Virsuses:Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome& Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
OutlineIntroductory CommentsVirus versus bacteriaExamples of DNA and RNA containing virusesHow RNA containing viruses can replicate
Origins of HIVDr. Hahn and colleagues
Characteristics of HIV ParticleGlycoproteinsViral genes
Laboratory Diagnostic TestsPCRWestern BlotELISA
-------------------------------------------------- Part 2 -------------------------TreatmentTransmissionPrevention
Bacteria versus Viruses
Note: These STDs are bacterial infections!
SYPHILISBacterium: Treponema pallidum
GONORRHEABacterium: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
DNA containing virusesHerpes virus
Small pox virus
RNA containing virusesHepatitis A and CRabiesEbolaMeasles MumpsPolioHIVRabies virusMeasles on the back
T lymphocyte in green and HIV in red
Budding of HIV from T lymphocyteHIVHIV
Binds naturally occurring chemokinesCCR5 or CXCR4 (fusin)
HIV and helper T cellsHIV-1HOST CELLS: helper T lymphocyte, macrophageshttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__hiv_replication.html
HIV GlycoproteinsLipid Bilayer contains glycoproteins
Gp 160Gp 120Gp 41
HIV: Structure and mechanism of replication
Dr. Beatrice Hahn & colleagues:Drs. Li and Keelehttp://www.ucsf.edu/news/2009/12/8212/beatrice-hahn-discusses-gombe-national-park-chimp-research-and-origin-ai
Predominant Subtypes of Group MAfricaAmericasChina (southeast)EuropeIndiaJapanThailandA;D;CBCBCBE
Greater spot nose monkey Red Cap Mangabey monkeySIV cpz almost identical to HIV 1Humans
Pan troglodytes troglodytesSimian Virus (SIV cpz) almost identical to HIV 1
Sooty mangabey monkeySimian Virus corresponds to HIV2
Mechanism of InfectionVIRAL RNAPROVIRAL DNAInfects Th cellIntegrates into host DNAactivatedLYTIC STAGEstorageLYSOGENIC STAGE
The key HIV genes
ELISA LABWe will now move to the ELISA lab but will return to review the principles of the ELISA as well as other HIV based clinical tests.
HIV Diagnostic Tests
Directly measures HIV
Polymerase Chain ReactionMeasures proviral DNA within the host DNA
Western BlotIdentifies HIV proteinsProtein ladder
HIV Diagnostic TestsELISA(we have discussed this in lab)Indirect evidence of HIV exposure
A diagnostic test for Antibodies to HIVEnzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
*Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that are directed against specific antigens.
(Antibody interactions with antigens will also be discussed in our immungenetics lecture)
Now apply these concepts to the diagnostic test known as ELISA to detect antibodies against HIV from a biologic fluid.
Do any of these individuals carry antibodies to HIV?
ELISA MICROTITER PLATESMicrotiter plate
The ELISA protocol1234antigensampleLabelled 2nd AbColor inducing substrate
ResultsPOSITIVE ANTI-HIVCOLOR CHANGENEGATIVE ANTI-HIVNO COLOR CHANGE
FDA Approves Saliva OraQuick Rapid Test for HIV-1, HIV-2 Antibodies[March 29, 2004]
(similar test is also available for blood samples, see next slides).
OraQuick Rapid Anti-HIV Blood Test12320 minute testCost app. $15.00