Turfgrass Growth and Water Use in Gypsum-Treated Ultisols M.J. Schlossberg Penn State University

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Text of Turfgrass Growth and Water Use in Gypsum-Treated Ultisols M.J. Schlossberg Penn State University

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  • Turfgrass Growth and Water Use in Gypsum-Treated Ultisols M.J. Schlossberg Penn State University
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  • Turfgrass and the SE US Bermudagrass and Tall Fescue dominate the landscape of the US Southern Piedmont (GA, AL, and the Carolinas)
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  • Turfgrass and the SE US Interestingly: Bermudagrass and Tall Fescue are the two turfgrasses recognized for generating the most deeply-extending root systems of ALL turfgrass species.
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  • Turf-type tall fescue roots GypsumControl 0-3.5 3.6-7 7-11 Soil chemical or soil physical problem?
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  • Treatment Options??? Lime Agricultural grade limestone is an effective ameliorant of soil acidity Commonly incorporated at establishment for production of cotton, soybean, corn, peanuts, etc. INCORPORATE is the key word, effective treatment of soil acidity with lime requires tillage into the soil profile
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  • How Do Turf Managers Like Incorporating Lime?
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  • They dont. Turfgrasses are perennial in nature and establishment is not only uncommon, but dreaded! So how can managers ameliorate the effects of acidity without plowing the lawn?
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  • Gypsum Many attributes: More soluble than agricultural lime Doesnt require tillage or coring Doesnt raise pH of the surface soil This can cause soil structure and turf disease problems Provides sulfate (SO 4 ), the plant essential nutrient form of sulfur
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  • Hydroponic experiment
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  • Tall fescue root growth in Al solutions
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  • Fescue columns (33cm) ZnO 2 paint
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  • Tall fescue root growth column study a a a bb bb cc
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  • Greenhouse Experiment Objectives 1. Construct columns which represent soil profiles indigenous to the SE US. 2. Analyze leachate to confirm calcium sulfate penetration of subsoil, displacement of Al, and/or other soil chemistry alterations. 3. Use installed instrumentation to monitor water extraction from acidic subsoil by roots, by depth. 4. Simulate drought periods repetitively; mimicking rain patterns, while promoting deep rooting in columns 5. Analyze columns to assess root architecture and calcium saturation of CEC by soil depth.
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  • Experimental Design Acidic B Horizon Clay pHw(1:1) 4.9 Exch. Acid 3.9 meq/100g Mehlich III (M3) exchangeable: Phosphorus (P) 2.0 lbs/A Potassium (K) 0.04 meq Magnesium (Mg) 0.25 meq Calcium (Ca) 0.65 meq Total CEC: 4.84 meq 54 cm 8 cm
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  • Acidic B Horizon Clay pHw(1:1) 4.9 Exch. Acid 3.9 meq/100g Mehlich III (M3) exchangeable: Phosphorus (P) 2.0 lbs/A Potassium (K) 0.04 meq Magnesium (Mg) 0.25 meq Calcium (Ca) 0.65 meq Total CEC: 4.84 meq Experimental Design
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  • Treatments (5): Synthetic/FGD Gypsum (Southern Co.) Tech. Grade Gypsum (CaSO 42H 2 O) Calcium Chloride (CaCl 22H 2 O) Calcitic Lime (100% CCE) Control 90 columns total; 60 Bermudagrass (Princess or Sultan) and 30 turf-type Tall Fescue Rebel Half of each instrumented for real-time soil moisture, three replications of six Experimental Design
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  • The Southern Co. SynGyp, is generated by a wet spray-dryer scrubbing process, and contains 23.3% Ca by mass (+/- 0.65), and has a calcium carbonate equivalency of 2.7% (+/- 0.14). Trace element and heavy metal analysis show few impurities Experimental Design
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  • The Southern Co. SynGyp is 23.3% Ca by mass (+/- 0.65), and has a calcium carbonate equivalency of 2.7% (+/- 0.14). Trace element and heavy metal analysis show few impurities Application Rates Treatmentlbs/Acre (Ca) Lime 4,332 (1,735) FGD and TG Gypsum13,796 (3,224) CaCl 2 11,825 (3,224) Experimental Design
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  • The Southern Co. SynGyp is 23.3% Ca by mass (+/- 0.65), and has a calcium carbonate equivalency of 2.7% (+/- 0.14). Trace element and heavy metal analysis show few impurities Application Rates Treatment Mg/ha (Ca) Lime 4.86 (1.94) FGD and TG Gypsum 15.46 (3.61) CaCl 2 13.25 (3.61) Experimental Design
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  • Cultural Methods TF columns mowed every 93 days @ 3 height No signs/symptoms of pest activity observed over the 2-year study, hence no pesticides were applied (tall fescue is good like that) When >half the TF columns showed stunted growth & leaf firing, all were irrigated with 4 in 1 pulses over 24 hours (every 20-35 days) Post-estab: lb N & K 2 O / 1000 ft 2 / month
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  • Cultural Methods Bermudagrass columns mowed every 73 days @ 1.4 height Insect activity was chemically controlled when necessary When >half the bermuda columns showed stunted growth/dormancy, all were irrigated with 4 in 1 pulses over 24 hours (every 30-50 days) Post-estab: lb N & K 2 O / 1000 ft 2 / month
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  • Leachate chemistry and composition
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  • Solute transport through 54 cm of red clay, by time after treatment
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  • Aluminum concentration in leachate, by time after treatment
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  • Calcium concentration in leachate, by time after treatment
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  • Sulfur concentration in leachate, by time after treatment
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  • Magnesium concentration in leachate, by time after treatment
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  • Potassium concentration in leachate, by time after treatment
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  • Soil nutrient levels by depth
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  • Leaf/shoot biomass production (generally analogous with quality/vigor)
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  • Turfgrass water use by soil depth
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  • Tall Fescue H 2 O-use by depth over (14) 10-35 d dry down periods cm water / day
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  • Turfgrass nutrient concentration and uptake
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  • Visual quality or percent green coverage
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  • Princess Bermudagrass Overlay Representing Turf (60 days after planting, DAP) Of the 3.8 x 10 6 pixels in this image, 881,598 are green, exactly 23.2 %
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  • Princess BermudagrassSultan Bermudagrass 300 DAP
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  • Princess Bermudagrass % Green Cover
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  • a a a b b b
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  • % Green Cover by Treatment of Bermudagrasses in Drought Stress Princess and Sultan % Green Cover Gypsums v. Control+9.0 % Lime +7.2 % All others+21.6% FGD v. Control+6.0 % All others+17.2%
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  • Turfgrass root growth by soil depth
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  • Tall Fescue root length in the 38 62 soil depths
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  • Greenhouse Study Summary Gypsum trts effectively penetrated 60 cm of clay soil 1 year after a ~7 ton/A application Differences between mined & synthetic gyp were slight, allowing pooled analysis Benefits to TF were stark: enhanced growth, total & deep water uptake, deep roots, and leaf S; compared to both Lime and Con trts (with no resulting base cation deficiencies) Benefits to bermudagrass include: enhanced growth & color response under drought conditions (deeper roots?)
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  • Griffin field experiment
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  • Turf Bermuda Zoysia Bentgrass Treatments Control Lime Gypsum (low and high) Lime + gypsum (low and high)
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  • TDR soil moisture meter rods
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  • Soil profile beneath zoysia
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  • Turf field demonstrations usace.army.mil/
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  • Lane Creek Athens, GA Piedmont region Heavy red clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass
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  • The Farm Dalton, GA Ridge and Valley Yellow clay Neutral soil Zoysiagrass
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  • Waterfall Clayton, GA Blue Ridge Mtns Rocky, thin soil Acidic Bentgrass
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  • Grand Hotel Mobile Bay Coastal Plain Sandy soil Close to neutral Bermudagrass
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  • Musgrove Jasper, AL Ridge and Valley Yellow clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass
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  • Chateau Elan Buford, GA Piedmont region Heavy red clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass
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  • UGA soccer fields Athens Piedmont region Heavy red clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass
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  • Taqueta Falls Lookout Mtn. Ridge and Valley Yellow clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass
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