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Introduction to Nanoimprint LithographyMuhannad BakirFeb 8, 2006muhannad.bakir@mirc.gatech.eduVer 1.0.0*Every effort was made to make this as error free as possible.I regret any errors found.Outline Introduction Optical Lithography Principles of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) Obducat NIL System OverviewMoores LawHeading Toward 1 Billion Transistors Microprocessor -GigaScale Integration (GSI)100,000,000 100,000,00010,000,000 10,000,0001,000,000 1,000,00010,000 10,000100,000 100,0001,000 1,000 75 75 80 80 85 85 90 90 95 95 00 00 05 05 10 108086 808680286 80286i386 i386 Processor Processori486 i486 Processor ProcessorPentium Pentium Processor ProcessorPentium Pentium Pro Processor Pro ProcessorSource: Intel Source: IntelPentium Pentium II Processor II ProcessorPentium Pentium III Processor III ProcessorPentium Pentium 4 Processor 4 ProcessorKey Requirements of Lithography for Manufacturing ICs* Critical Dimension Control Size of features must be controlled within wafer and wafer-to-wafer Overlay For high yield, alignment must be precisely controlled Defect Control Other than designed pattern, no additional patterns must be imaged Low Cost Tool, resist, mask; fast step-and-repeat*ITRS 2005, LithographyMost Demanding Litho Steps in IC Manufacturing* The isolation/active layer The gate layer Transistor (gate, source, drain) to 1stlevel interconnect contact hole 1stinterconnection wiring level 30-40% of total semiconductor manufacturing cost is due to lithography Masks, resists, metrology*ITRS 2005, LithographyLithography Techniques UV Litho Extreme UV Litho Electron beam Litho X-ray Litho Nanoimprint Litho Microcontact Litho AFM Litho Dip-pen lithoOutline Introduction The need for miniaturization Optical Lithography Principles of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) Obducat NIL System OverviewContact/Proximity Printing2Wg < Tg, low adhesion between polymer and substrate/stampOnly volume that contributesto cavity filling202 201 12ffstp h h = FpsL=3ft sL ,*C. Torres, Editor, Alternative LithographyImprint Time Vs {Width, Temp, h0}*C. Torres, Editor, Alternative LithographyFilling Process*C. Torres, Editor, Alternative LithographyTemplate Bending*C. Torres, Editor, Alternative LithographyTemplate Bending in Presence of a Particle (Contamination) VERY important to perform imprint in clean environmentrParticleResistWaferTemplateRegion (area) of no imprint due to template not makingcontact with resist as a result of the presence of the particleTemplate Quality & Demolding*C. Torres, Editor, Alternative LithographyOutline Introduction Optical Lithography Principles of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) Obducat NIL System OverviewMiRCs Nanoimprint System Obducat (Sweden based) 6 max wafer size Max temp: 300C Max pressure: 70 bar UV module: 365 nm Alignment: ~1um(