UN Resolution war Hitler Obama Syria 3151

  • View
    214

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of UN Resolution war Hitler Obama Syria 3151

  • 7/29/2019 UN Resolution war Hitler Obama Syria 3151

    1/21

    American Philological Association

    Prophecy and Perception in the Oedipus RexAuthor(s): Robert L. KaneSource: Transactions of the American Philological Association (1974-), Vol. 105 (1975), pp. 189-208Published by: The Johns Hopkins University PressStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/283940 .

    Accessed: 12/09/2013 22:00

    Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

    .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of

    content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms

    of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

    .

    American Philological Association and The Johns Hopkins University Press are collaborating with JSTOR to

    digitize, preserve and extend access to Transactions of the American Philological Association (1974-).

    http://www.jstor.org

    This content downloaded from 129.62.12.156 on Thu, 12 Sep 2013 22:00:09 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

    http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=jhuphttp://www.jstor.org/stable/283940?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/stable/283940?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=jhup
  • 7/29/2019 UN Resolution war Hitler Obama Syria 3151

    2/21

    PROPHECY AND PERCEPTION IN THEOEDIPUS REX*ROBERT L. KANEMiamiUniversity,hio

    IMore thantwenty earshavepassed incethepublicationfHansDiller's ssay n divine nd humanknowledgen Sophocles.I Sincethen, ew writers aveattemptedo buildon thefoundation hichDillerestablished. n this rticlewe propose o examine heroleofknowledge ndperceptionn theOedipusRex. First, he anguageof theplaywill be analyzedwitha view to determining hat thecharactersnow, nd howthey now t;second, he vents ftheplaywillbe examinednthe ight fthe haracters'erceptionf them.2IndiscussionsfOedipus'relativeulpability, uch mportanceasbeen ttachedothehero'sunavoidablegnorance.3But the ircum-stancewhichhas thegreatestffectnhisdestinys notsimplyhat e

    * A preliminary raftof this paper was read by A. E. Raubitschek,who offeredinvaluableadvice. I am also indebted omycolleague,Thomas Fleming,who criticizedthemanuscript nd helped to minimize tsdefects.I Gottlichesndmenschlichesissen eiSophokles,ieler Universitatsreden (KielI950) I8-22.2Epistemological uestionswere at the rootofmanyofthe ssuesunderdebate n thesecond halfof thefifthentury. For an outlineof therationalist ndempiricist ositions(theformer epresented y Parmenides nd Plato, the atterby Anaxagorasand Demo-critus), see W. K. C. Guthrie,A History fGreek hilosophyII (Cambridge I969)3-I3; for a brilliant reatment f Socratic-Platonicrationalism n particular, ee M. J.O'Brien's The ocraticaradoxesnd heGreek indChapel Hill I967); thephilosophicalimplicationsof the OT are explored in T. Gould, "The Innocence of Oedipus: ThePhilosophers n Oedipus theKing,"Arion (I965) 363-86, 582-6II, 5 (I966) 478-525.3 For theview which equatesOedipus' hamartiaith factual gnorance, ee M. Ost-wald, "Aristotleon hamartiand Sophocles' OT," Festschriftapp Hamburg I950)93-I08, J.M. Bremer,HamartiaAmsterdam 969) I58, T. Gould (above, note 2) 368and 479, D. W. Lucas, TheGreek ragic oetsNew York I959) I50, R. D. Dawe,"Some Reflectionson Ate and Hamartia," HSCP 72 (I967) ii8, R. M. Torrance," Sophocles: Some Bearings,"HSCP 69 (I964) 326.

    This content downloaded from 129.62.12.156 on Thu, 12 Sep 2013 22:00:09 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

    http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
  • 7/29/2019 UN Resolution war Hitler Obama Syria 3151

    3/21

    I90 ROBERT L. KANE [I975is gnorantf he actsut hat,ike he eoplewhom ocrates et nthe treets,eoftenctss fheknewwhat edoes ot.4 For xample,hisplan to steer learof Corinthwas logicalenoughprovided hatPolybus ndMeropewerereally isparents.But thissexactlywhatOedipusdid notknow nd whenhe failed otake his ncertaintyntoaccount,his very"wisdom" became his undoing. The parricideoccurred otsimply ecauseOedipusdid notknow wherehe stoodbut becausehe insistedn acting s ifhe didknow. Thispointhasbeenmadeelsewhere. Let usbegin ybrieflyonsideringheTiresiasscene,whichpitsOedipus'knowledge gainst hatof thedivinelyinspiredeer. Indramatizinghe onflictetweenntuitionnd ogic,Sophocles ere evealshefoundationsfOedipus' lawi.e.,his endencyto trustnbogusknowledge).Afterutting isquestionoTiresias, edipus ees hat heprophetisreluctantospeak, utdoesnotperceive hefactwhich xplainshisreluctancei.e., thatOedipushimselfs themurderer).He thereforeconcludes hatTiresias s keeping ilent n order o protect imself(345-49):Since am oangeredwill ass ver one f hosehingshichperceive(ksynie6Fmi).or know thatyou seem to me (isthi okdnmoi) o havejoinednsowinghis eed i.e., hemurderfLaius),nd ohave arriedit out .. etc.Oedipus romiseso revealwhathe"perceives," uthisnext tatementis prefacedwiththe words: "it seems tome . . .". The juxtapositionofthese erbs sarresting.Oedipus annot eally perceive" heguiltof Tiresias,which is non-existent.Rather,he is experiencingsperceptionksyniekmi)hat sadmittedlydeduction romppearances(dok6n).5 Ofcourse, heresnothing rongwith hehero's easoning:if he ituation ere sOedipus ees t,Tiresias' alkiness ould ndeedbe cause forsuspicion.Unfortunately,he hero'sperspectives so

    4 So L. Aylen,GreekTragedy nd theModernWorldLondon I964) 91-94; also D. W.Lucas,Aristotle,oeticsOxford I961) 304. For a discussion f theAppearance/Realitytheme, ee K. Reinhardt,SophoklesFrankfurt9473) I04-44.5 Later Oedipus implicitly dmits that ksynesis s what his charges lack (see 620:ei de ksyniesmeden? . . ktl.). The Chorus refer68i) to the chargesas an "unprovedseemingof words" (dokesis gnos ogon: note thatagnoia s said by Aristotle o be theopposite ofksynesis, eAn. 4IOB3).

    This content downloaded from 129.62.12.156 on Thu, 12 Sep 2013 22:00:09 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

    http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
  • 7/29/2019 UN Resolution war Hitler Obama Syria 3151

    4/21

    Vol. IO5] THE OEDIPUS REX I9Ilimitedhatnydeductionsemight raw rom he ituation,oweverlogical nthemselves,anonly ead himfurtherrom he ruth.6Theprocess epeatstselffter iresias asbeengoaded ntodentify-ing Oedipus s thekiller. Oedipus eesthat heprophet asaccusedhim,buthe doesnotperceive hefactswhichmaketheaccusationtrue. Accordingly,e surmiseshat t sall a plotto drivehimfromthe hrone401-02):

    I thinkdokeismoi)hat ou nd he ramerfthis loti.e.,Creon)willcome ogriefor arryingn this urge.One of thestrikingeaturesf this tatements that tsunderlyingpremisethat plot exists)s treateds self-evidentventhought isnothing uta surmise.One need not ook far o locatethesourceof this onfusion. n theverynextscene,Oedipuswill claimthatCreon is "manifestly (emphands)is destroyernd the evident(enarge's) hiefofhisingdom534-35).Thehero ubstituteseasoningfor erception.Havingdrawn nintelligenteductionromwhathesees, e squick o treathis eductionsa manifestact. Oncemore,it s notthehero's ogichat s atfault:fOedipuswerereallynnocent,nothingould explain iresias' ehaviorxcept hehero's uppositionthathe is out to "frame" theking. The difficultyfcourse ies nOedipus'perspective.Believing hat hesituation ontainswhathesees nit andnothingmore),henotonlyfails orecognizehetruthwhen t splacedbefore iseyes i.e.,hisguilt), utendsup "seeing"what snottheree.g.,the treason" fCreon).7

    Theactive ide fthisyndromesseenwhenOedipus proves"thatTiresias389)"has eyes nlyforgain,but sblindn techne"i.e.,thathe isa false rophet nd must e acting n instructionsrom reon).The whole"proof" is basedon an appeal tovisible vidence orthelackof it): "Tell me," the heroasks, where are you an unerringseer?" (390: pou symantis i saphe's?). The Sphinx's riddlerequiredmanteia,utTiresias gave no manifestroofofpossessing" uch a6 Note that Tiresias diagnoses the difficultyorrectly:"You are all... withoutawareness" pantes.. ou phroneit'28-29), ". . . You blamemytemperbutyou do notsee (ou kateides)he one to whichyou arewedded" (337-38).7 Some have maintained hatOedipus' suspicions rise fromanger,e.g., M. Bowra,SophocleanTragedy Oxford I944) 202-04, also A. Lesky,Die Tragische ichtung erHellenenGottingen 9723) 22I.

    This content downloaded from 129.62.12.156 on Thu, 12 Sep 2013 22:00:09 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

    http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
  • 7/29/2019 UN Resolution war Hitler Obama Syria 3151

    5/21

    I92 ROBERT L. KANE [I975gift (395: out' .. prouphanes chdn. .). If anyonedemonstratedinsightn thehourof crisis, t was Oedipushimself, ot Tiresias(396-98). Here, the visible acts endto obscureTiresias'wisdom,enabling hehero to "prove" thathe himselfs morekeen-sightedthan his accuser. But whatOedipus' "proof" reallydemonstratesis that nome'sworse hanuselesswithout comprehensiveision fthefacts. Intelligence ayhaveenabledOedipus osolvetheriddle,but it did not reveal hat he"prize" was marriage o hismother.Likewise,ogic"proves"that iresiassa false rophet, utthe ruthof