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Turbo Charger- Project

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PROJECT REPORT ON TURBO CHARGER IN A SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINESubmitted ByABDUL SALAM.T -090111150001 JUNAID.P.V -090111150013

KARTHIKEYAN.K -090111150017 PRABHAKARAN.D -090111150029 JAWAHAR RAJA.E -100411150004

Guided ByMr. S. SIVA KUMAR M.E.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PARK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY COIMBATORE-641659

PARK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, COIMBATORE BONAFIDE CERTIFICATECertificate that this report "TURBO CHARGER IN A SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE" is a bonafide work of

ABDUL SALAM.T JUNAID.P.V KARTHIKEYAN.K PRABHAKARAN.D JAWAHAR RAJA.E

Who carried out the project work under my supervision

SIGNATURE OF GUIDE Mr. S.SIVA KUMAR M.E., Department of mechanical Engineering Park college of technology

SIGNATURE OF HEAD OF DEPT Mr. T.MANOHARAN M.E., Department of mechanical Engineering Park college of technology

ACKNOWLEDGMENTWe are all mechanical engineering student and take this opportunity to express our Heart full gratitude and sincere thanks to Dr. LAKSHMAN principle of our institution for accepting and encouraging us to complete this project in a successful manner. We also thank Mr. T. MANOHARAN M.E., Head of the department mechanical engineering for extending all facilities and his valuable in this project.

We express our sincere and green hearts thanks to our Guide Mr. SIVA KUMAR B.E in mechanical engineering for his kind observations, timely advice and suggestion and guiding use to complete project. We express our sincere thanks to all teaching and non-teaching staff member of Mechanical Engineering department.

CONTENTS:S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 CONTENT Synopsis Introduction Aim of the project Drawing Construction of diesel engine Working principle of a diesel engine Cost analysis Maintenance Turbo charger introduction Construction of turbo Working principle of turbo charger Advantages Applications of turbo Conclusion PAGE.NO

SYNOPSIS: Study shows the effort or turbo charger by exhaust gases on diesel combustion and exhaust emission with neat diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The new system shows the turbo charger run by exhaust gas of diesel engine. It increases the efficiency of diesel engine and reduce harmful gases like oxide of nitrogen (Nox),carbonmonoxide. Turbo charger reduce the noise of the diesel engine

INTRODUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE: A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, the engine was developed by Rudolf Diesel in 1893. The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any regular internal or external combustion engine due to its very high compression ratio. Diesel engine are manufactured in two stroke & four stroke engine version.

INTRODUCTION OF TURBO CHARGER: A turbo charger or turbo (colloquialism), from the Greek "" (mixing/spinning) is a forced induction device used to allow more power to be produced for an engine of a given size. Turbo are commonly used on truck, car, train and construction equipment engines. The key difference between a turbocharger and a supercharger is that the turbocharger is driven by an engine's exhaust gases (a supercharger is mechanically driven from the engine, often from a belt connected to the crankshaft). The benefit of a turbo is that it compresses a greater mass of intake air into the combustion chamber(s), thereby resulting in increased power and/or efficiency. Turbos are popularly used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful in automotive fuel cells. Prior to the 1950s, the turbocharger was known as a "turbosupercharger". At the time, all forced induction devices were known as superchargers, however more recently the term "supercharger" is usually applied to only mechanically-driven forced induction devices.

AIM OF THE PROJECT: To reduce the exhaust emission like nox and co. To increase the efficiency. To reduce the engine vibration. To reduce the unburnt fuel comes through diesel engine.

CONSTRUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE:

WORKING OF DIESEL ENGINEThe working of diesel engine is given in the form of two types that is first we see the normal working of four stroke diesel engine and four stroke diesel engines with inlet air preheating system.

NORMAL WORKING OF DIESEL ENGINE: In four stroke diesel engine there are four different strokes used to produce power . Various four strokes of engine: Suction stroke Compression stroke Power or expansion stroke Exhaust stroke In four stroke diesel engine one power stroke can be obtained in every two full rotations of the crank shaft.

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SUCTION STROKE:

During the suction stroke, the piston moves from TDC to BDC. The inlet valve is in open condition where as exhaust valve is closed When the piston moves from top to bottom, the fresh air is admitted inside the cylinder through inlet valve.

COMPRESSION STROKE:

During the compression stroke, both the inlet and exhaust valves are closed. The piston moves from BDS to TDC to compress the air. In case of CI compression is about 3500 to 4000 (KN/m^2). The temperature of the compressed air reaches 600 to 700 Celsius. Engine, the compression ratio various from 12 to 18. The pressure at the end of

POWER STROKE:

In this stroke also, both the inlet and exhaust valves are in closed position. The fuel injector opens just before the beginning of the third stroke; it injects the fuel in atomized form. Ignition of the fuel takes place automatically by means of high pressure and temperature air. The pressure and temperature further will increase due to combustion, it pushes the piston towards down. Thus, it produces power stroke.

EXHAUST STROKE:

In this stroke inlet valve is closed and exhaust valve is open condition. In this stroke power is exhausted through the exhaust valve.

OPERATING PRINCIPLE: All naturally aspirated Otto and diesel cycle engines rely on the downward stroke of a piston to create a low-pressure area (less

than atmospheric pressure) above the piston in order to draw air through the intake system. Most engines cannot inhale their full displacement of atmosphericdensity air (with the exception of tuned-induction systems). The measure of this inefficiency in four-stroke engines is called volumetric efficiency, an engine in which the density of the intake air is equal to atmospheric density would 100% volumetric efficiency. The objective of a turbocharger is to improve an engine's volumetric efficiency by increasing the intake density. The compressor draws in ambient air and compresses it before it enters into the intake manifold at increased pressure. This results in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The power needed to spi The main advantage of turbo charging is increased peak power. Engine wear less. Engine efficiency is increase. More power is produce. Turbochargers cost less then superchargers. A turbocharger may also be used to increase fuel efficiency without increasing power. This is achieved by recovering waste energy in the exhaust and feeding it back into the engine intake. By using this otherwise wasted energy to increase the mass of air, it becomes easier to ensure that all fuel is burned before being vented at the start of the exhaust stage. The increased temperature from the higher pressure gives a higher Carnot efficiency.

During this stroke, inlet valve is closed and the exhaust valve opens. The piston moves from BDC to TDC. It blows out the brunt gases from the cylinder. Thus, one cycle of operation is completed and repeated again and again in the same manner. The above process shows the normal working of diesel engine. In this process the exhaust gas is sent to the atmosphere or to the turbocharger.

INTRODUCTION OF TURBOCHARGER:TURBO CHARGER: Turbocharger is a centrifugal compressor powered by a high speed turbine that is driven by an engines exhaust gases.

TURBO CHARGER AND ITS WORKING: WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A TUBO CHARGER:In an internal combustion engine where there is a need to increase the power, a turbocharger comes in application. In order to accomplish this, the turbocharger increases the mass flow rate of air entering the engine by the turbine action driven by its exhaust. It is widely applied in aircrafts, automobiles and motorcycles.

TURBO CHARGER DESIGN AND FUNCTION: The turbocharger is like a miniature gas turbine, it is a small radial fan driven by the forward motion of the engine exhaust. Comprising the turbocharger are the turbine and the compressor sharing a single shaft. When the exhaust gasses enter, the fan rotates which drives a compressor. Air is then squeezed by the compressor before being delivered to the engine air intake manifold. Because air is compressed, the engine could then take in greater amounts of air to the cylinders. Usually the engine takes in air through a vacuum created by the downward stroke of the cylinder. The normal air pressure is at 14.7 psi and there is a limit to the pressure difference across the intake valves resulting in a limited air mass flow rate. In order to increase the intake, pressure must then be increased. In this way additional oxygen to the engine makes it possible to burn more fuel which increases the power of the engine. Increase air pressure is possible with the turbocharger application.

Turbochargers, although applies the same as superchargers except for small variations. Superchargers, particularly Centrifugal superchargers were spun by the rotation of the engines crankshaft. This made turbochargers more efficient in terms of recycling energy loss through the exhaust.

Although the turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor, several working components actually

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