Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Outline. Introductory Comments Virus versus bacteria Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses How RNA containing viruses can replicate Origins of HIV Dr. Hahn and colleagues Characteristics of HIV Particle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

  • Virsuses:Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome& Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

  • OutlineIntroductory CommentsVirus versus bacteriaExamples of DNA and RNA containing virusesHow RNA containing viruses can replicate

    Origins of HIVDr. Hahn and colleagues

    Characteristics of HIV ParticleGlycoproteinsViral genes

    Laboratory Diagnostic TestsPCRWestern BlotELISA

    -------------------------------------------------- Part 2 -------------------------TreatmentTransmissionPrevention

  • Bacteria versus Viruses

  • Note: These STDs are bacterial infections!

    SYPHILISBacterium: Treponema pallidum

    GONORRHEABacterium: Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • VirusesDNA containing

    RNA containing

  • DNA containing virusesHerpes virus

    Small pox virus

    Hepatitis B

    adenovirus

  • RNA containing virusesHepatitis A and CRabiesEbolaMeasles MumpsPolioHIVRabies virusMeasles on the back

  • RETROVIRAL REPLICATION

  • HIV

  • T lymphocyte in green and HIV in red

  • LYTIC STAGE

  • Budding of HIV from T lymphocyteHIVHIV

  • Co-Receptors

    Binds naturally occurring chemokinesCCR5 or CXCR4 (fusin)

  • HIV and helper T cellsHIV-1HOST CELLS: helper T lymphocyte, macrophageshttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__hiv_replication.html

  • HIV GlycoproteinsLipid Bilayer contains glycoproteins

    Gp 160Gp 120Gp 41

  • HIV: Structure and mechanism of replication

  • HIV-1 PARTICLE

  • Dr. Beatrice Hahn & colleagues:Drs. Li and Keelehttp://www.ucsf.edu/news/2009/12/8212/beatrice-hahn-discusses-gombe-national-park-chimp-research-and-origin-ai

  • Predominant Subtypes of Group MAfricaAmericasChina (southeast)EuropeIndiaJapanThailandA;D;CBCBCBE

  • Greater spot nose monkey Red Cap Mangabey monkeySIV cpz almost identical to HIV 1Humans

  • Pan troglodytes troglodytesSimian Virus (SIV cpz) almost identical to HIV 1

  • Sooty mangabey monkeySimian Virus corresponds to HIV2

  • Mechanism of InfectionVIRAL RNAPROVIRAL DNAInfects Th cellIntegrates into host DNAactivatedLYTIC STAGEstorageLYSOGENIC STAGE

  • The key HIV genes

  • ELISA LABWe will now move to the ELISA lab but will return to review the principles of the ELISA as well as other HIV based clinical tests.

  • HIV Diagnostic Tests

    Western Blot

    PCR

    Directly measures HIV

  • Polymerase Chain ReactionMeasures proviral DNA within the host DNA

  • Western BlotIdentifies HIV proteinsProtein ladder

  • HIV Diagnostic TestsELISA(we have discussed this in lab)Indirect evidence of HIV exposure

  • A diagnostic test for Antibodies to HIVEnzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    (ELISA)Antibodies

  • *Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that are directed against specific antigens.

    (Antibody interactions with antigens will also be discussed in our immungenetics lecture)

  • AntibodiesAntigensImmune systemNon-self

  • Now apply these concepts to the diagnostic test known as ELISA to detect antibodies against HIV from a biologic fluid.

  • Do any of these individuals carry antibodies to HIV?

  • ELISA MICROTITER PLATESMicrotiter plate

  • The ELISA protocol1234antigensampleLabelled 2nd AbColor inducing substrate

  • ResultsPOSITIVE ANTI-HIVCOLOR CHANGENEGATIVE ANTI-HIVNO COLOR CHANGE

  • FDA Approves Saliva OraQuick Rapid Test for HIV-1, HIV-2 Antibodies[March 29, 2004]

    (similar test is also available for blood samples, see next slides).

  • OraQuick Rapid Anti-HIV Blood Test12320 minute testCost app. $15.00

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