Unit 6.Cause and Effect EssayPart II
Review: Cause-and-Effect EssayCause and effect essays are concerned with why things happen (causes) and what happens as a result (effects)Step 1. Distinguish between cause and effect. To determine causes, ask, "Why did this happen?" To identify effects, ask, "What happened because of this?Step 2. Develop your thesis statement. State clearly whether you are discussing causes, effects, or both.Step 3. Find and organize supporting details. Back up your thesis with relevant and sufficient details that are organized.Step 4. Use appropriate transitions. To blend details smoothly in cause and effect essays, use the transitional words and phrases.
(p.142) What It Takes to Be a Professional Athlete.Introduction:What strategy is used to write the hook? What is the thesis statement? What is its focus: causes or effects?How many causes (or effects) will be discussed?Body paragraphs:What is the topic in each body paragraph? There are 2 sentences that do not support the topic sentences of two paragraphs. Point them out.Conclusions: What does the writer do in the concluding paragraph?What type of comment does the writer make? Writing Model
Review: Rhetorical FocusMultiple causes EffectCause Multiple effectsCausal chains / Domino(p.144) Can you say opening the window sharpen the pencil?
(p.144)Number the causes below so that they form a logical causal chain. Exercise
Logical fallacyFallacy: A and B regularly occur together A is the cause of B. The mistake being made is that the causal conclusion is being drawn without adequate justification. Example: It is claimed by some people that severe illness is caused by depression and anger. After all, people who are severely ill are very often depressed and angry. Thus, it follows that the cause of severe illness actually is the depression and anger. So, a good and cheerful attitude is key to staying healthy. Way to avoid it: to pay careful attention to the temporal sequence of events.Effects do not generally precede their causes.http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/confusing-cause-and-effect.html
Fallacy:A and B are regularly connected A is the cause of B. The causal conclusion is drawn without considering the possibility that a third factor might be the cause of both. Example: The needles from the pine trees along the Wombat river fell into the water. Shortly thereafter, many dead fish washed up on the river banks. The owners of the Wombat River Chemical Company claimed that is it was obvious that the pine needles had killed the fish. Way to avoid: always ask "could there be a third factor that is actually causing both A and B?"http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/ignoring-a-common-cause.html
Peer evaluationBased on the rhetorical focus of cause and effect essay, make your own peer-evaluation sheet.You should have found out that the so-called peer-evaluation sheet is just a checklist, a list for your peer to examine whether your writing have every necessary element.Its time for you to grow to be an independent writer! Youve skipped personal checklist, and now you need to practice to make your own checklist.
Language FocusThe future with WillUsing Will with So ThatExpressing future possibility with If Clauses.
About Will(p.147)Use will to discuss future effects of a cause or set of causes.Use will to make predictions.Add adverbs like probably or certainly with will to express a degree of certainty.
Future TenseOne way to show future time is by using be going to + V or will in a sentence. In spoken English, be going to + V and will are both commonly used. In written English, will is much more common. This is probably true for a number of reasons. First, will is a little more formal and polite sounding. Since writing is usually more formal than speaking, will is the more appropriate choice in many types of writing. Second, will is just easier to write because it is shorter and you do not have to change the form of the be verb.Which one is more commonly used? Why?
Use going towhen you are writing about someone else's plan, especially if it is a definite plan.He is going to ride his bicycle around Taiwan this summer.to make predictions when we have good evidence that the prediction will come true.It is going to be hot today. It's only 7:00, but the temperature is already 34C.Use will if the plan is not definite, it is better to use will. Maybe he will ride his bicycle around Taiwan this summer.when you are not absolutely sure about the thing to do.I bet you will meet someone at the party. to state your intention when you write about a promise that you have made. I promise that I will pick you up at 7:00.
About the logical flow So That(p.148)The future with will can be used with the logical connector so that.Main clause + so that + Time clause Cause Effect Simple Present Future tense(will)Students work hard in school so that they will be successful.
About the logical flow If ClauseThe if clause introduces a possible situation (the cause).The main clause talks about the possible result (the effect) of the situation.If clause + Main clause Cause Effect
(p.144) Choose one of the causal chains, then develop the chain into a short paragraph. (About 5 sentences are enough.)Use so that or if clause in your paragraph to show the logical flow. Change your paragraph with your partner. Read each others paragraph and see if any logical fallacy is made. Exercise
*2008/12/29*2008/12/29The needles from the pine trees along the Wombat river fell into the water. Shortly thereafter, many dead fish washed up on the river banks. The owners of the Wombat River Chemical Company claimed that is it was obvious that the pine needles had killed the fish. Many local environmentalists claimed that the chemical plant's toxic wastes caused both the trees and the fish to die and that the pine needles had no real effect on the fish. 2008/12/29*