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  • June - 2012June - 2012

    Political Problems, and Future ProspectsPolitical Problems, and Future Prospects

    With a Few Policy Initiatives for Literacy Expansion in India

    VIF MONOGRAPHVIF MONOGRAPH

    Courtesy:PaulaBronstein

    VivekanandaInternationalFoundation3,SanMartinMarg,Chanakyapuri

    NewDelhi110021,Indiawww.vifindia.org

    Aqil Zahirpour

  • Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012

    Copyright2012VivekanandaInternationalFoundationIndia.

    All rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system ortransmittedformonlyfornoncommercialpurposes.ItspublicationelsewhererequirespriorpermissionfromtheauthorandtheVIFIndia.

    Views,andopinionsexpressedhereinarehowever,thoseoftheauthor,anddonotnecessarilyrepresenttheviewsofVIF.

    Vivekananda International Foundation India 2

  • Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012

    TableofContents

    ABOUTHTHEAUTHOR..................................................................................................5

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT....................................................................................................6

    LISTOFACRONYMS.......................................................................................................7

    PREFACE.......................................................................................................................10

    PURPOSE......................................................................................................................12

    CHAPTERI....................................................................................................................14

    EducationinAfghanistan:HistoricalPerspective..............................................................14

    FormalEducationinthe20thCentury.....................................................................15EducationPolicyof1930s........................................................................................15PolicyoftheFirstRepublic197078.........................................................................16PolicyoftheDemocraticRepublic197892..............................................................16TheIslamicState199296........................................................................................17TheTalibanEmirate19962001..............................................................................18

    Conclusion........................................................................................................................18

    CHAPTERII...................................................................................................................20

    Afghanistaninthe21stCentury:EducationBackground.................................................20

    CurrentStatus..................................................................................................................21

    Girls'Education........................................................................................................22PrivateandCrossBorderSchools.............................................................................22InclusiveEducation.................................................................................................22DistanceEducation..................................................................................................24

    LevelsofPublicEducation...............................................................................................24

    Basics, Intermediate, Secondary, and Technical...............................................................24CategoriesofEducation....................................................................................................24

    GeneralEducation(GE)...........................................................................................25Teachers'TrainingCentre/College(TTC).................................................................27IslamicEducation(IE)...........................................................................................29TechnicalandVocationalEducationTraining(TVET).............................................30Nonformal/CommunitybasedEducation(CBE).....................................................31

    Conclusion........................................................................................................................33

    Vivekananda International Foundation India 3

  • Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012

    CHAPTERIII..................................................................................................................34

    ProblemsandtheChallenges:Background.......................................................................34

    PoliticalLeadership,andInstability..........................................................................35Corruption................................................................................................................36InstitutionalWeakness..............................................................................................36VolatileSecurityCondition.......................................................................................37

    The Most Recent Threats..................................................................................................38LittleCoordinationbetweenAidAgenciesandtheMoE..........................................38

    Transit of Textbooks Pending in Pakistan........................................................................39IllequippedEducationalBuildings...........................................................................39RapidIncreaseinDemandforEducation.................................................................40DisorderandViolenceinSchools.............................................................................40

    Conclusion........................................................................................................................41

    CHAPTERIV..................................................................................................................42

    FutureProspects,andtheWayforward:Background.......................................................42

    Prospects...........................................................................................................................42

    TheWayForward..............................................................................................................43

    India'sPolicyInitiatives:Background&Assessment.........................................................45

    MidDayMealScheme:LunchatSchools.................................................................46FinancingEducationthroughVouchers....................................................................47LaadliScheme:ScholarshipsforBabyGirls..............................................................48

    How does the Money go to the Child?.............................................................................49GalliGalliSimSim:UsingMediaforEducation.......................................................49MeenaRadio:EducatingKidsthroughRadio...........................................................50SMC:InvolvingCommunityinSchoolManagement...............................................51PerformancelinkedPay(PLP):ForTeachers'QualityofPerformance......................52ActivityBasedLearning(ABL):JoyfulTeaching......................................................53RemedialEducation:ProvidingSupportClasses......................................................54Mobile&ImmersiveLearningforLiteracyinEmergingEconomies,(Millie)...........56

    Assessment........................................................................................................................56

    Conclusion........................................................................................................................58

    APPENDIXI...................................................................................................................59

    BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................82

    VIFINDIA......................................................................................................................86

    Vivekananda International Foundation India 4

  • Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012

    ABOUTHTHEAUTHOR

    Born,andraisedinAfghanistan,AqilZahirpourhasstudiedPoliticalScience (Universityof Delhi),BusinessAdministration(SikkimManipalUniversity),UnitedNationsandInternationalUnderstanding (New Delhi Institute of UN Studies), and Good Governance AfghanistanProgramme (University of Erfurt). He has previously worked with several NGOs and hasofferedspeeches in manypublic events. Hehas extensivelywrittenacademic papers, andunsolicitedarticlesonAfghanistan.Heiscurrently,aDAADScholarpursuingMPP1programmeattheWillyBrandtSchoolofPublicPolicyinGermany.Thismonographhasbeenwritten,andcompiledduringhisresearchinternshipinNewDelhi,India.

    1 Master of Public Policy

    Vivekananda International Foundation India 5

  • Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The Author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the Vivekananda InternationalFoundationIndia(VIFI),particularlyHon'bleAjitK.Doval,theVIFDirectorandBrigVinodAnand,SeniorFellowandResearchCoordinator,forhelpingandadvisinghiminpublicationof thiswork.TheauthorisalsothankfultotheCentreforCivilSociety,especially,Mr.ParthJ. Shah, the CCS President and Mr. Shantanu Gupta, the Senior Advocacy Coordinator, forprovidingthesourcesdealingwiththeeducationalpolicyinitiativesinIndia.

    EquallyindeedistheauthorthankfultotheWillyBrandtSchoolofPublicPolicy(WBSPP),andtheDeutscherAkademischerAustauschDienst(DAAD)forapprovinghisinternshipvisit toIndia, andat a nonsummerseasonwhich is otherwiseanunusual periodfor scholars toembarkontheirpracticaltraining.TheauthoralsoexpresseshisgratitudetoMs.NupurBehloftheUniversityofDelhiforherreviewandeditorialcontribution.

    However,noworkofthiskindcouldhavebeenaccomplishedwithoutthemoralsupport,andtheencouragementoftheauthor'sparents,andparticularlyofhisbrother,AdilZaaherpourwhohasnotonlybeenanArchitectbyprofession, butalso, anarchitect byshaping, anddesigningtheauthor'severyvisionandambitionforlife.

    Vivekananda International Foundation India 6

  • Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012

    LISTOFACRONYMS

    ABL ActivityBasedLearningACE AcademicCouncilonEducationAGEI AfghanistanGirls'EducationInitiativeAIE AlternativeandInnovativeEducationAKF AgaKhanFoundationAMDG AfghanMillenniumDevelopmentGoalsANDS AfghanNationalDevelopmentStrategyAP AndhraPradeshASER AssessmentSurveyEvaluationResearchCARE Child&AdolescentResources&EducationCBE CommunityBasedEducationCBS CommunityBasedSchoolCCS CentreforCivilSocietyCPI CorruptionPerceptionIndexCRS CatholicReliefServicesCSS CentrallySponsoredSchemeCTD CompilationandTranslationDepartmentDAAD DeutscherAkademischerAustauschDienstEBB EducationallyBackwardBlocEFA EducationForAllEGS EducationGuaranteeSchemeEL EducationLawELA EnhancementofLiteracyinAfghanistanEMDG EducationMillenniumDevelopmentGoalEMIS EducationManagementInformationSystemERTV EducationRadioandTelevisionFDI DepartmentforInternationalDevelopmentFTI FastTrackInitiativeGE GeneralEducationGER GrossEnrolmentRateGGSS GalliGalliSimSimICT InformationCommunicationTechnologyIE IslamicEducation

    Vivekananda International Foundation India 7

  • Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012

    IECWG InclusiveEducationCoordinationWorkingGroupIIEP InternationalInstituteofEducationalPlanningINGO InternationalNonGovernmentalOrganizationIP InterimPlanIRC InternationalRescueCommitteeLANDA LiteracyandNonformalEducationDevelopmentinAfghanistanLIFE LiteracyInitiativeforEmpowermentMAIL MinistryofAgriculture,IrrigationandLivestockMCI MinistryofCommerceandIndustriesMCN MinistryofCounterNarcoticsMillie MobileandImmersiveLearningforLiteracyinEmergingEconomiesMLSAMD MinistryofLabourandSocialAffairsandMartyrsandDisabledMoE MinistryofEducationMoF MinistryofFinanceMOHE MinistryofHigherEducationMoPH MinistryofPublicHealthMOWA MinistryofWomen'sAffairsMP MemberofParliamentMRRD MinistryofRuralRehabilitationandDevelopmentNCT NationalCapitalTerritoryNA NorthernAllianceNDSA NationalDisabilitySurveyinAfghanistanNEIP NationalEducationInterimPlanNER NetEnrolmentRateNESP NationalEducationStrategicPlanNGO NonGovernmentalOrganizationNPNSPE NationalProgrammeofNutritionalSupporttoPrimaryEducationNRVA NationalRiskVulnerabilityAssessmentNSP NationalSolidarityProgrammeNTEA NationalTeacherEducationAcademyOLPC OneLaptopPerChildPACEA PartnershipAdvancingCommunitybasedEducationinAfghanistanPED ProvincialEducationDepartmentPERE PublicExpenditureReviewofEducationPLP PerformanceLinkedPay

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  • Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012

    PRT ProvincialReconstructionTeamPSE PreSchoolEducationPTA ParentTeachersAssociationPTSD PostTraumaticStressDisorderSMC SchoolManagementCommitteeSS SecurityShurasSSA SarvaShikshaAbhiyanTI TransparencyInternationalITCPI TransparencyInternationalCorruptionPerceptionIndexTTC TeacherTrainingCentre/CollegeTVET Technical,andVocationalEducationTrainingUNESCO UnitedNationsEducational,ScientificandCulturalOrganisationUNICEF UnitedNationsInternationalChildren'sEmergencyFundUNO UnitedNationsOrganizationUP UtterPrades...

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