UNLEASHING THE POTENTIAL FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT 2014-06-10آ  UNLEASHING THE POTENTIAL FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT

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  • UNLEASHING THE POTENTIAL FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    THROUGH DECENT WORK

    Building on the ILO Rural Work Legacy 1970-2010

    Loretta de Luca, Marian Fernando, Elise Crunel, Lucy Olivia Smith

    ILO, Geneva, February 2011

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This review is the result of a wide collaborative effort. Its preparation has involved many ILO

    Officials from several units of ILO‟s Headquarters, field structure and International Training Centre in

    Turin. It has also involved a number of ILO Constituents and some partner organizations and

    beneficiaries.

    We would like to extend our sincerest thanks to the numerous people that have helped us at various

    stages of this work, whose views, inputs, criticism and consideration have allowed shaping this

    review.

    Thanks are first due to the “Privileged Informants,” most of whom are retired ILO Officials, who took

    the time to share their institutional memory in a professional and friendly manner: Girma Agune,

    Iftikhar Ahmad, Maurice-Moïse Allal, Azita Berar-Awad, Gus Edgren, Philippe Egger, Dharam Ghai,

    Elisabeth Goodson, Emilio Klein, Martha Loutfi, Jean Majeres, Philippe Marcadent, Jack Martin, Evy

    Messel, Mie Osmundsen, Peter Peek, Samir Radwan, Anisur Rahman, Andrea Singh, Terje Tessem,

    Ng Phan Thuy, Victor Tokman, and Helmut Watzlawick. Their contribution has provided important

    insights. We would also like to thank Lotta Nycander for conducting many of the interviews and for

    her help in preparing materials in the early stages of our research, as well as Carla Henry for valuable

    advice and information on evaluation exercises.

    We would also like to sincerely thank all colleagues Office-wide who actively participated in oral and

    written interviews, sharing their knowledge and experiences of ILO work in rural areas in different

    periods and on different themes: Kholoud Al Khaldi, Gerd Albracht, Claude Apkokavie, Maria

    Arteta, José Assalino, Zulum Avila, Gashaw Tsegaye Ayele, Amber Barth, Edward Bernard, Suradee

    Bhadrasiri, Roy Chacko, Craig Churchill, Yebe Constantin, Antonio Cruciani, Eduardo Daccarett,

    Gerardo de Cardenas Falcon, Baoshan Deng, Mathieu de Poorter, Mauricio Diercksens, Riska

    Efriyanti, Fernando Encarnacao, Julia Faldt, Agnes Fazekas, Valentina Forastieri, Elena Gastaldo,

    Oxana Gerasimova, Nabeel Goheer, Antonio Graziosi, Martine Guilio, Susan Gunn, Mukesh Gupta,

    Hagen Henry, Ann Herbert, Richard Howard, Peter Hurst, Wiking Husberg, Jenny Ikelberg, Syed

    Khairul Islam, Christian Jackier, Kavunga Kambale, Raky Kane, Shaun Kennedy, Manzoor Khaliq,

    Nurunnabi Khan, Wailee Kui, Sophia Lawrence, Rakawin Leechanavanichpan, Siham Lehtihet,

    Naomi Lintini, Richard Longhurst, Malte Luebker, José Luis Daza Perez, Maria Luz Vega, El

    Housseynou Ly, Jesus Macasil, Noman Majid, Anaclara Matosas, Susan Maybud, Muce Mochtar,

    Norjinlkham Mongolmaa, Sam Mshiu, Tauvik Muhamad, Joni Musabayana, Tapera Muzira, Eskedar

    Nadew, Federico Negro, Nita Neupane, Shengli Niu, Yondonjamts Nyamdavaa, Naoko Otobe,

    Honorio Palarca, Debra Perry, Roberto Pes, Hopolang Phororo, Marcus Pilgrim, Peter Poschen,

    Harivao Rakotoarinia, Gerhard Reinecke, Patricia Richter, Gianni Rosas, Emmanuel Rubayiza,

    Francis Sanzouago, Harmeet Sarin, Satoshi Sasaki, Reynold Simons, Joni Simpson, Nteba Soumano,

    Kathaleen Speake, Jittima Srisuknam, Tomas Stenstrom, Patrick Taran, Paola Termine, Ursula Titus,

    Manuela Tomei, Carlien Van Empel, Annie Van Klaveren, Brandt Wagner, Wolfgang Weinz,

    Edmundo Werna, James Windell, Tewodros Yilma, Erik Zeballos and Dennis Zulu. Among them we

    extend a special thanks to those who contributed with important historical and technical writings.

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    We take this opportunity to commend the interest, effectiveness and coordination role of ILO‟s core

    rural focal points (each generally representing an ILO Sector or Region) throughout the process: Simel

    Esim, Antonio Graziosi, Florencio Gudiño, Michael Henriques, Mpenga Kabundi, Philippe

    Marcadent, Alena Nesporova, Rajendra Paratian, Katerina Tsotroudi, Kees Van der Ree and Sandra

    Yu.

    Thanks are also due to peer reviewers who provided us with valuable feedback and insight: Duncan

    Cambell, Roy Chacko, Carla Henry, Hagen Henry, David Lamotte, Mohammed Mwamadzingo,

    Naoko Otobe, Joni Simpson, Katerina Tsotroudi and several of her NORMES colleagues, as well as

    our former colleagues Dharam Ghai, Jack Martin and Jean Majeres.

    We are also grateful to those who prompted this review and encouraged and supported its preparation,

    particularly Sue Longley, Phil O‟Reilly and José-Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs.

    Finally we need to acknowledge the support and patience of colleagues who opened the doors of the

    ILO‟s library, archives and documentation centres, and provided precious guidance, particularly Remo

    Becci, Renée Berthon, Laura Freeman, Yves Gagnière, Ariel Golan, Hiep Nguyen and Annette Schut.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................................................... 2

    ACRONYMS .......................................................................................................................................... 7

    I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 13

    I.1. A sense of urgency for fast and integrated work ........................................................................ 13

    I.2. Background and objective of the review .................................................................................... 15

    I.3. Scope and methodology .............................................................................................................. 16

    I.4. Structure...................................................................................................................................... 18

    II. ILO‟S RURAL “HEYDAYS” (1970s-1980s) ................................................................................. 19

    II.1. Antecedents ............................................................................................................................... 19

    II.2. ILO rural work approach, institutional set-up and .................................................................... 20

    work focuses ..................................................................................................................................... 20

    II.2.1. Context setting .................................................................................................................... 20

    II.2.2. Overview of rural work ...................................................................................................... 21

    II.2.3. ILO rural work management – a combination of ............................................................... 23

    coordination and compartmentalization ........................................................................................ 23

    II.2.3.1. Rural Employment Policies Research Branch (EMP/RU) .......................................... 23

    II.2.3.2. Advisory Committee on Rural Development .............................................................. 24

    II.2.3.3. Interdepartmental Committee on Rural Development................................................. 26

    II.2.3.4. EMP/RU and the WEP - Leading rural development work ........................................ 28

    II.2.4. Types of work ..................................................................................................................... 30

    II.2.4.1. Research ...................................................................................................................... 30

    II.2.4.2. Basic Needs ................................................................................................................. 32

    II.2.4.3. Capacity building ........................................................................................................ 33

    II.2.4.4. Technical Cooperation ................................................................................................ 34

    II.2.4.5. Policy services ............................................................................................................. 34

    II.2.4.6. External relations ......................................................................................................... 36

    II.2.5. Focus groups ...................................................................................................................... 39

    II.2.5.1. Women ........................................................................................................................ 39

    II.2.5.2. Workers ....................................................................................................................... 44

    II.2.5.3. Employers .................................................................................................................... 47