VISIONIAS - Amazon S3 Karol Bagh nd1/8-B, 2 Floor, Apsara Arcade, Near Gate 6, Karol Bagh Metro, Delhi-110005

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of VISIONIAS - Amazon S3 Karol Bagh nd1/8-B, 2 Floor, Apsara Arcade, Near Gate 6, Karol Bagh Metro,...

  • VISIONIAS www.visionias.in

    Classroom Study Material

    ENVIRONMENT October 2016 – June 2017

    Note: July, August and September material will be updated in September last week.

    Copyright © by Vision IAS

    All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Vision IAS.

    http://www.visionias.in/

  • Karol Bagh 1/8-B, 2nd Floor, Apsara Arcade, Near Gate 6, Karol Bagh Metro, Delhi-110005 Mukherjee Nagar: 103, 1st Floor, B/1-2, Ansal Building, Behind UCO Bank, Delhi-110009

    8468022022 1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS

    Student Notes:

    TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ................................................................................................... 3

    1.1. Air Pollution ......................................................................................................................... 3 1.1.1. Air Pollution in India: Status ......................................................................................... 3 1.1.2. Delhi Smog ................................................................................................................... 4 1.1.3. Stubble Burning ............................................................................................................ 5 1.1.4. Indoor Air Pollution ...................................................................................................... 6 1.1.5. Fly Ash Utilization Policy .............................................................................................. 7 1.1.6. Bharat Emissions Standards ......................................................................................... 9 1.1.7. Noise Polllution .......................................................................................................... 10

    1.2. Water Pollution ................................................................................................................. 12 1.2.1. Water Problem in India .............................................................................................. 12 1.2.2. Cleaning Ganga .......................................................................................................... 16 1.2.3. Committees Related to Ganga ................................................................................... 20

    1.3. E-Waste ............................................................................................................................. 21 1.4. Solid Waste Management ................................................................................................. 23

    1.4.1. Plastic Pollution .......................................................................................................... 23 1.4.2. Solid Waste Management .......................................................................................... 26 1.4.3. City Compost Policy .................................................................................................... 29

    1.5. Miscellaneous: Pollution ................................................................................................... 30 1.5.1. Easing of Rules for Clearance of Non-Polluting Industrial Projects ............................ 30 1.5.2. Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) .............................................. 30 1.5.3. Polluter-Pay Principle ................................................................................................. 31

    2. CONSERVATION MEASURES ..................................................................................................... 33 2.1. Forest Conservation .......................................................................................................... 33

    2.1.1. Role of Community Forests in Controlling Carbon Emissions .................................... 33 2.1.2. Western Ghats Conservation ..................................................................................... 34

    2.2. Wetland Management in India ......................................................................................... 36 2.3. Wildlife/Biodiversity Conservation ................................................................................... 38

    2.3.1. Man-Animal Conflict .................................................................................................. 38 2.3.2. Vermin Issue: Menace to Farmer Boon to Forest ...................................................... 39 2.3.3. Eco-Sensitive Zone ..................................................................................................... 39 2.3.4. Preservation of Coastal Areas .................................................................................... 40 2.3.5. Use of Technology in Biodiversity Conservation ........................................................ 41

    3. CLIMATE CHANGE ..................................................................................................................... 43 3.1. News on Agreements and Conventions ............................................................................ 43

    3.1.1. Kigali Agreement ........................................................................................................ 43 3.1.2. Paris Agreement: Recent Developments ................................................................... 44 3.1.3. India: Agreements on Climate Change ....................................................................... 47

    3.2. Climate Change & Environment ........................................................................................ 50 3.2.1. Slow Progress in Achieving Green Growth ................................................................. 50 3.2.2. Evidences of Impact of Climate Change ..................................................................... 52 3.2.3. Initiatives by India to Counter Climate Change .......................................................... 52 3.2.4. Climate Engineering ................................................................................................... 53

    3.3. Clean Energy ...................................................................................................................... 55 3.3.1. Reducing Carbon Footprint ........................................................................................ 55 3.3.2. Biofuels ....................................................................................................................... 56 3.3.3. Hydrogen Fuel Vehicles .............................................................................................. 57

  • Karol Bagh 1/8-B, 2nd Floor, Apsara Arcade, Near Gate 6, Karol Bagh Metro, Delhi-110005 Mukherjee Nagar: 103, 1st Floor, B/1-2, Ansal Building, Behind UCO Bank, Delhi-110009

    8468022022 2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS

    Student Notes:

    3.3.4. Energy Conservation in Buildings ............................................................................... 58 3.4. Renewable Energy: Recent Developments ....................................................................... 59

    3.4.1. Renewable Energy: Background ................................................................................. 59 4. AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT ......................................................................................... 63

    4.1. Climate Change and Agriculture ....................................................................................... 63 4.1.1. Climate Smart Agriculture .......................................................................................... 63 4.1.2. Climate Change Vulnerability of Indian Agriculture ................................................... 63 4.1.3. Organic Farming ......................................................................................................... 65

    4.2. News Related to Agriculture ............................................................................................. 66 4.2.1. Draft Order on Ban on Pesticides ............................................................................... 66 4.2.2. Food Legumes Research Platform (FLRP) ................................................................... 67 4.2.3. Ammonia Hotspots over Agricultural Areas ............................................................... 68

    5. DISASTER MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................ 69 5.1. Disaster Planning and Management ................................................................................. 69

    5.1.1. National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) ............................................................ 69 5.1.2. NDMA’s Guidelines on Crowd Management .............................................................. 70 5.1.3. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction ......................................................... 71 5.1.4. Forest Fire................................................................................................................... 72 5.1.5. Safety Measures in Coal Mines .................................................................................. 73 5.1.6. Coal Fire...............................................................................