Twiplomacy- The Diplomacy of 140 Characters

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    Twiplomacy – The Diplomacy of

    One Hundred and Forty Characters

    Muhammad Arsalan

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    • Why Twitter for Diplomacy?

    • Analysing Twitter –Tweeters –States-Diplomats

    • Digital Strategies – Reach, Diffusion, Network

    • Case Analysis

    Russia – Ukraine Crisis

    US Cairo Embassy Disaster

    #UnitedforUkraine Campaign

    Venezuela – USA IssueWrapup

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    83% of all governments have a Twitter presence

    90 Foreign Ministries

    65 Foreign Ministers

    162 Heads of State & Government are on Twitter

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    A Pictures worth a thousand words

    • .

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    Government - Reach - Diffusion

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    State Leaders – Reach Diffusion

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    Government – Activity

    .

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    Strategy – Content – Engagement-

    Network - Relationship

    • “push” strategy -i.e. using social media tosimply broadcast messages, reach much

    smaller audiences

    •  “pull” or “networking” strategy, i.e. usingsocial media to actively interact with

    stakeholders

    • #Hashtags• Replies

    • @Mentions

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    Engagement

    • Mentions – Campaigns – Counterparts – 

    Public Hearing – Engagement – Interaction –

    Relational Network [Austria – Latvia- France]

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    Diplomat - State

    Self contained – 

    Cause Oriented

    @Mention – From

    Sweden to engage Russia

     – A Blooper costing

    backlash and Retreat!

    Apology in Public

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    State - State

    Sarcasm – 

    Campaign-

    Mentions - Diffusion

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    Foreign Public – 

    State Leader

    #Hashtag Campaign

    President Obamasigned an order

    labelling Venzuela

    as National Threat

    Activists have

    mobilized 6.2 Mn

    petition against theorder has been

    signed by people of

    Venzeula – 

    Insighted

    Nationalism and

    patriotism

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     Disaster at Cairo Embassy

    Diplomat – Foreign Public

    To sustain exogenous

    pressure, ended up

    insighting endogenous

    pressure

    Schwartz Tweet

    9/11/2011

    "condemns the

    continuing efforts by

    misguided individuals

    to hurt the religious

    feelings of Muslims,"

    Schwartz Tweet

    9/11/2011

    "condemns the

    continuing efforts by

    misguided individualsto hurt the religious

    feelings of Muslims,"

    Republican

    challenger Mitt

    Romney, lawmakers,

    and conservatives

    around the country as

    an inappropriate"apology" and a failure

    to stand up for

    American principles

    such as freedom of

    speech.,"

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    Exogenous Shock – Embassy Breach

    Four Diplomat Died in Libya Benghazi

    - Endoegnous Shock : Strong

    Criticism for apologetic attitude

    on American values and religiousintolerance.

    - Obama and Ms. Clinton have to

    explain the situation.

    - Larry Schwartz Sacked for his

    conversational / casual

    hyperactivity with too much

    engagement

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    STATE-

    CAMPAIGN

    The Hashtag

    got 10,000

    tweets intwo days 

    http://topsy.com/analytics?q1=#UnitedForUkraine&via=Topsyhttp://topsy.com/analytics?q1=#UnitedForUkraine&via=Topsyhttp://topsy.com/analytics?q1=#UnitedForUkraine&via=Topsyhttp://topsy.com/analytics?q1=#UnitedForUkraine&via=Topsyhttp://topsy.com/analytics?q1=#UnitedForUkraine&via=Topsyhttp://topsy.com/analytics?q1=#UnitedForUkraine&via=Topsyhttp://topsy.com/analytics?q1=#UnitedForUkraine&via=Topsyhttp://topsy.com/analytics?q1=#UnitedForUkraine&via=Topsy

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    Russia riding the US

    Hashtag campaign for

    its own narrative!

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    Hashtag Campaigns

    backed by no

    tangible action -

    ruthlessly criticized

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    State – to Non State

    / Terrorist Groups.

    After failure of

    Hashtag Campaigns

     – US DigitalDiplomacy is

    reverting to

    Broadcast-Push

    Strategy from

    Network-Pull

    Strategy

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    Journalist - Bureaucrat34 Years Seasoned

    Journalist –sacked – twitter

    account deleted

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    State-Foreign Public

    Cultural Engagement – 

    Exchange – A bit of a

    Blooper inviting uproaring

    Bangladesh

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    Listen – Watch -Adapt

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    Listen – Watch -

    Adapt

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    Wrap-up• Digital Diplomacy is not one size fit all

    • No Generalization – Oversimplification – Thumb rules

    Balance is the key – Balancing between

    • Listening or speaking

    • Push or Pull

    • Network or Cascading Information

    • Endogenous and Exogenous Shocks

    • Timing

    • Attitude

    • Content

    • Personalization Versus Formal Behaviour

    • Sarcasm Versus Subtleness Versus Abuse Versus Politesse

    • Digital Diplomacy supplements not substitute Face to Face Diplomacy

    It should complement

    • Advocacy , Cultural and Exchange Diplomacy, and Information Dissemenation.

    Connect and Engage to

    • following and predicting developments,

    • formulating and implementing policy,

    • influencing and identifying who to influence,

    • communicating our policy

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