Turkmen, et al. v. Hasty, et al

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Text of Turkmen, et al. v. Hasty, et al

  • 13981(L)Turkmen,etal.v.Hasty,etal.

    UNITEDSTATESCOURTOFAPPEALS1FORTHESECONDCIRCUIT2

    34

    AugustTerm,201356

    (Argued:May1,2014Decided:June17,2015)78

    DocketNos.13981,13999,131002,131003,131662910

    11IBRAHIMTURKMEN,AKHILSACHDEVA,AHMERIQBALABBASI,12ANSERMEHMOOD,BENAMARBENATTA,AHMEDKHALIFA,13

    SAEEDHAMMOUDA,PURNABAJRACHARYA,onbehalfofthemselvesand14allotherssimilarlysituated,15

    16PlaintiffsAppelleesCrossAppellants, 17

    18v.19

    20DENNISHASTY,formerWardenoftheMetropolitanDetentionCenter,21MICHAELZENK,formerWardenoftheMetropolitanDetentionCenter,22JAMESSHERMAN,formerMetropolitanDetentionCenterAssociate23

    WardenforCustody,2425 DefendantsAppellants,2627

    JOHNASHCROFT,formerAttorneyGeneraloftheUnitedStates,28ROBERTMUELLER,formerDirector,FederalBureauofInvestigation,29

    JAMESW.ZIGLAR,formerCommissioner,Immigrationand30NaturalizationService,31

    32 DefendantsCrossAppellees,3334

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    SALVATORELOPRESTI,formerMetropolitanDetentionCenterCaptain,1JOSEPHCUCITI,formerMetropolitanDetentionCenterLieutenant,2

    3 Defendants.*4

    56Before: 7

    POOLER,RAGGI,ANDWESLEY,CircuitJudges.89

    10AppealfromaJanuary15,2013MemorandumandOrderoftheUnitedStates11DistrictCourtfortheEasternDistrictofNewYork(Gleeson,J.)grantinginpart12anddenyinginpartDefendantsmotionstodismiss.CrossappealfromanApril1310,2013JudgmentoftheUnitedStatesDistrictCourtfortheEasternDistrictof14NewYork(Gleeson,J.),whichwasenteredpursuanttoRule54(b)oftheFederal15RulesofCivilProcedureonApril11,2013,grantingcertainDefendantsmotions16todismiss.WeAFFIRMinpartandREVERSEinpart.JudgeRaggiconcursin17partinthejudgmentanddissentsinpartinaseparateopinion.18

    19

    RACHELA.MEEROPOL,CenterforConstitutionalRights,20NewYork,NY(MichaelWinger,SunitaPatel,BaherA.21Azmy,CenterforConstitutionalRights,NewYork,NY;22NancyL.Kestenbaum,JenniferL.Robbins,JoanneSum23Ping,Covington&BurlingLLP,NewYork,NY,onthe24brief),forPlaintiffsAppelleesCrossAppellants.2526HUGHD.SANDLER,Crowell&MoringLLP,NewYork,27NY(ShariRossLahlou,Crowell&MoringLLP,28Washington,D.C.,onthebrief),forDefendantAppellant29DennisHasty.30

    31JOSHUAC.KLEIN(AllanN.Taffet,KirkL.Brett,Megan32E.Uhle,onthebrief),Duval&StachenfeldLLP,New33York,NY,forDefendantAppellantMichaelZenk.34

    *TheClerkoftheCourtisdirectedtoamendthecaptionassetforthabove.

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    1JEFFREYA.LAMKEN,MoloLamkenLLP,Washington,2D.C.(MartinV.Totaro,MoloLamkenLLP,Washington,3D.C.;DebraL.Roth,JuliaH.Perkins,Shaw,Bransford4&RothP.C.,Washington,D.C.,onthebrief),for5DefendantAppellantJamesSherman.67H.THOMASBYRONIII,AppellateAttorney,Civil8Division(StuartF.Delery,AssistantAttorneyGeneral,9RonaldC.MachenJr.,UnitedStatesAttorney,Dana10Boente,UnitedStatesAttorney,BarbaraL.Herwig,11AppellateAttorney,CivilDivision,onthebrief),U.S.12DepartmentofJustice,Washington,D.C.,forDefendants13CrossAppelleesJohnAshcroftandRobertMueller.14

    15WILLIAMALDENMCDANIEL,JR.,BallardSpahrLLP,16Baltimore,MD,forDefendantCrossAppelleeJamesW.17Ziglar.18

    19TrinaRealmuto,NationalImmigrationProjectofthe20NationalLawyersGuild,Boston,MA;MaryKenney,21AmericanImmigrationCouncil,Washington,D.C.,22amicicuriaeinsupportofPlaintiffsAppelleesCross23Appellants.24

    2526

    POOLERANDWESLEY,CircuitJudges:27

    OnSeptember11,2001,19ArabMuslimhijackerswhocounted28

    themselvesmembersingoodstandingofalQaedahijackedfourairplanesand29

    killedover3,000peopleonAmericansoil.Ashcroftv.Iqbal(Iqbal),556U.S.662,30

    682(2009).Thiscaseraisesadifficultanddelicatesetoflegalissuesconcerning31

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    individualswhowerecaughtupinthepost9/11investigationeventhoughthey1

    wereunquestionablyneverinvolvedinterroristactivity.Plaintiffsareeight2

    male,outofstatusaliens1whowerearrestedonimmigrationchargesand3

    detainedfollowingthe9/11attacks.PlaintiffswereheldattheMetropolitan4

    DetentionCenter(theMDC)inBrooklyn,NewYork,orthePassaicCountyJail5

    (Passaic)inPaterson,NewJersey;theirindividualdetentionsgenerallyranged6

    fromapproximatelythreetoeightmonths.7

    Theoperativecomplaint,aputativeclassaction,assertsvariousclaims8

    againstformerAttorneyGeneralJohnAshcroft;formerDirectoroftheFederal9

    BureauofInvestigation(theFBI)RobertMueller;formerCommissionerofthe10

    ImmigrationandNaturalizationService(theINS)JamesZiglar;formerMDC11

    WardenDennisHasty;formerMDCWardenMichaelZenk;andformerMDC12

    AssociateWardenJamesSherman.2Allclaimsariseoutofallegedly13

    1Weusethetermoutofstatusalientomeanonewhohaseither(1)enteredtheUnitedStatesillegallyandisdeportableifapprehended,or(2)enteredtheUnitedStateslegallybutwhohasfallenoutofstatusbyviolatingtherulesorguidelinesforhisnonimmigrantstatus(oftenbyoverstayinghisvisa)intheUnitedStatesandisdeportable.2Foreaseofreference,werefertoAshcroft,Mueller,andZiglarcollectivelyastheDepartmentofJustice(DOJ)Defendants,andHasty,Sherman,andZenkcollectivelyastheMDCDefendants.TheoperativecomplaintalsoallegesclaimsagainstMDCofficialsJosephCucitiandSalvatoreLopresti.Cucitididnotappealthedistrictcourtsdecision,andLoprestifiledanoticeofappealbutdidnottimelypaythefilingfeeorfile

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    discriminatoryandpunitivetreatmentPlaintiffssufferedwhileconfinedatthe1

    MDCorPassaic.2

    BACKGROUND3

    I. ProceduralHistory34

    PlaintiffsinitiatedthisactionoverthirteenyearsagoonApril17,2002.5

    Overthefollowingtwoandonehalfyears,Plaintiffsamendedtheircomplaint6

    threetimes.InJune2006,followingaseriesofmotionstodismiss,thedistrict7

    courtdismissedPlaintiffsunlawfullengthofdetentionclaimsbutpermittedto8

    proceed,interalia,thesubstantivedueprocessandequalprotectionclaims9

    challengingtheconditionsofconfinementattheMDC.SeeTurkmenv.Ashcroft10

    (TurkmenI),No.02CV2307(JG),2006WL1662663,at*3336,4041(E.D.N.Y.11

    June14,2006),affdinpart,vacatedinpart,Turkmenv.Ashcroft(TurkmenII),58912

    F.3d542(2dCir.2009)(percuriam),remandedtoTurkmenIII,915F.Supp.2dat13

    314.PlaintiffsandDefendantsappealedvariousaspectsofthatruling.14

    Twosignificanteventsoccurredwhiletheappealwaspending.First,six15

    oftheoriginaleightnamedPlaintiffsatthattimewithdreworsettledtheirclaims16abrief.LoprestisappealwasdismissedpursuanttoFederalRuleofAppellateProcedure31(c).Thus,wedonotaddresstheclaimsagainstCucitiandLopresti.3Foramorecomprehensivereviewofthiscasesproceduralhistory,seeTurkmenv.Ashcroft(TurkmenIII),915F.Supp.2d314,33133(E.D.N.Y.2013).

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    againstthegovernment.SeeTurkmenII,589F.3dat544n.1,545.Thisleftonly1

    IbrahimTurkmenandAkhilSachdeva,bothofwhomweredetainedatPassaic,2

    asopposedtotheMDC.Second,theSupremeCourtissuedIqbal,556U.S.at662,3

    whichalteredthepleadingregimegoverningPlaintiffsclaims.Inlightofthese4

    eventsandtheremainingPlaintiffsstateddesiretorepleadclaimsuniquetothe5

    settlingPlaintiffs,thisCourtaffirmedthedismissalofthelengthofdetention6

    claimsbutvacatedandremandedwithrespecttotheconditionsofconfinement7

    claims.SeeTurkmenII,589F.3dat54647,54950.8

    Onremand,thedistrictcourtpermittedPlaintiffstoamendtheircomplaint9

    andgrantedleaveforsixadditionalPlaintiffs,allofwhomhadbeenheldatthe10

    MDC,tointervene.TheeightcurrentnamedPlaintiffsareofMiddleEastern,11

    NorthAfrican,orSouthAsianorigin;sixofthemareMuslim,oneisHindu,and12

    oneisBuddhist.TheFourthAmendedComplaint(theComplaint),the13

    operativecomplaintinthiscase,restatesPlaintiffsputativeclassclaimson14

    behalfofthe9/11detainees,aclassofsimilarlysituatednoncitizenswhoare15

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    AraborMuslim,orwereperceivedbyDefendantsasAraborMuslim,andwere1

    arrestedanddetainedinresponsetothe9/11attacks.42

    TheComplaintdramaticallywinnowedtherelevantclaimsand3

    defendants;itallegessevenclaimsagainsteightdefendants.Thefirstsixclaims,4

    allbroughtpursuanttoBivensv.SixUnknownNamedAgentsofFederalBureauof5

    Narcotics,403U.S.388(1971),are:(1)aconditionsofconfinementclaimunderthe6

    DueProcessClause;(2)anequalprotectionclaimallegingthatDefendants7

    subjectedPlaintiffstothechallengedconditionsbecauseoftheir,ortheir8

    perceived,race,religion,ethnicity,and/ornationalorigin;(3)aclaimarising9

    undertheFreeExerciseClause;(4)and(5)twoclaimsgenerallyalleging10

    interferencewithcounsel;and(6)aclaimundertheFourthandFifth11

    Amendmentsallegingunreasonableandpunitivestripsearches.Theseventh12

    andfinalclaimallegesaconspiracyunder42U.S.C.1985(3).TheDOJand13

    MDCDefendantsmovedtodismisstheComplaintforfailuretostateaclaim,on14

    4BenamarBenattawasoriginallydetainedbyCanadianauthoritiesonSeptember5,2001,aftercrossingtheCanadianborderwithfalsedocumentation.FollowingtheSeptember11attacks,BenattawastransportedbacktotheUnitedStatesanddetainedinthechallengedconditionsofconfinementandpursuanttothepost9/11investigation;therefore,wecallhima9/11detainee.

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    qualifiedimmunitygrounds,and,insomeinstances,basedonatheorythat1

    Bivensreliefdidnotextendtotheclaimatissue.2

    II. TheOIGReports3

    Plaintiffssupplementedthefactualallegationsintheiramended4

    complaintswithinformationgleanedfromtworeportsbytheOfficeofthe5

    InspectorGeneraloftheUnitedStatesDepartmentofJustice(theOIG6

    reports)5thatdocumentedthefederallawenforcementresponseto9/11and7

    conditionsattheMDCandPassaic.8

    TheOIGreports,whichtheComplaintincorporate[s]byreferenceexcept9

    wherecontradictedbytheallegationsof[theComplaint],Compl.3n.1,seealso10

    id.5n.2,playasignificantroleinthiscase.6Primarily,theOIGreportsprovide11

    5TherearetwoOIGreports.ThefirstOIGreport,publishedinJune2003,coversmultipleaspectsoflawenforcementsresponseto9/11.SeeU.S.DeptofJustice,OfficeoftheInspectorGeneral,TheSeptember11Detainees:AReviewoftheTreatmentofAliensHeldonImmigrationChargesinConnectionwiththeInvestigationoftheSeptember11