Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore

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  • 8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore

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    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

    Management

    Bhavin Shah

    IIM Indore

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    Some facts on MSW in Mumbai

    Area of Municipal Corporation: 437 sq.km

    MSW generation: 500 gms in societies | 300 gms in slums

    Total MSW generation: 8000 MT/day

    Biodegradable: 62.44% | Recyclables: 16.66%

    Number of landfills: 3

    Door-to-Door Household coverage : 20%

    Collection Efficiency: 86.2%

    Open Burning of MSW: 16%

    Sources: Faisal Zia Siddiqui, Evaluation of Emmission Load & Energy Potential of MSW in Selected Cities of India, May 2009; MCGM, MSW Proforma, 2009

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    The current state of MSW in Mumbai

    Sweeping

    Area: 1800 km

    No of Sweepers:

    Departmental 12,000

    Contracted 2100

    Collection, Storage & Transportation

    Collection: Through own vehicles &

    contracted vehicles

    Segregation:

    At source at 600 Area Locality

    Managements

    Collected in Segregated & Mixed forms

    Frequency: once/twice/thrice per day

    No of collection points: 6200

    Transportation: 600+

    Processing

    Processing: 100 MT/day (Vermiculture)

    Compost produced: 20 MT/day

    Recycling: This work is given to one NGOGeetanjali industries in K- East and K-West

    ward

    Selling of Compost

    Mostly done by NGOs

    Energy

    Two plants of Bio-methanation, in joint

    venture, with BARC are set up at

    Govendi Centenary Hospital and at

    Deonar abattoir.

    Current State of Privatization

    Sweeping: partially given to NGOs in some areas

    Transportation: 50% private and 50% BMCDoor-to-door collection: 50 % done by private

    agencies

    Processing of MSW: Done by NGOs at Dadar,

    Colaba, Versova and Deonar

    Community collection: BMC and Private

    Sanitary landfilling: Privatised partially

    { Cost of SWM services in Rupees per capita per year : Rs. 391.55 (approx) }

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    A public private partnership between the

    municipality and a private agency

    Community based systems with infrastructure

    support from the municipality

    Waste collection, segregation and

    transportation done by the

    municipality/authorized body and processing

    done by a waste to energy plant

    Proposed Alternatives

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    The labour will remain on the payroll of themunicipality while the complete end-to-end processwill be handled by the private agency

    Pros: Collection efficiency is improved

    Cost recovery is higher since the private agency will ensurethat the waste is disposed efficiently

    Better implementation of waste segregation by way ofawareness programs

    Cons: Difficulty in coordinating with labour

    Difficulty in changing the nature of dumping grounds andother infrastructure

    Alternative 1: A public private partnership between the municipality and aprivate agency

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    Encourage community based systems with the help ofNGOs with infrastructure support provided by themunicipality

    Pros: Implementation would be easy since the scale for each

    community would be small Easy to replicate model across different communities

    Segregation would be easy to enforce since it is on a smallerscale

    Cons:

    Strong local leaders required to implement the systemsuccessfully throughout all communities

    Needs to be customized for each area since the demographicsvary for each area

    Accounting issues might arise in cost recovery

    Alternative 2: Community based systems with infrastructure support from themunicipality

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    The cost can be recovered to a large extent if the waste ishanded over to a private waste to energy conversion plant

    Waste can be processed completely by the energy plantresulting in higher efficiency

    Pros:

    Financially attractive alternative as a major chunk of the costcan be recovered by the private plant

    Dumping grounds can be handled by the energy plant onsubsidies from the government

    Municipality handles the collection and transportation

    Energy can be used effectively by small communities around thedumping yard

    Cons: Co-ordination between the 2 parties may create problems

    Initial setup costs will be high

    Alternative 3: Waste collection, segregation and transportation done by themunicipality/authorized body and processing done by a waste to energy plant

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    Alternative 3 seems to be a good option at

    this point of time

    It will help solve twin problems of waste

    disposal and energy generation

    Financially attractive solution in the long term

    Recommendation

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    The cycle begins with the collection ofresidential and commercial waste.

    The waste is then transported toWaste Management landfills forpermanent disposal. This is when theprivate agency takes over.

    1

    Much of this waste, including food,paper and cardboard, is organic in

    nature. Anaerobic bacteria digest

    this organic waste and produce

    methane gas and carbon dioxide as

    natural by products.

    2

    The methane gas is recovered via

    a series of wells drilled into the

    landfill. These wells are connected

    by a common pipe system that

    collects the gas and transports it

    to a nearby compression facility.

    3

    At the compression facility, the landfill

    gas is de-watered, filtered and

    pressurized.

    4

    The gas is piped to an electricity

    generating plant where it is used as fuel

    to turn engines or turbines to generate

    electricity. Landfill gas may also be

    piped offsite to industrial customers foruse as an alternative fuel source.

    5

    To complete the cycle, the electricity is

    delivered via utility transmission lines

    to residential and commercial

    customers.

    6

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