Water is life Virtually everything we do or use each day involves water. Yet, we do not give it the importance that is due to it. India will soon be a.

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<ul><li><p>Water is life </p><p>Virtually everything we do or use each day involves water. Yet, we do not give it the importance that is due to it. India will soon be a water-stressed country and we all need to work towards our water security. Simple actions can be adopted to reduce the wastage of water and use it wisely. 1</p></li><li><p>Water audit for a school2</p></li><li><p>INTRODUCTIONWhat is a Water Audit? How does it help?Importance of Water Audit MythsAudit types</p><p>AUDIT PROCESSConducting Audits First StepsMeasurements, Water ConsumptionWater consumption Pattern</p><p>MOVING AHEADIdentifying and Fixing the ProblemWater ConservationAwareness</p><p>CONTENTS3</p></li><li><p>Definition: Water Audit is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of water consumption to identify means of Reducing, Reusing and Recycling of water. </p><p>INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD4</p></li><li><p>HOW DOES IT HELP?A water audit can help save money by reducing school water bills</p><p>Water conservation helps our cities Cities are stressed for water resources. </p><p>A water audit will help reduce wastage and unnecessary use.</p><p>It makes the students more aware and responsible.</p><p>A water audit can be a student project that encompasses a number of subjectsINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD5</p></li><li><p>It is possible to cut your water usage by 10-30% by implementing simple conservation measuresDID YOU KNOW?INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD6</p></li><li><p>IMPORTANCE OF WATER AUDIT </p><p>Systematic process </p><p>May yield some surprising results</p><p>Easier to work on solutions when the problems are identified</p><p>A tracking mechanism can be put into place</p><p>INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD7</p></li><li><p>MYTHSDoesnt compromise on quality of water</p><p>Doesnt make water a priority over studies</p><p>Doesn't require the student to stay beyond school hours</p><p>INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD8</p></li><li><p>AUDIT PROCESS9</p></li><li><p>AUDIT PROCESSPlanning and process finalizationMeasurements CalculationsAudit observationsReportDiscussionsZeroing in on conservation steps that can be takenImplementationINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD10</p></li><li><p>Decide the time period of your water audit</p><p>1 day/yr, 1 wk/yr, 1 month/yr, 1 day/Season </p><p>INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD11</p></li><li><p>FIRST STEPS MEASUREMENTSINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD12</p></li><li><p>What are the sources of water for the school ?</p><p>Municipal supplyBore wellDug wellTankers OthersINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEADMEASUREMENTS- SUPPLY13</p></li><li><p>Bore well and Dug well supplies</p><p>1. Measure flow rate ( time taken to fill a 10 litre bucket at the outlet of the pump.) </p><p>3. Use these two to calculate the quantity of water withdrawn2. Keep a track of number of hours the pump is on in a day (record every day of the week for two weeks). FIRST STEPS- MEASUREMENTSINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEADEstimate the quantity of water supplied from each source15</p></li><li><p>Estimate the quantity of water supplied from each source MEASUREMENTS- SUPPLYMunicipal SupplyTabulate monthly municipal water supply (from bills) for the past three years in the supply tracking sheetFor tankers.Using bills, tabulate the amount of water received on a monthly basis using the supply tracking sheet INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD14Tabulate consumption patterns and depict using graphical tools</p></li><li><p>Map the water points and usage areas Draw a plan of the school premises showing the building and main features. Mark the water supply inlets and storage tanksINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEADFIRST STEPS- MEASUREMENTS16Municipal supplyBore wellDug wellTankers</p></li><li><p>Mark all water points (toilets, hand wash points, Sinks in labs, drinking water fountains, canteen, irrigation taps, water meters, pumps etc.</p><p>Identify each point with an alphanumeric code</p><p>Colour code freshwater and waste water lines </p><p> Mark where the waste water goes.</p><p> Mark the storm water drain system in the premises, if any.</p><p>INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD17FIRST STEPS- MEASUREMENTS</p></li><li><p>L1 L2 L3 L4 L5GT1 GT2 GT3 GT4BT1 BT2 BT3 BT4L- INLETL- OUTLETGT- INLETGT- OUTLETBT- INLETBT- OUTLETCT1 CT2 CT3C- INLETC- OUTLETWASHBOYS TOILETGARDENWATER TANKPUMP HOUSEWATER INLETDRAIN PIPEMUNCIPALITY SEWERDRINKING TAPGIRLS TOILETWASHLABKITCHENWATER TANKDRAIN PIPEMunicipal supplyBore wellDug wellTankersDN1INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD18UNDERGROUND SUMP</p></li><li><p>DRAW A WATER FLOW CHARTSupplyWashingW1 W2 WnGardeningG1 G2 GnDrinkingD1 D2 DnUnderground SumpToiletsT1 T2 TnSewageOverhead Tank19INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEADFIRST STEPS- MEASUREMENTS19</p></li><li><p>Calculations :water consumption Can you meter water consumption at various inlet points?</p><p> Meters are expensive.</p><p> Can you purchase one meter and use it in rotation to monitor water use at different locations?</p><p> If you cannot afford a meter, use surveys, observations and calculationsINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD20</p></li><li><p>Estimating Water use without a meter Calculate the flow of water using a measuring jar and a stop watch.</p><p> Monitor / survey the time for which the tap is open in a day.</p><p> Fill this data in the consumption tracking sheet. Calculations, water consumption </p><p>INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEADCalculate the quantity of water that flows out through each tap. 21</p></li><li><p> To calculate flow of toilets, turn off the water supply to the toilet, mark the water line on the inside of the tank, flush and then fill the tank with water from mug. </p><p> Measure the volume of one mug and record number of mugs required to fill water back up to the water line mark.</p><p> Monitor / survey the number of times each toilet is used.</p><p>Fill this data in the consumption tracking sheet. INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEADCalculations, water Consumption22</p></li><li><p>Estimating Water use without a meter Follow similar procedures to estimate water use at each water outlet. </p><p> The consumption tracking sheet will help you calculate the total quantity of water used in a day. </p><p>Calculations, water consumptionINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD23</p></li><li><p>AUDIT OBSERVATIONS24</p></li><li><p>Speak to the person in charge of the water valves and pumps.</p><p> Is water usage planned or is pump switched on when water levels in the tank are low?</p><p> What monitoring mechanisms are in place to check tank overflow?</p><p> How often does the tank overflow?</p><p> How much water is wasted each time the tank overflows?SUPPLY INPUTINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD25</p></li><li><p>FIXTURES AND FITTINGS</p><p> At each water outlet point make a note of:</p><p> Type of fixture (dual flush toilet, capacity of flush tank, type of tap spring-loaded / screw type / lever, etc.)</p><p> Notice condition of fixtures dirty, stuck, leaking, broken etc.INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD26</p></li><li><p>ANALYSIS AND REPORT27</p></li><li><p>WATER CONSUMPTION PATTERNWhen tabulating the consumption patterns, you may come across varied results from the normal.INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD28</p></li><li><p>Consumption of water in winter may be less</p><p>Consumption of water in summer just before the holidays may be high</p><p>Rainy season you might not consume water for gardening purpose</p><p>Exams, Weekends and Holidays water consumption is likely to be less 28INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEADAllow for variations due to the above reasons when you are analysing the tabulated results29</p></li><li><p>SupplyOverhead TankWashingToiletsGardeningDrinkingXY = ?X0.4Y0.25Y0.3Y0.05YSewageUnderground SumpLeaksLeaksQuantify water use in a Flowchart INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD30</p></li><li><p>IS THERE A PROBLEM?Ideal scenario : no losses </p><p>There is a problem : losses &gt; 30%</p><p>Average scenario : 15 30% losses31INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD</p></li><li><p>DISCUSSIONS AND TAKING THE RIGHT STEPS MOVING AHEAD32</p></li><li><p>FIRST, FIX THE PROBLEMS</p><p>Identify the points where there are losses</p><p>Identify the solutions</p><p> Assign the responsibility for implementation.</p><p> Implement the solutions</p><p> Prepare a Monitoring schedule</p><p> Assign a person for monitoring.</p><p>Leaks and overflowINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD33</p></li><li><p>4. List down your Suggestions for each area where water is used1. Represent water usage graphicallyWAYS TO CONSERVE WATER2. Identify areas where water can be conserved3. Conduct Group discussions and brainstorming sessionsINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD34</p></li><li><p>WAYS TO CONSERVE WATERKeep a check on hoses in the garden</p><p>Try out efficient devices like the spray nozzles </p><p>Drip Irrigation</p><p>Plant native plants that require less water</p><p>Change the ground surfaces and vegetation to control run off in the school grounds</p><p>Water the roots of the plant and don't splash water all around</p><p>GardenINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD35</p></li><li><p>Toilets and washing points</p><p> Reduce the flush water volume in toilets. </p><p> Replace single flush cisterns with dual flush </p><p> Install low flow fixtures for taps. </p><p>WAYS TO CONSERVE WATERInstall a rainwater harvesting system and use the water for toilets, cleaning floors and gardening. INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD36</p></li><li><p>Suggest solutions for these spaces.Can the water from the wash area be diverted to the garden area for watering the plants ?TOILETWASHLABINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD37</p></li><li><p>1. Create interesting awareness programmes.</p><p>2. Praise the water audit and water conservation teams during assembly.</p><p>3. Request students not to play with water taps.AWARENESSINTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD38</p></li><li><p>DARWIN ADVISES Everything evolves, including water conservation programs.</p><p> Learn from other schools what works and what doesnt.</p><p> Analyze your situation for the pieces that fit.</p><p> Document.document. to disseminate it to others.</p><p>39INTRODUCTIONAUDIT PROCESSMOVING AHEAD</p><p>To calculate flow for taps turn taps to the normal flow rate that you use, hold a container under the tap for 10 seconds measure the quantity of water in the container. Quantity of water in 10 sec = x</p></li></ul>