UBham Computer Science, 4pm Thursday 13 November 2008 The 150-year-old science of

  • Published on
    20-Jan-2016

  • View
    11

  • Download
    0

DESCRIPTION

UBham Computer Science, 4pm Thursday 13 November 2008 The 150-year-old science of active virtual machines David Booth http://www.psychology-people.bham.ac.uk/people/david.booth School of Psychology, College of Life & Environmental Sciences - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript

<ul><li><p>UBham Computer Science, 4pm Thursday 13 November 2008</p><p>The 150-year-old science ofactive virtual machines</p><p>David Boothhttp://www.psychology-people.bham.ac.uk/people/david.booth</p><p>School of Psychology, College of Life &amp; Environmental Sciences</p><p>Email to request an attachment of this .ppt file: D.A.Booth@Bham.ac.UK</p></li><li><p>Definitionsof terms in the talks titleThe 150-year-old science is Experimental Psychology in a sense at least as broad as instantiated by Departments of that name at Oxbridge, Bristol, (formerly) Sussex et alii and (better still!) by the School (and College) that I am in.Active Virtual Machines (Aaron Sloman, 2008, e.g. 16 Oct talk at CS) are programs that are running in (sic) (relatively) intelligent engineered systems, whether lots of their input/output is material, i.e. robots,or i/o is entirely symbolic, e.g. keyboard &amp; VDU screen.</p><p>Psychology is the science of natural AVMs.</p></li><li><p>This talk is about aMATH PROOFTHAT I (AND YOU)DO EXIST AS AVMs[Aaron and I share the philosophical position in ontology that can be called Systems Pluralism, understood as a form of Neutral Monism that is opposed to the still dominant Physicalist Monism.]T.H.E. 16 Oct 08 </p></li><li><p>A basic argument from (sic, not in) this talkThe (computer) science of AVMs, up to now, lacks a science like that of natural lives/souls/mindswhere nature includes societies and their cultures as well as the biosphere and the physical cosmos.The psychologists have been building a Science of Natural Performance for each of the species: human; chimp.; rat; pigeon; etc.To advance as an engineering science (not just as engineering practice),the design &amp; implementation of intelligent systems needsa Science of Artificial Performance: - for each effective system of automation to replace / support human operators; - for research into possible universes of cognition (AI).POEMS cf. D.A.Booth, 2004 submission to JCS + reviews + reply: http://epapers.bham.ac.uk/54</p></li><li><p>However, the substance of this talk is solely about what seems to be the logico-mathematical fundament of Psychology. Happy to discuss any relevance to Machine Intelligence- but afterwards -- and from a position of engineering incompetence.</p><p>NEXT</p></li><li><p>However, the substance of this talk is solely about what seems to be the logico-mathematical fundament of Psychology. Happy to discuss any relevance to Machine Intelligence- but afterwards -- and from a position of engineering incompetence.</p><p>Aarons (16/29 Oct 08) problem for Psychology to tackle: taking seriously some of the conjectures about the contents of the VMs and how they develop and collecting empirical data that could both refine and extend those conjectures, or show how they need to be modified.I shall illustrate how academic psychologists started to do this 150 years ago (exactly, as it happens) plus some basic mistakes they made on the way (repeated to this day by some psychologists and roboticists). Wittgenstein (1953), Psychology consists of experiments and conceptual confusion.</p></li><li><p>Foundational experiments in PsychologyE.H. Weber ~1858-9working with G.T. Fechner (who included results in his 1860 book) e.g. rated sweetness increases with sugar concentration ratio.</p></li><li><p>Foundational experiments in PsychologyE.H. Weber ~1858-9working with G.T. Fechner (who included results in his 1860 book) e.g., rated sweetness increases with sugar concentration ratio.Psychophysic[s] (in Fechners sense) Link body to mind mind as subjective experience, the contents of consciousness [Introspectionism] Subjectivist fallacy of Direct Scaling: psychophysics asestimation of subjective magnitudes i.e. strengths of private sensations, such as sweetness when you answer the question, How sweet is it? with a number on a scale formatted by experimenter.</p></li><li><p>Foundational experiments in PsychologyE.H. Weber ~1858-9working with G.T. Fechner (who included results in his 1860 book) e.g. rated sweetness increases with sugar concentration ratio.Psychophysic[s] (in Fechners sense)Link body to mind mind as subjective experience, the contents of consciousness Subjectivist fallacy of Direct Scaling: psychophysics asestimation of subjective magnitudes </p><p> Empathy as a magic power: I just feel that persons emotion. cp. Aleksander with his AVM; a Turing Machine seeming human. Philosophers criterion of consciousness: just say youre aware. Non-psychologists approach to a crow hooking a worm:intuit what inputs are controlling the outputs or even what the crow is (?Id be) trying to do. </p></li><li><p>Foundational experiments in PsychologyE.H. Weber ~1858-9working with G.T. Fechner (who included results in his 1860 book) e.g. rated sweetness increases with sugar concentration ratio.Psychophysic[s] (in Fechners sense)Link body to mind mind as subjective experience, the contents of consciousness Subjectivist fallacy of Direct Scaling: psychophysics as estimation of subjective magnitudesEmpathy as a magic power: I just feel that persons emotion. cp. Aleksander with his AVMPhilosophers criterion of consciousness: say you are awareNon-psychologists approach to a crow hooking a worm:intuit what the crow is trying to do.</p><p> All one big mistake: AVMs as awarenesses</p></li><li><p>Psychophysics in 20th century perceptual scienceA link across the mind mentation as achievement, not awareness (with consciousness as a type of achievement by the system)Objectivist view(s) of the psychophysical function:- influence of input on output (causation)- sensitivity of output to input (performance)[Behaviorism sees only the output and the input, as influences to and from the environment for the O= Organism as a 0(zero)! empty cipher / mindless.]</p></li><li><p>Psychophysics in 20th century perceptual scienceA link across the mind mentation as achievement (with consciousness as a type of achievement by the system)Objectivist view of the psychophysical function:- influence of input on output (causation)- sensitivity of output to input (performance)[Behaviorism sees only the output and the input, as organisms influences to/from environment.] E.g. Empathy as one systems performance on another systems performance - evidence from tests of what insight Aleksander achieves - evidence on the truth of the projection (Edmondson/Beale)</p></li><li><p>Psychophysics in 20th-century perceptual scienceA link across the mind mentation as objective achievement (with consciousness as a type of performance of the system)Objectivist view of the psychophysical function:- influence of input on output (causation)- sensitivity of output to input (performance)(Behaviorism sees only the output and the input, as the organisms influences to and from the environment.) Empathy as performance on a systems performance - evidence from tests of what insight Aleksander achieves - evidence on the truth of the projection (Edmondson/Beale) Psychologists criterion of consciousness: able to be explicit what you are (also) unspokenly achieving. - requires measurement of TWO psy/phy functions / mental processesExample in next slide: taste of caffeine in coffee</p></li><li><p> Psychologists criterion of consciousness requires the determination of two i/o functions: - one that does show sensitivity to the stimulus, non-symbolically - one describing stimulus, that may or may not show sensitivityMeasures of sensitivity to stimulus at levels near to noise: detection, with/without recognitione.g. P.M.Merikle et al., 1995 onwards: subliminal perception. Also, multiple detection analysis. at higher, normal levels: discrimination achieved by each outputN = 1 multiple discrimination diagnosis: Booth &amp; Freeman, 1993; Co-Pro tool (in Java) 2004, 2006An example of the discriminations criterion (our first): the taste of caffeine in my usual drink of coffeePreliminary report: Booth, Conner &amp; Gibson (1989) Ann NY Acad Sci 561, 226-242.Full report: Conner, Sharpe &amp; Booth, in revision, Discrimination without description of differences: subconscious or implicit?Main result: in about half of the individuals taking part, discrimination of caffeine was better (smaller ratio of concentrations) for degree of preference, rated on Id choose this coffee always / never,than it was for degree of bitterness - This is more / less bitter than my usual.</p></li><li><p>Psychophysics in 20th-century perceptual scienceA link across the mind mentation as achievement Objectivist view of the psychophysical function:- influence of input on output (causation)- sensitivity of output to input (performance) Empathy as performance on a systems performance - evidence from tests of what Aleksanders AVM achieves - evidence on the truth of the projection (Edmondson/Beale) Psychologists criterion of consciousness: coffcaff TWO processes able to be explicit what you are (also) unspokenly achieving. Psychologists approach to a crow hooking a worm:- construct a testable input/output-transformation hypothesis from existing theory of info.-processing dynamics/structures;- vary the input(s) to test that hypothesis on the outputs;- if hypothesis refuted, change the theory to cover the new finding;- if not refuted, find a more critical or powerful test of the theory. Psychological approach to a line of robots [POEMS] : as per crow.Running AVMs perform info.-transfer</p></li><li><p>Second set of big mistakes by psychophysicists (to this day) [The first was (and is) Introspectionism / Fallacy of Direct Scaling] </p><p>Lab. purity, not life realismMistake: the analytical stancePure chemicals can be isolated; therefore we must isolate pure concepts. Labelled line theory of sensory perception Booth on R.P. Erickson BBS 2008Correction: the integrative stanceScience needs to carve nature at its joints, not to abandon it at lab door. Ecological validity of laboratory experiments. Mental revivication of real-life situations (but with disconfounded variations in influential features).Extremes assumed to work like usual levelsMistake: the search for linearity (i.e. one function for all levels of input)Laws of physics for all conditions; hence a law of the mind also must be. ignore end-effects &amp; other biases on quantitative judgments ECPoulton The Power Law explicandum perverted; explicative degeneracyCorrection: zero all judgments on the adaptive normFunctions differ (i) near noise, (ii) for receptor saturation, (iii) in discomfortPhysics as the ideal, not engineering scienceMistake: organisms/machines are piles of atoms.Correction: natural and artificial systems are levels of causal networks. </p><p>There are no abstract psychophysical functions. </p></li><li><p>So, what was Webers discovery?!Without overextending the evidence (as old-style psychophysicists still do),differences in Psychic output, i.e. a symbolic response, are produced by ratios of Physical input, i.e. a material stimulus.This rule is limited to levels of input well above noise and below saturation or discomfortWeber discovered a working principle (NOT the Weber-Fechner Law)OK, so lets use the rule while keeping to middling levels.With just one input and one input, no evidence can exist on which of any potential mediators is operative, e.g.- the observed transform itself (behaviorism)- an experienced sensation (introspectionism)- a low-level sensory process (even neural processes)- a high level perceptuo-cognitive process a linguistic process (cultural role of the descriptor)Hey, but what about several outputs and/or inputs?Such data can distinguish hypothesised mediations, at least within a well-tested theory of mental furniture.</p></li><li><p>Plan of the rest of the talk (well, of the slides at least)</p><p>A single discrimination functionGeneral principles (5 slides)Illustrative results 3 examples (5 slides)</p><p>Performance of multiple discriminations General principles (8 slides)Illustrative resultsCraving for chocolate (3 slides)Emoticons annoying or friendly (2 slides)Empathy for an invalid (2 slides)fMRI &amp; cognition (2 slides)</p><p>Categorical perception in or out of scope? (2 slides)</p></li><li><p>Psychophysics in 20th-century perceptual scienceThe basic logicE.g., five data on causation of output by input OutputInput (starting (starting first)subsequently)AbsentPresent</p><p> Present </p><p> Absent </p><p>(An experimenter causes an input -- but, with observational data, the sequence of starts is diagnostic of the direction of causation.)This slide and the next few are based on my Inaugural Lecture, 1988.Nevertheless they are very old ideas in psychology: the above is a scientists take on Hume.</p></li><li><p>Data for a psychophysical function (the basic math)(with input levels scaled theoretically to give linearity)Just two pointsspecify a straight line... = systems view ^ X | | X Levels X X(amounts)X XNORM responseof Xoutput X Xpattern XZERO response ?endeffect Levels (amounts) of input pattern -------- &gt; ~Zero Norm point point N.B. Other low anchors</p></li><li><p>The Norm and the Discrimination Unit Use middling levels only in any experiment: stay close to anchor response on most stable of common levels of stimulus, e.g., as usual in the world, exactly right for me = Norm. Use a measure of sensitivity for any i/o functione.g., slope of straight line, r-value of linear regression.Webers constant of sensitivity of that response to that stimulus, in a model by L.L. Thurstone (1927), turns out to be (Torgerson, 1956):f [ RMSE of responses / Slope ] see graph on next slide. N.B. in stimulus Dimensions (a ratio of levels).Subjectivist name: Just Noticeable Difference in intensities of a sensation: JNDAn objective name: Half-Discriminated Disparity in input levels by output = HDD Use HDDs from Norm as a universal scale for stimuli e.g., on previous slide, perceptual Zero might be 4.1 HDDs from the Norm.</p><p>The HDD as a unit of structural info. The Bit is a unit of the quantity of processable information a static Informon.The HDD is a unit of the content of information processing a dynamic Logon.</p></li><li><p>Half</p><p> S1 S2 Regression line through the data Mean R1 Mean R2 75%/25% Levels of Response</p><p>Half-DiscriminatedDisparity(HDD)</p><p>The level ofstimulus S2above level S1at which half the Responses areindistinguishablebetween S1 &amp; S2- halfway between100% discrimination&amp; 0% discrimination.</p><p>Twice z-score for 25%times RMSE over SlopeConner et al. (1988) J Appl Psyc</p></li><li><p>If material quantities act in ratios,then symbolic quantities act as differences.SWEET:SWEET:SWEET X X X...</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >