Understanding Computers & Computer Literacy Computer Concepts BASICS Lesson 1.

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  • Understanding Computers & Computer LiteracyComputer Concepts BASICSLesson 1

  • Introducing ComputersComputers are most important invention of this past century!Where do we use computers?School & learningVideo gamesTV, movies (instant replays & special effects!)IM, E-mail, Video-conferencing

  • History of the Computer1st Computers: invented in 1940s & 1950sGreat big machines (as big as small buildings and cost millions of $$$)Names: UNIVAC, ENIACPower: less power than your typical pocket calculatorUp through early 1970s, only government & corporations used these computers

  • 1971: 1st MicroprocessorSteve Job & Steve Wozniak applied this technology to personal computers1976: 1st Apple computer (developed by both Steves)1981: Bill Gates introduced IBM PC

  • What are a Computer and Computer System?Computer: an electronic device thatReceives data (input)Process dataStores dataProduces a result (output)

  • Computer System: includes Hardware, Software, Data, & PeopleHardware: the actual machine, wires, transistors, circuits, monitors, & printersSoftware: instructions or programs used for controlling the computerData: text, numbers, sound, images, videoInformation: Process of data going into computer (input), is processed, stored data, and output produced.Users: People who use computers

  • Examples of a Computer SystemInput (receives data): Customer name is entered into computer, scans ISBN, types info, uses scannerProcess: Computer uses stored instructions to process data into informationOutputs Information: a monitor or printer displays informationStores data: data & information are stored on a disk drive or other storage device

  • A computer is not overly complicated. It only performs 2 operations:Arithmetic: add, subtract, multiply, divide and comparisonsLogical: And, Or, NotDid You Know?A computer won aWorld Chess Championshipplaying against a human being

  • Are Computers Intelligent?No. They can only do what we ask them to do. Are there any advantages to using a computer? Yes!Speed: can perform billions of calculations per secondReliability: electronic components are dependableAccuracy: IF data is entered correctly, computers generate error-free resultsStorage: can store/retrieve volumes of data/informationCommunications: can communicate & share resources with other computers

  • Classifying ComputersComputers are either Special Purpose or General Purpose computers.Special Purpose: used to control something else. Tiny chips are embedded in devices such as: dishwashers, airport radar system, bathroom scaleGeneral Purpose: divided into 5 categories based upon size, function, cost, performance

  • General Purpose ComputersDesktop Computer: designed so all components fit on/under desk. PC & Apple (Mac) are most popularMobile Computer: personal computers such as notebooks (laptops). Designed to be carried from one place to another.Mobile devices: fit into the palm of your hand (PDA, hand-helds, smart-phones)Mid-range server: (minicomputer) used by small companies that can support hundreds of usersMainframe computer: large & expensive computer that can support hundreds/thousands of usersSupercomputer: fastest type of computer. Used by government & large corporations to process enormous amounts of data

  • Computer Software2 types of software (programs):Application software: a set of programs that perform tasks for usersWord processing, spreadsheets, databasesSystem software: a set of programs that controls the operations of the computerWindows or Mac system software

  • Graphical User Interface (GUI): what we see when we start up Windows. Includes iconsIcon: small image that represents file, command, or other function

  • Communications & NetworksElectronic Communication: technology that allows computers to communicate with each other & other devicesTransmission of text, numbers, voice, video1969: 1st message sent via telephone from computer

  • Electronic communication requires:Sender: computer that is sending messageReceiver: computer receiving messageChannel: media that carries/transports message (phone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, fiber-optic cable)Protocol: the rules that govern the transfer of data

  • NetworksNetworks: a group of two or more computer systems linked together via communication devicesAllows computers to share printers, data, information, & programsNodes (Clients): computers on a networkServers: computers that allocate resources on a network

  • Intranet & ExtranetMany companies have intranets in their organizationsIntranet: a network put together for just certain people (company, school, etc.)Reliable network, Secure network, no outsiders can useExtranet: systems that allow outside organizations to access companys internal information

  • The InternetInternet: worlds largest network.Originally a network that included only the government & universities1990: Original network (called ARPANET) was disbanded & the Internet was born

  • Technology & Everyday LifeComputers have affected the way we live our lives.They have become a necessary tool in almost every activity & type of business. How does it affect you?School, security, gaming, research, home appliances, TV, etc.

  • Computers in our FutureThe future is hard to predict, but we can assume that computers will be more powerful and less expensive. Almost every type of job will somehow involve a computerConnectivity will continue to evolve.What is the computer of the future?


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