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Unit One Review Foundations: 8000 BCE - 600 BCE AP World History

Unit One Review Foundations: 8000 BCE - 600 BCE AP World History

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Unit One ReviewFoundations: 8000

BCE - 600 BCE

Unit One ReviewFoundations: 8000

BCE - 600 BCE

AP World HistoryAP World History

Paleolithic vs NeolithicNeolithic Rev: 8000 BCE-3000 BCE

Paleolithic vs NeolithicNeolithic Rev: 8000 BCE-3000 BCE

Hunter Gatherer Agriculture

-Hunter gather-Women role very important-Everybody required-Small bands, authority based on family-Belief in many spirits, not formal religion-Migrations

-Africa out to middle east, Europe, Asia-Asia to America (land bridge)

-Domesticate animals and develop agriculture-Increase reliable foods supplies-Less nutritious b/c most people each only one or two staples-Stay put-Allow more people to do other stuff- i.e. job specialization-Gender differences-Huge population growth

River Valley CivilizationsBasic characteristics

River Valley CivilizationsBasic characteristics

Location in river valleys Complex irrigation Development of legal codes System of writing Use of money Number systems, calendars Social inequality: classes Patriarchal

Location in river valleys Complex irrigation Development of legal codes System of writing Use of money Number systems, calendars Social inequality: classes Patriarchal

Early River Valley Civilizations

Early River Valley Civilizations

Mesopotamia: cuneiform, powerful kings in city-states, Hammurabi’s code of law, job specialization, merchant class important; Tigris and Euphrates; ziggurats (Temples)

Egypt: hieroglyphics, pharaoh as god, centralized, extensive bureaucracy, fewer merchants, priests have high status; Nile River; conflicts with Kush

Mesopotamia: cuneiform, powerful kings in city-states, Hammurabi’s code of law, job specialization, merchant class important; Tigris and Euphrates; ziggurats (Temples)

Egypt: hieroglyphics, pharaoh as god, centralized, extensive bureaucracy, fewer merchants, priests have high status; Nile River; conflicts with Kush

Early River Valley Civilizations

Early River Valley Civilizations

Indus: complex, centralized, limited information known about them, priests high status (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro)

Shang: (Huang He/Yellow River) writing highly valued, geographic separation from others, centralized power in hands of emperor, job specialization

Indus: complex, centralized, limited information known about them, priests high status (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro)

Shang: (Huang He/Yellow River) writing highly valued, geographic separation from others, centralized power in hands of emperor, job specialization

Early MesoamericaEarly Mesoamerica

Olmec- 3500-2500 BCEOlmec- 3500-2500 BCE Two environments & Agricultural methods

Slash and burn agriculture Irrigation river agriculture 2 or more crops per year Maize, beans, squash

Lowland river population became the elite Chiefdom societies- rulers, elite, crafts-persons Writing system but un-deciphered though indications of

counting system- Maya used same counting system so this aspect is translatable.

Items of trade Highlands- obsidian, jade and Magnetite, cacao (drink for

nobility) Lowlands- mollusk, turtle shell, sharks teeth, and pottery

4 major redistribution/ceremonial centers- Classic Maya- 2000- 800 BCE

Two environments & Agricultural methods Slash and burn agriculture Irrigation river agriculture 2 or more crops per year Maize, beans, squash

Lowland river population became the elite Chiefdom societies- rulers, elite, crafts-persons Writing system but un-deciphered though indications of

counting system- Maya used same counting system so this aspect is translatable.

Items of trade Highlands- obsidian, jade and Magnetite, cacao (drink for

nobility) Lowlands- mollusk, turtle shell, sharks teeth, and pottery

4 major redistribution/ceremonial centers- Classic Maya- 2000- 800 BCE

Development of trade routes

Development of trade routes

Silk Road (blue)

Indian Ocean (green)

Sub-Saharan (red)

Silk Road (blue)

Indian Ocean (green)

Sub-Saharan (red)

UNIT 2: THE CLASSICAL PERIOD

UNIT 2: THE CLASSICAL PERIOD

600 BCE – 600 CE600 BCE – 600 CE

Classical Civilizations: Basic Characteristics

Classical Civilizations: Basic Characteristics

PatriarchalAgriculture BasedComplex gov’t,

Larger areasExpanded trading

PatriarchalAgriculture BasedComplex gov’t,

Larger areasExpanded trading

Classical Civilizations: Greece

Classical Civilizations: Greece

1st Democracy Polytheist Divided into city-states (not centralized) Slavery widely practiced Strong military Alexander the Great: Hellenistic age Conquered by Romans

1st Democracy Polytheist Divided into city-states (not centralized) Slavery widely practiced Strong military Alexander the Great: Hellenistic age Conquered by Romans

Classical Civilizations: Rome

Classical Civilizations: Rome

For the most part conquer but don’t oppress Impressive roman law code Basic social divisions: patricians-aristocrats

and plebeians-free farmers Dependence on slavery

Leads to little technological innovation/development Three eras:

Monarchy Republic: rule by aristocrats, Senate Empire: non-hereditary emperor

For the most part conquer but don’t oppress Impressive roman law code Basic social divisions: patricians-aristocrats

and plebeians-free farmers Dependence on slavery

Leads to little technological innovation/development Three eras:

Monarchy Republic: rule by aristocrats, Senate Empire: non-hereditary emperor

Greek and Roman Economy

Greek and Roman Economy

Greece Agriculture based

economy, but rocky terrain forced them to rely heavily on imports and trade

Slave labor - caused decrease in scientific innovations because they provided cheap labor

Greece Agriculture based

economy, but rocky terrain forced them to rely heavily on imports and trade

Slave labor - caused decrease in scientific innovations because they provided cheap labor

Rome Agrarian/Slave Based

Economy Crops: Grains, Olives,

Grapes Trade throughout

empire Crops as taxes Some small

manufacturing - tools/weapons/textiles

Heavily reliant on imports

Rome Agrarian/Slave Based

Economy Crops: Grains, Olives,

Grapes Trade throughout

empire Crops as taxes Some small

manufacturing - tools/weapons/textiles

Heavily reliant on imports

Classical Civilizations: China

Classical Civilizations: China

Highly patriarchal, social divide urban/rural, silk road develops but merchants low class, bureaucracy, wealth based on land ownership

Zhou: slowly deteriorated; Period of Warring States, Confucianism and Daoism developed to restore stability

Qin: very harsh, Legalism, construction of Great wall; Shi Huangdi

Han: strong centralized gov’t, great influence of Confucian, scholar-gentry

Highly patriarchal, social divide urban/rural, silk road develops but merchants low class, bureaucracy, wealth based on land ownership

Zhou: slowly deteriorated; Period of Warring States, Confucianism and Daoism developed to restore stability

Qin: very harsh, Legalism, construction of Great wall; Shi Huangdi

Han: strong centralized gov’t, great influence of Confucian, scholar-gentry

Classical Chinese Philosophies

Classical Chinese Philosophies

Confucianism - based on proper social order and relationships (ruler/subject; father/son; brother/brother; friend/friend; husband/wife); good people lead to good government; focus on family

Legalism - powerful and efficient governments will re-establish order (Qin dynasty)

Daoism/Taoism - focus on the Dao (“the wa

y ”); focus attention on nature and surroundings in order to remove onself from corruption

Confucianism - based on proper social order and relationships (ruler/subject; father/son; brother/brother; friend/friend; husband/wife); good people lead to good government; focus on family

Legalism - powerful and efficient governments will re-establish order (Qin dynasty)

Daoism/Taoism - focus on the Dao (“the wa

y ”); focus attention on nature and surroundings in order to remove onself from corruption

Classical Civilizations: India

Classical Civilizations: India

Invaded by Aryans Hinduism based on books Vedas

Caste System- much harsher, rigid than other class systems at the time

Connections to Silk Road and Indian ocean trade Lack of political unity; easily invaded; hard to conquer

and unite small kingdoms; tends not to be centralized or unified

Mauryan: Buddhist, bureaucratic, public works ; decline b/c land returned to locals (Chandragupta; Ashoka)

Gupta: Hinduism, allow local control and administration not bureaucratic; fall to invaders, rule returned to locals Decentralization allows fall not to be as drastic as others

Invaded by Aryans Hinduism based on books Vedas

Caste System- much harsher, rigid than other class systems at the time

Connections to Silk Road and Indian ocean trade Lack of political unity; easily invaded; hard to conquer

and unite small kingdoms; tends not to be centralized or unified

Mauryan: Buddhist, bureaucratic, public works ; decline b/c land returned to locals (Chandragupta; Ashoka)

Gupta: Hinduism, allow local control and administration not bureaucratic; fall to invaders, rule returned to locals Decentralization allows fall not to be as drastic as others

Classical Civilizations: The Fall

Classical Civilizations: The Fall

Similarities:Attacks from HunsDeterioration of political institutionsProtection maintenance of borders- costly,

ineffectiveDisease followed trade routesTrouble collecting taxes, controlling landowners

Differences: India regional gov’t broke apartRome gradual, east stayed up (Byzantine)Order least impact to greatest:

India: still had caste system, regional gov’tChina: Confucian tradition, problems w/ central power goneRome: civilization depended on gov’t to keep together,

organized

Similarities:Attacks from HunsDeterioration of political institutionsProtection maintenance of borders- costly,

ineffectiveDisease followed trade routesTrouble collecting taxes, controlling landowners

Differences: India regional gov’t broke apartRome gradual, east stayed up (Byzantine)Order least impact to greatest:

India: still had caste system, regional gov’tChina: Confucian tradition, problems w/ central power goneRome: civilization depended on gov’t to keep together,

organized

Common results for fallCommon results for fall

Disruption of tradeInternal AND external problemsReliance on religion to organize

peopleSpread of Buddhism, Christianity and

Islam Political disunity

Feudal societies develop

Disruption of tradeInternal AND external problemsReliance on religion to organize

peopleSpread of Buddhism, Christianity and

Islam Political disunity

Feudal societies develop