- What is intelligence? Think of the smartest person you know. Think of the smartest person you know. –Why did you pick that person? Think of some other.
What is intelligence? Think of the smartest person you know. Think of the smartest person you know. –Why did you pick that person? Think of some other.
<ul><li><p>What is intelligence?Think of the smartest person you know.Why did you pick that person?</p><p>Think of some other intelligent people.What makes them different?</p><p>Intelligence is hard to nail down.</p></li><li><p>Official DefinitionIntelligence The ability to learn from ones experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems.</p></li><li><p>Theories of IntelligenceSpearman, 1904:Two primary intellectual abilitiesGeneral intelligence (g factor)Overall Reasoning & Problem solvingSpecific intelligence (s factor)Excellence in task-specific abilitiese.g. music or math</p></li><li><p>More Theories of IntelligenceSternbergs triarchic theory.Identifies 3 distinct kinds of intelligenceAnalytical, Creative, and PracticalGardners theory of multiple intelligences.Identifies 9 different types of intelligence</p></li><li><p>Gardners Multiple IntelligencesSpatial (i.e. Solving puzzles)Linguistic (i.e. Reading and writing)Logical (i.e. Mathematics)Kinesthetic (i.e. Timing and hand-eye coordination.Musical (i.e. Sensitivity to sounds)Interpersonal - Interaction with othersIntrapersonal (i.e. Self-reflection)Naturalistic - Awareness of natural surroundingsExistential - Spiritual or religious intelligence</p></li><li><p>Measuring IntelligenceStanford-Binet: Intelligence QuotientIntelligence can be identified by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.IQ = (MA/CA)*100Example: a 10 year old thinks like a 15 year old. His IQ is (15/10)*100, or 150.Allows us to make comparisons based on age.Intended to measure learning ability, not what is already known.</p></li><li><p>Its Not PerfectProblems with IQ:Originally designed for children</p></li><li><p>Wechslers ResponseWechsler developed new tests.He targeted three specific age groups.Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)</p></li><li><p>Bigger ProblemsIQ tests have a cultural bias.Tests often draw on past experience.Language differences.Picture-only IQ tests.</p></li><li><p>Individual DifferencesMental Retardation:IQ is 70, or lower and low score on adaptive functioning scale.Giftedness:IQ is 130 and above</p></li><li><p>Mental RetardationDevelopmentally delayed - condition in which a persons behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age. A more acceptable term for mental retardation.A 20 year old acts like a 10 year old.(10/20)*100. Their IQ is 50.</p></li><li><p>Mental RetardationLevels of developmental delayMild: 55-70 IQModerate: 40-55 IQSevere: 25-40 IQProfound: Below 25 IQ</p></li><li><p>Mental RetardationWhat does it mean to have a low IQ?</p></li><li><p>Mental RetardationCauses:Deprived EnvironmentInadequate healthcare; Under-stimulation.Chromosome & Genetic DisordersDown Syndrome & Trisomy 21: each cell in the body has three copies of chromosome 21, instead of two. Trisomy 21 is not inherited.Dietary DeficienciesFetal Alcohol Syndrome; Malnutrition</p></li><li><p>GiftednessGifted - the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above.</p></li><li><p>Heredity, Environment, & IntelligenceStronger correlations are found between IQ scores as genetic relatedness increases.Heritability of IQ is estimated to be .50.However, genes always interact with environmental factors to determine IQ. In some extreme cases, the environment can modify even very heritable traits.i.e. Feral Children</p></li><li><p>Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence Awareness and ability to manage ones own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel, and socially skilled.Can you think of anyone that has plenty of book smarts, but no common sense?</p></li><li><p>Emotional IntelligenceSo, are gifted people weird?What about Mad Scientists?Lewis M. Terman (1921):1,528 gifted children in a longitudinal study.He found that gifted children were socially well adjusted and often skilled leaders.He found that the gifted were not more susceptible to mental illness, but more resilient.Typically, they grew into successful adults.</p></li><li><p>Emotional IntelligenceCriticismsTermans study has been criticized for a lack of objectivity because he became too involved in the lives of his participants, even to the point of interfering on their behalf.</p></li></ul>