TV Production Xiaoxi Wang Slide 2 Introduction What is television? Television is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. The term has come to refer to all the aspects of television from the television set to the programming and transmission. How do you make TV programs? This is an abstruse knowledge, which is concerning a very extensive area. The presentation just goes through a overview of production background and practice. Slide 3 The director The work of a TV director: Organizations The size and type of production A presentational role In some particular fields( drama, concert, sports) Combining with producer in smaller productions Slide 4 Production emphasis Picture and sound to present events Some needs a quiet background to perform (interview, piano recital). Some needs hype for subjects: flashing, light effects, color, unusual sound quality, strange camera angles Slide 5 Production emphasis The effective programs: Some are based on a compilation of video- tape and film material interlaced by commentary and music. Some are based on action. Some ate based on reaction (dialogue: important or incidental) Slide 6 Selective tools and techniques Tools: Camera Microphone Techniques: Varieties in shots (proportion; composition mode; centres of attention; changing subjects affect) Slide 7 Techniques How to achieve: To change the shot size and camera viewpoint: moving the subjects; moving the camera; changing the subject seen. Look at a particular feature and follow a certain thought process Slide 8 The screen transforms reality Camera shooting and the frame of TV screen can make the original isolated area to a absolute new picture. An arrangement doesnt exist in its own from the originality. An arrangement in continual close-shot can make different effect from the integrated subject in audiences mind. 3-dimensional form has a rebirth as a flat mode on the TV screen. Slide 9 Interpretative techniques Example: to shoot a mountain climb: dont use straightforward shots, but use low angles to represent threatening, venturesome, dangerous scene. Slide 10 Production pressure Limited time Segments-continuity Evaluating the audience impact (timing, tension, etc.) Slide 11 Single camera Slide 12 Scripting Unscripted improvisational shooting: documentaries and news Scripted shooting: out of sequences Slide 13 Single camera shooting Traditional method to make film Out of sequence Slide 14 Flexibility of viewpoint Shots inter-cut Requiring several cameras Time of shot( period between pictures change) Slide 15 Continuous single camera shooting Following camera Woking to the camera Stretched facilities Slide 16 Discontinues single camera shooting Shooting uncontrolled action keeping the viewpoint and using the zooming to make variety of shots Moving camera to change the viewpoint and zooming Slide 17 Discontinues single camera shooting Shooting controlled action (drama, film) You can control the action, camera, lighting etc. to fit the needed shots. Repeating one action to use long, medium close shots You can have chance to change the shooting subject. Slide 18 Segment shooting It depends on the request and purpose in dramatic development. Slide 19 Multi-camera The multiple-camera setup is a method of shooting films and television programs. Several cameraseither film or videoare employed on the set and simultaneously record (or broadcast) a scene. It is often contrasted with the single-camera setup, which uses just one camera on the set. Slide 20 The use of cameras Slide 21 Change by grouping Slide 22 Shooting static subjects Moving camera to change viewpoint Pan over to relate different parts Light changing Showing different characteristics in small subjects Slide 23 Variety by effects Combining shots Multi-images Separate screens Add background and color Slide 24 illusion of relationships Audiences sense is from the visual hint; the related direction; movement; comparing characteristics;. Slide 25 Slide 26 Planned viewpoint In different camera shooting from different direction, there are series of shots that you can choose for requirement. Example: C1: wider shots (MS to LS) C2: primarily CU C3: hold CU Slide 27 Making tension Beginning with interaction between characters; dialogue, story line Influencing by: strong shots; music; effect; ambiguous information; lacking information; etc. Slide 28 Pace Script: word length; scene length; dialogue duration Delivery: high-pitched, fast sounds rapid pace; low-pitched, slow sounds slow pace Treatment: the pace for camera movement; performer movement; switching Usually, audience pay more attention on visual pace than sound Slide 29 Bad techniques The main subjects are ignored. Details are ambiguous. No primary and secondary Some particular scene never give in detail Some events in later show is eliminated in a short time Too brief titling or graphics Be careful to use CS,MS,LS etc in a scene or event Dont break an action easily Some dialogue, attitude, guest mistake in interview The camera doesnt follow the speaking person in time Wrong cued performers Confusing shots Slide 30 Audiences concentration Usually in a program, the audience concentration is increasing in tension from the beginning to the end The directors and authors rely on the intuition and experience. Relaxation-climax-relaxation Avoiding the story line old-fashioned that audience can know it before the end. If the pace and the facts are too fast and fast- cutting with a slow episode,the audience will lost Slide 31 Visual assist In music performance, the emphasis is on sound, however you cant make a blank screen, the camera shows the executants expression, appearance and how they play the instruments in order to make audience pay attention to the visual effect. Slide 32 Indicate passage of time Explaining title Fade in-fade out Cut away Time indicator Lighting changing from light to dark Before and after events Particular Sound showing the time Defocus and refocus Slide 33 Conclusion Dont just learn from book, try the real practice of producing TV program. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TV_production http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_camera_setup http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple-camera_setup The pictures with cat-foot are drawn by Xiaoxi Slide 34 Thank you! Questions?