UCLA Leadership Institute Addressing Barriers to Learning & Teaching and Re-engaging Disconnected Students
UCLA We just missed the school bus. \ Dont worry. I heard the principal say \ no child will be left behind. /
UCLA In the accompanying handouts we have included more than we cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time. Feel free to use any handout as is or by adapting them.
UCLA Topics to be Covered I.Why is a System of Learning Supports Imperative for School Improvement? II. What is a System of Learning Supports? Rethinking Intervention III. What is a System of Learning Supports? (cont.) Reworking Infrastructure
UCLA Topics IV. Intrinsic Motivation: Engaging and Re-engaging Students, Families, & Staff V. Whats involved in Getting From Here to There VI. Planning Next Steps
UCLA I. Why is a System of Learning Supports Imperative for School Improvement?
UCLA The current focus of school improvement policy and practice is too limited to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school.
UCLA The limited focus contributes to: High Student Dropout Rates
UCLA The limited focus contributes to: High Student Dropout Rates High Teacher Dropout Rates
UCLA The limited focus contributes to: High Student Dropout Rates High Teacher Dropout Rates Continuing Achievement Gap
UCLA The limited focus contributes to: High Student Dropout Rates High Teacher Dropout Rates Continuing Achievement Gap So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing
UCLA The limited focus contributes to: High Student Dropout Rates High Teacher Dropout Rates Continuing Achievement Gap So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students
UCLA The limited focus contributes to: High Student Dropout Rates High Teacher Dropout Rates Continuing Achievement Gap So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students Plateau Effect
UCLA Some of the data: The dropout rate for our nation remains unacceptably high. In 2006, the Education Trust reported that nearly 25 percent of the ninth grade population will not end up graduating from high school.
UCLA Some of the data: Take reading levels as an example. Despite reports of small recent gains, most American students, across grade levels, are reading at the most basic levels and only about 30 percent of high school students read proficiently and more than a quarter read below grade level.
UCLA Data from the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) clearly shows the plateau effect related to academic achievement.
UCLA Three Lenses for Viewing School Improvement Efforts
UCLA Lens #1 = All Students Not some -- ALL youngsters are to have an equal opportunity to succeed at school
20 Lens #1 = ALL Students Range of Learners Motivationally ready and able Not very motivated/ lacking prerequisite skills/ different rates & styles/ minor vulnerabilities Avoidant/ very deficient in capabilities
UCLA Lens #2 = Barriers to Learning and School Improvement Range of Learners I = Motivationally ready and able Not very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II = skills/ different rates & styles/ minor vulnerabilities III = Avoidant/ very deficient in capabilities No barriers Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching Instructional Component Classroom Teaching + Enrichment Activity Desired Outcomes (High Expectations & Accountability) (High Standards)
22 For most students, its more about Environmental Conditions Neighborhood Family School and Peers than about Individual deficits And, of course, a holistic approach emphasizes >Protective Buffers (strengths, resiliency) >Promoting Full Development Appreciating the Full Range of Barriers to Learning and School Improvement
UCLA Examples of Environmental Conditions extreme economic deprivation community disorganization, including high levels of mobility violence, drugs, etc. minority and/or immigrant status
UCLA Examples of Family Conditions chronic poverty conflict/disruptions/violence substance abuse models problem behavior abusive caretaking inadequate provision for quality child care
UCLA Examples of School & Peer Conditions poor quality school negative encounters with teachers negative encounters with peers inappropriate peer models
UCLA Examples of Individual Conditions medical problems low birth weight/neurodevelopmental delay psychophysiological problems difficult temperament & adjustment problems inadequate nutrition
UCLA Caution: Dont let anyone misinterpret the term >Barriers to learning It encompasses much more than a deficit model of students.
UCLA And, it is part of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of >Protective Buffers (e.g., strengths, assets, resiliency, accommodations) & >Promoting Full Development
UCLA Engaging & Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning Its time to pay greater attention to how schools >maximize Intrinsic Motivation >minimize Behavior Control Strategies >re-engage Disconnected Students >sustain Teacher Motivation
UCLA Motivation, and especially Intrinsic Motivation are fundamental intervention concerns related to student (and staff) problems
UCLA First Concern Enhancing understanding of intrinsic motivation as related to academic achievement and the achievement gap Second Concern Reducing overemphasis on behavior/social control & enhancing appreciation of the impact of psychological reactance Third Concern Re-engaging students who have become actively disengaged from classroom instruction Fourth Concern Teacher motivation
UCLA From the perspective provided by these three lenses, schools need to revisit their school improvement plans with an eye to whats missing.
Brief Activity Think about how your school improvement plan addresses students who do not come to school motivated and ready to learn. Using the three lenses, jot down whats being done to: (1) Address barriers to learning (2) Re-engage disconnected students 34
UCLA I. Why is a System of Learning Supports Imperative for School Improvement? (cont.) School Improvement Planning: Whats Being Done & Whats Missing?
UCLA What we see around the country Talk about fragmented!!! Psychological Testing Violence & Crime Prevention Special Education After-School Programs HIV/Aids Prevention Pupil Services District Juvenile Court Services Community-Based Organizations Mental Health Services Social Services HIV/AIDS Services Child Protective Services Pregnancy Prevention Counseling Codes of Discipline Physical Education Health Education Clinic Health Services Nutrition Education School Lunch Program Drug Prevention Drug Services Smoking Cessation For Staff
37 Why the fragmentation? Current situation at all levels in the educational system with respect to student/learning supports is that the efforts are Marginalized in school improvement policy and practice Fragmentation is one result and isnt solved by focusing solely on improving coordination Poor cost-effectiveness is another result (up to 25% of a school budget used in too limited and often redundant ways) So is counterproductive competition for sparse resources (among school support staff and with community-based professionals who link with schools)
38 Why the Marginalization? How school improvement planning addresses barriers to learning and teaching Direct Facilitation of Learning & Development Instructional / Developmental Component Management Component Governance and Resource Management Safe schools & Some Student & Family Assistance Besides offering a small amount of school-owned student "support services, schools outreach to the community to add a few school-based / linked services.
Clearly, there are some supports; whats missing is a dedicated, unified, and comprehensive component focused on: (1) addressing barriers to learning and teaching AND (2) re-engaging students who have become disconnected from classroom instruction 39
The missing component becomes evident when school improvement plans are analyzed with respect to what is planned for those students who do not come to school every day motivated and ready to learn. 40
41 The need is to move from the prevailing two-component framework to a three-component framework in order to develop a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports Direct Facilitation of Learning & Development Instructional/ Developmental Component Management Component Learning Supports Component Addressing Barriers to Learning Governance and Resource Management
UCLA Governance and Resource Management (Management Component) Unifying Policy & Practice for Addressing Barriers to Learning Addressing Barriers to Learning/Teaching (Enabling or Learning Supports Component) Direct Facilitation of Learning (Instructional Component) Examples of Initiatives, programs and services that belong under the umbrella >positive behavioral supports >programs for safe and drug free schools >bi-lingual, cultural, and other diversity programs >compensatory education programs >family engagement programs >special education programs >mandates stemming from the No Child Left Behind Act & other federal programs
Activity: Discuss what you think teachers at your school would answer if asked what proportion of their students show up each day motivationally ready and able to do what the teacher has planned to teach that day. Why are so many students not motivationally ready and able? After your discussion, enjoy a break. 43
UCLA With all the budget problems, We have to do everything on a shoestring. \ Are you saying you \ still have a shoestring? /
UCLA Whats the community doing?
UCLA AGENCY REFORM Restructuring and Reforming Community Health and Human Services
UCLA The intent of current agency reform policy >end fragmentation >enhance access to clientele The focus >interagency collaboration >school-linked services, sometimes based (co-located) at a school
UCLA Problems >doesnt integrate with schools efforts to address barriers to learning >limits the focus to current agency work As a result, current agency policy produces >an additional form of fragmentation >counterproductive competition >greater marginalization
UCLA It is important to remember that Community Agency Reform is not the same thing as Strengthening Communities
UCLA The major intent of agency reform is to restructure services to reduce fragmentation.
UCLA The major intent of agency reform is to restructure services to reduce fragmentation. The emphasis is mainly on interagency collaboration.
UCLA The major intent of agency reform is to restructure services to reduce fragmentation. The emphasis is mainly on interagency collaboration. Schools have been included since they offer better access to agency clients. Thus, the concept of school linked services, and the idea of community agencies co-locating services on a school site.
UCLA Because the focus is on services, little attention is paid to integrating community resources with existing school programs and services designed to address barriers to learning; including a full range of community resources; strengthening families and neighborhoods by improving economic status and enhancing other fundamental supports.
UCLA School Banks Police Day care Center Faith-based Institutions Higher Education Institutions Local Residents Businesses Restaurants Health & Social Services Agencies Community Based Orgs.; Civic Assn. Media Artist & Cultural Institutions Library Senior Citizens From Kretzmann & McKnight -- Communities have many resources!
UCLA To Recap: School improvement policy and planning have not addressed barriers to development, learning, and teaching as a primary and essential component of what must be done if schools are to minimize behavior problems, close the achievement gap, and reduce the rate of dropouts
UCLA To Recap: As a result, current efforts are marginalized, fragmented, often redundant and off track, and they have resulted in counterproductive competition for sparse resources
UCLA To Recap: The need is for a comprehensive system of learning supports that (1) addresses barriers to development, learning, and teaching & (2) (re-)engages students in classroom learning
UCLA In the handout, material, we have put some key questions we hope you are thinking about at this point. For discussion: What are the many external and internal barriers interfering with your students learning and your teachers teaching and how does all this affect your schools?
59 Some matters that work against dealing effectively with addressing barriers to learning and teaching
UCLA Next: We turn to four fundamental, interrelated concerns involved in moving forward to develop a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports
Toward developing, implementing, & sustaining a unified and comprehensive component Four Fundamental and Interre...