national

    legislation does not assure pair opportunities. In New Zeeland and Australia, however,

    the correspondence is respected.

    Finally, in Sub-Saharan African countries, more than two-thirds (69%) of the 117

    companies surveyed have policies on gender equality.

    d) Policies on sexual harassment

    More than half of newsrooms surveyed have policies on sexual harassment. The lowest

    level is registered in Eastern Europe (9%), while Sub-Saharan Africa, Oceana and Asia

    are the most virtuous region (67%).

    e) Policies related to maternity, paternity and child care

    IWMFs research has registered the presence of policies on maternity leave in each region

    took in consideration. However, policies related to paternity are not very diffused yet,

    except in Nordic Europe where 100% of companies have adopted this kind of policy.

    Regarding the parental leave and the child welfare, The most comprehensive laws ()

    appear to be in the Nordic European region, where parental leave is generous for women

    and men, and where state-sponsored child care (in some cases until a child enters

    school) is available to all working parents. Such laws and services are important to

    understand in this particular region where only 12% of the 32 companies surveyed have

    child-care provisions for employees. Nordic region researchers emphasized that the

    availability of such free community services made it unlikely that most companies would

    offer similar ones47. Also Asia and Oceana and Sub-Saharan Africa have similar low

    47

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  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    32

    percentages regarding company policies (respectively 17% and 19%), but the absence of

    national policies is registered as well.

    Rules that allow women to reclaim the same job after the maternity leave are provided in

    all the regions, but not in the same proportion: all companies surveyed in Nordic Europe,

    Middle East and North Africa have this kind of policy and almost all companies (96%) has

    such a policy in Western Europe. In contrast, only 24% of companies in Sub-Saharan

    Africa, 69% of those in Eastern Europe, 68% in Americas and 55% in Asia and Oceana

    give women the same job after the maternity leave.

    f) Salaries

    Despite the difficulties encountered to collect this kind of data, the IWMF dedicates a

    chapter of its survey to salary issue.

    According to the data, in Eastern Europe there is a good equality between genders

    related to salary, both at low and high work levels. Researchers for this region noted

    that while inequality in womens status manifests itself in other ways in these nations

    today, equal access to jobs and relatively similar salary structures by gender remain

    common48.

    Also in Nordic Europe men generally earn more money than women at each occupational

    level, with the only exception of the production and design and the junior professional

    levels. However, there was variation by nation, with women earning higher salaries than

    men in some cases, e.g., in Denmark in middle and senior management, and also pay

    equity in others, e.g., at a number of occupational levels in Finland49.

    In the Americas women are nearly at parity with men in the ranks of senior and junior

    professionals (respectively 44% and 46%) and also in the middle and junior

    management (46% and 40%). But salaries do not follow suits in most of the cases. The

    research put out that women earn more than men in high and low ranges of senior

    management, and in production and design (at both high and low ranges). On the other

    hand, men earn more than women in the high range of junior management level, and in

    the senior professional level too. The senior professional level shows a certain degree of

    gender balance (59% of men and 41% of women).

    Finally, in Asia and Oceana, women generally earn less than men, especially at higher

    company ranks (e.g. governance). Data show how it exist a considerable variation

    among different countries in this region:

    In Japan, the ration of men to women is 7:1, and women represent just 17% of

    the workforce in companies surveyed. Unfortunately, Japan has not provided

    sufficient salary data to make a more exhaustive consideration.

    48

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  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    33

    In India, women have historically pushed for a place in newsrooms. Unfortunately,

    the ratio of men to women is still 4:1 and women earn generally less than men,

    especially at governance and top and senior management. The research has

    surveyed that both sex have a similar salary in junior professional and middle

    management levels.

    In Bangladesh, the ratio of men to women in news workforce is 5:1. Men

    frequently receive higher salary than women, especially at management level, but

    they earn similar at both average high and average low ranges in most of the

    others occupational levels.

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    34

    Figure : composite percentages for gender related policies across seven regions

    (Source: Global report on the status of women in News Media)

    Part 2: European level

    1) Global Media Monitoring Project

    http://whomakesthenews.org/images/stories/restricted/regional/Europe.pdf

    The Global Media Monitoring Projects methodology classifies the news stories using

    seven major topic areas (politics and government, economy, science and health,

    social and legal, crime and violence, celebrity, arts, media and sports, the girl

    child). The attention is also focused on the three major traditional media: television,

    radio and print.

    1.1 News content

    The results highlights the tendency of television to be particularly focused on crime and

    violence stories (22%), while news on politics and government dominated radio and print

    news (26% and 39%, respectively). News related to crime and violence and to politics

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    35

    and government were also the most frequent during the research day (1230 and 1770,

    respectively).

    Women presence in European

    news is a little better than the

    global tendency: the

    European one is 26%, the

    World one is 24%. As it is

    possible to observe in the

    figure 20, males dominate

    each news field. Politics and

    government is the area in

    which women presence is less

    registered (21%), while

    science and health is the

    one in which women are more present (36%). In conclusion, women are grossly under-

    represented in all major news topics.

    1.2 News subject

    The survey shows that more than 70% of news subject in television, print and radio were

    men. The major disparity was registered in radio newscasts, in which 76% of news

    subjects were men and only 24% were women. In television, men subjects were 71%

    and women were 29%; in print the percentages, respectively, were 75% and 25%.

    Figure : sex of news subjects in print, radio and TV news (Source: Who makes the news? - Europe)

    25% 24%29%

    75% 76%71%

    Print Radio Television

    Sex of news subjects in print, radio and TV

    news

    Female Male

    Topics Female news

    subjects

    Male news

    subjects

    Celebrity, Arts, Media,

    Sports

    29%

    71%

    Politics/Government 21% 79%

    Science/Health 36% 64%

    Crime/Violence 28% 72%

    Social/Legal 31% 69%

    Economy 22% 78%

    Regional Average 26% 74%

    Figure : overall presence of women and men in European news as news subjects

    (Source: Who makes the news? Europe)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    36

    In regard to women function in news stories, the results are not very far from the global

    ones. The typical role of women is the person who gives popular opinions, which is

    assumed to reflect the one of ordinary citizens (54%). The other roles, in order of

    womens presence, are:

    Personal experience: the person provides opinion or comment, based on

    individual personal experience; the opinion is not necessarily meant to reflect the

    views of a wider group (39%)

    Eye witness: the person gives testimony or comment, based on direct observation

    (e.g. being present at an event) (32%)

    Subject: the story is about this person, or about something the person has done,

    said etc. (25%)

    Expert or commentator: the person provides additional information, opinion or

    comment, based on specialist knowledge or expertise (22%)

    Spokesperson: the person represents, or speaks on behalf of another person, a

    group or an organization (21%)50

    Womens employment reported in the news is an important element as well. The most

    frequent jobs associated with women were:

    Student, pupil, schoolchild (54%)

    Office or service worker, non-management worker in office, store, restaurant,

    catering (53%)

    Sex worker, prostitute (51%)

    Retired person, pensioner (50%)

    On the other hand, the less frequent occupations associated with women were:

    Religious figure, priest, monk, rabbi, mullah, nun (6%)

    Agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry worker (5%)

    Police, military, para-military group, militia, prison officer, security officer, fire

    officer (8%)

    Science or technology professional, engineer, technician, computer specialist

    (11%)

    Finally, the report shows how women are usually identified with their family status three

    times more than men. Family status is mentioned for 18% women compared to 8% of

    men in European news.

    50

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  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    37

    1.3 Delivering the news

    Reporters and presenters gender can be influent on the choice of news subjects. The

    survey affirms that 41% of European news was reported by woman: 31% in print, 50%

    in radio newscasts, and 44% in television. Only radio news were equally reported and

    presented by men and women.

    If we concentrate just on reporters, it is possible to see that this job is generally more

    assigned to males than to females. In fact, 35% on European news were reported by

    women, and 65% by men. Across all these mediums, women reporters were most

    present in television (42%), whereas in radio and especially in print their presence was

    less spread (40% and 31%, respectively).

    Figure : age of European reporters, by sex (Source: Who makes the news? - Europe)

    The age of presenters is an important element as well. As it is possible to see in the

    tables below, female presenters in the 35 to 49 years old age-group and in the 50 to 65

    one exceeded the male ones, whereas male reporters exceeded the number of female

    ones in every age range.

    Figure : age of European presenters, by sex (Source: Who makes the news? - Europe)

    38% 39% 38% 39%

    62% 61% 62% 61%

    19 - 34 35 - 49 50 - 64 65 +

    Age of European reporters

    Female Male

    43% 52%54% 45%

    57% 48%46% 55%

    19 - 34 35 - 49 50 - 64 65 +

    Age of European presenters

    Female Male

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    38

    Women reported 49% of news related with science and health, but they were extremely

    underrepresented in the government and politics field, with only 29% of serviced

    assigned to them.

    Finally, female news subjects and gender of the reporters are correlated as well. The

    research shows that the quantity of female news subjects is partially correlated to the

    journalists gender: female journalists tend to report news in which women are the main

    subject more than men journalists do (13% and 9%, respectively).

    2) Global report on the status of women in News Media

    http://iwmf.org/pdfs/IWMF-Global-Report.pdf

    The Global Report on the status of women in News Media divides Europe in three

    different parts: Western Europe, Nordic Europe and Eastern Europe. Not all the European

    States are took in consideration. For Nordic Europe there are Denmark, Finland, Norway,

    Sweden; for Western Europe France, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom (including

    England, N. Ireland, Scotland, Wales); and for Easter Europe Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary,

    Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine. The analysis makes an overview of these

    different parts of Europe and then goes into the details of each State. I will consider only

    the regional trends.

    2.1 Nordic Europe Overview

    Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland are lot alike not

    only because they are Nordic counties, but also because

    they are economically, socially and politically similar.

    Moreover, they all have high level of newspaper readership

    and a high level of literacy. These countries have a well-

    developed media system and a very good degree of press

    Topics Female % Female N

    Celebrity, Arts, Media,

    Sports

    40%

    197

    Politics/Government 26% 352

    Science/Health 49% 233

    Crime/Violence 33% 272

    Social/Legal 42% 200

    Economy 40% 273

    Figure : female reporters on major topics, in Europe (Source: Who makes the news? - Europe)

  • Women and mass media G. Pozzi

    39

    freedom, and women take advantage from this situation. Women enjoy strong measures

    of equality in other ways, with the notable exception of pay equity, where women in all of

    the Nordic nations still lag behind men. Gender legislation in the regions nations has

    sought to address this by requiring larger companies to monitor salaries for men and

    women on a regular basis to determine whether salary differences are directly or

    indirectly associated with gender. Current reports show a high degree of equality in pay

    between men and women, with only a small percentage of difference due to gender

    disparity. With specific respect to journalism, pay differences between men and women

    may be due to age differences and job longevity rather than discrimination. Most women

    in journalism fields in the region are relatively young51.

    32 news companies from Nord Europe took part at the survey: 22 newspapers, 6 TV

    stations and 4 radio station.

    a) Position held by women

    The research shows that women:

    Are nearly parity with men in two work position, Senior Professional level (43.3%)

    and Middle Management (42.6%)

    Surpass men in Sales, Finance & Administration (64.7%)