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Slide 2 Welcome! 1. Please sign in 2. Log in to http://rwrc.wikispaces.com/Commas http://rwrc.wikispaces.com/Commas Slide 3 Commas Comma Chameleon 2 Slide 4 Reasons for commas 1. Meaning 2. Coordinating Conjunctions 3. Introductions 4. Interruptions / Additions 5. Lists 6. Breaking up 7. Numbers 8. Quotations 9. Direct address 3 Slide 5 4 Slide 6 Commas are so important because they change meaning. 1. The old lady collected all sorts of things: silver, paper, hats, clocks and tablecloths. 2. The old lady collected all sorts of things: silver paper, hats, clocks and tablecloths. 3. The old lady collected all sorts of things: silver, paper hats, clocks and tablecloths. 5 Slide 7 6 Slide 8 Commas are so important because they change meaning. 1. Eats, Shoots, and Leaves 2. Eats Shoots and Leaves 3. Eats Shoots, and Leaves 7 Slide 9 Commas While there are many different uses for the comma, almost 85% of commas used in written English are used in only three situations. Learn these three basic rules and you will know how to use commas over 4/5 of the time! 8 Slide 10 http://www.schooltube.com/video/6b265f34 78554fef993c/Conjunction-Junction 9 Slide 11 Coordinating Conjunctions For And Nor But Or Yet So 10 Slide 12 Put a comma before a coordinating conjunction that separates two independent clauses. The child agreed, but the parent objected. Time flies when were having fun, and were always having fun. 11 Slide 13 Put a comma after introductory words, phrases, or clauses. Yes, I do need that report. To apply for this job, you must have previous experience. This is my money, not yours. 12 Slide 14 13 Slide 15 Use commas to set off elements that interrupt or add information in a sentence. Freddy, who has a limp, was in a car accident. I am, as you have probably noticed, very nervous about this. Therefore, I would appreciate a response. 14 Slide 16 Other Important Uses When there is a list of words in a sentence: We will need hammers, nails, and a saw. The street was filled with angry protesters, shouting spectators, and police. Mr. Cherry was a warm, hospitable man. 15 Slide 17 Commas are also used to break up longer sentences into smaller parts to make more sense. When he saw the pirate ship on the horizon, the captain sounded the alarm. She called as loudly as she could, but no- one could hear her. 16 Slide 18 To break up groups of numbers into thousands. 1,999,999 Does anyone recognize the number below? Our national debt! 17 Slide 19 Inside quotation marks. We are leaving tomorrow, said Manual 18 Slide 20 Use commas before or surrounding the name or title of a person directly addressed. - Alisha, will you help with the party? - Yes, Doctor, I will. 19 Slide 21 When writing a date. They met on February 14, 2010. (However, if any part of the date is omitted, do not use a comma.) They met in February 2010 They met on February 14. Do not use commas in inverted dates: They met on 14 February 2010. 20 Slide 22 Lets practice commas 21 Slide 23 Slide 24 http://www.germanna.edu/tutor/handouts /english/Comma_Rules.pdf http://www.germanna.edu/tutor/handouts /english/Comma_Rules.pdf 23 Slide 25 Jeopardy Comma Game http://www.superteachertools.com/jeopa rdy/usergames/Feb201106/game129712 0685.php http://www.superteachertools.com/jeopa rdy/usergames/Feb201106/game129712 0685.php 24 Slide 26 http://www.speakwrite.net/reaso ns_for_commas.htm Reasons for Commas Reason 1: Items in a series The flag is red, white, and blue. We watched the heavy, pounding rain during the storm. Reason 2: Between independent clauses with a conjunction Conjunctions: and but for nor or so yet The mayor gave a speech, and reporters asked questions. The telephone rang several times, but no one answered it. Reason 3: After introductory expressions Jerry, please close the door. After the first snowflakes, we all got excited. Because the road were slick, Mary drove carefully. Reason 4: Before and after interrupting expressions Mow the lawn, Dennis, before it rains. Cecelia put the plant, a cactus, on the table. This is Greg Nelson, my cousin from Atlanta. Reason 5: With dates, addresses, & the closing of a letter Laura was born on May 29, 1980, in Canton, Ohio. Very sincerely yours, Reason 6: With quotations Maria said, "This is my jacket." 25 Slide 27 Comma Practice Insert commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.The child agreed but the parent objected. 2.The child agreed. However the parent objected. 3.The city must increase its tax base hence the citizens must be able to accept the additional tax burden. 4.The student moreover has not yet turned in an acceptable project. 5.The birth of Norma Kelly on June 2 1974 brought the 6.The birth of Norma Kelly in June 1974 brought the 7.The sunlight helped the flowers to grow but they require frequent watering. 8.Ronald Reagan was originally an actor he turned to politics in the 1960s. 9.We were not upset when the exam was postponed we were relieved. 26 Slide 28 Practice Commas Quiz 1. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement. A) I took Angie, the one with the freckles to the movie last night. B) I took Angie, the one with the freckles, to the movie last night. C) I took Angie the one with the freckles, to the movie last night. D) I took Angie, the one with the freckles, to the movie, last night. 2. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement. http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar _quiz/quiz_results.asp 27 Slide 29 Practice A) Jeremy, and I, have had our share of arguments. B) Jeremy and I, have had our share of arguments. C) Jeremy and I have had our share of arguments. D) Jeremy and I have had, our share of arguments. 3. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement. A) You are I am sure, telling the truth. B) You are, I am sure, telling the truth. http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar _quiz/quiz_results.asp 28 Slide 30 Practice C) You are I am sure telling, the truth. D) You are, I am sure telling the truth. 4. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement. http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar _quiz/quiz_results.asp 29 Slide 31 Practice A) She left Albany, New York, on January 18 of that year. B) She left Albany, New York on January 18, of that year. C) She left Albany New York, on January 18 of that year. D) She left, Albany New York, on January 18 of that year. http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar _quiz/quiz_results.asp 30 Slide 32 Practice 5. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement. A) I need, sugar, butter, and eggs from the grocery store. B) I need sugar, butter, and eggs, from the grocery store. C) I need sugar, butter and eggs, from the grocery store. D) I need sugar, butter, and eggs from the grocery store. Material created by Jane Straus and GrammarBook.com. Copyright by Jane Straus/GrammarBook.com. All materials contained in this membership subscription area may be reproduced and distributed. However, you may not alter the material or remove this notice of copyright. http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar _quiz/quiz_results.asp 31