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TRP Chapter 5.4 1 Chapter 5.4 Facility development

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  • Chapter 5.4Facility development

  • Components of an integrated hazardous waste management strategyENFORCEMENTLEGISLATIONSUPPORTSERVICESFACILITIESInstitutional arrangementsStakeholdersSource: David C Wilson 1993, 1999

  • The implementation conundrumSource: David C Wilson

  • Waste hierarchySource: David C Wilson 1993, 1997, 2001

  • Short term vs long term solutionsNeed twin track approach: In the short term: do something now For the long term, need strategic planningLandfill will continue to be needed

    Example of long term, strategic approach: Hong Kong 1981 Planning study for central treatment facility for hazardous wastes, and site selected1987 Detailed feasibility study commenced 1990 Contractor appointed 1993 Facility began operationIntermediate treatment for hazardous wastes included: co-disposal of selected wastes in controlled landfillsexport of small quantities of difficult wastes (eg PCB capacitors) for high temperature incineration in Europe

  • Information needed for facility developmentFor short, medium and long term, need information on:current waste quantities and typeslocation of generatorsforecasts of likely future arisings

  • On-site solutionsOn-site handling is the preferred solution, where possibleDepends on: waste type, generation rate and frequencyframework of government policytechnical feasibility of small-scale plantcompanys level of competenceeconomic feasibilityrisks eg accidents

  • Some common on-site treatment optionsThe following may be found at generators premises:wastewater treatmentchemical treatment for hazard reductionrecovery/recycling of solventsmedium temperature incinerationstorageimmobilisationlicensed landfill (at very large premises)

  • Off-site solutionshigh environmental standardseconomies of scale part of essential infrastructureSmall facilities - benefitsless transportmore flexiblelower capital costs Small facilities - disadvantages more difficult to control suited to private ownershipLarge facilities - benefits better operational/management standardsmore reliable

    Large facilities - disadvantages more transport less flexible eg for small loadsmay be unsuited to initial stageshigh capital costsLarge vs smallPhased programme - focus first on the bulk waste streams - cheaper and simpler to deal with - reduces the scale of problem and size of investment needed

  • Some common off-site treatment optionsDestruction of miscellaneous hazardous wastes eg from laboratories, schools and small generaotrs including householdsHigh temperature incineration of liquid and/or solid wastesEffluent treatment for small generatorsStabilisation and immobilisationSolvent recyclingWaste oil recoveryLandfill for stabilised hazardous waste

  • Attracting investment in hazardous waste facilitiesRequires a partnership between a number of players:GovernmentIndustryPrivate sectorFinancial institutions The public eg ngos

  • Government must provide controlWhy are controls needed?To establish performance standards To determine permitted releasesTo ensure uniform standards for all operators including on-site facilities and create a level playing fieldBUT - must co-ordinate introduction of controls with availability of facilitiesAND must develop controls gradually, over time

  • Creating the right climate for investmentGovernment is responsible for creating right climate

    Actions to encourage and support investment: Require generators to use new facilityEnsure institutional clarity Encourage facility use Protect the businessProvide financial supportProvide assistance with finding a site

  • Ownership / funding modelsAlternatives: 100% government funded 100% private sector funded Mix of the two joint venture of central and local government and local industrypartnerships eg municipality and waste industry

  • Balancing the needs of the joint venture partnersNeed to balance: needs of facility proponent needs of government needs of local industry

  • Engaging the publicSiting and developing a facility is more likely to be successful if the public has already been involved at strategic level Avoids pulling in opposite directions

  • A step-wise approach: Bangkok case studyTreatment plant and storage sumpsSource: David C Wilson

  • Key lessons for addressing the implementation conundrumNo easy answersRequires a mix of on-site and off-site facilitiesProgress step by step, consider transitional technologies, phase investmentsGovernment has key role, particularly in squeezing out wastesSuccessful implementation requires a proactive partnershipThe initial investor will require some protection of his market and some early financial support

  • Chapter 5.4 SummaryTo implement an integrated waste management system, facility development is an essential componentWithout facilities, regulations cannot be enforcedThere are: Short term and long term solutionsOn-site and off-site solutionsNeed to: Attract investmentEngage the public Develop facilities in stages

    Slide 2 Components of an integrated hazardous waste management strategyAs discussed elsewhere in this training manual, a successful hazardous waste management strategy relies on the integrated development of a number of aspects. Facilities in which to treat and dispose of hazardous wastes are just one of the necessary components. This chapter is largely concerned with the establishment of large centralised treatment and disposal facilities, but it also considers on-site facilities owned and operated by individual waste generators. Slide 3 The implementation conundrumThe development of appropriate facilities is vital. However, their introduction can face significant barriers and constraints.The current status in most developing economies is uncontrolled dumping of hazardous wastes, to water, air or land. As part of the integrated approach, new legislation bans such uncontrolled dumping and requires the use of appropriate facilities, and the adoption of management practices which meet defined standards. Until such facilities are available, it is impossible for a government to implement and enforce controls over waste generators, becausee it would not be possible for them to comply. On the other hand, for a private investor considering investment eg in an expensive new central treatment and disposal facility, his decision will be based entirely on the commercial risks. If the waste quantity expected multiplied by the price which can be charged provides sufficient return on his investment, then he will go ahead. However, such a decision is most unlikely until the new legislation is implemented and enforced. Until that happens there would be very little waste to go to the facility as it is not possible overnight to divert all hazardous wastes away from what are now illegal disposal routes. Also waste generators will not willingly pay the relatively high gate fee needed to make the new facility viable until the now illegal low cost dumping option is closed off. This implementation conundrum is represented on the slide as a devils staircase, where you keep going up but never reach the top. There are no easy answers but this chapter shows some of the approaches which different countries have found useful in moving forward.Slide 4 Waste hierarchyAs noted in Chapter 1.3, facilities is used here in a generic sense, to mean the physical capacity to manage wastes. As the waste hierachy on the slide shows, this includes measures to avoid the generation of waste in the first place, and to minimise the quantities, as well as those for recycling, treatment and disposal.Slide 5 Short term v long term solutionsIn general it will be necessary to proceeed on two tracks in parallel. In the short term it is necessary to do something now. In this context, the transitional technologies discussed in Chapter 6.7 have proven their worth in many countries.However experiences with failed site selection exercises in many countries have shown the importance of planning and developing facilities in the context of a sound and properly developed and agreed framework, as provided by a national policy/strategy and a regional strategic plan. (See Chapter 1.3 Developing a hazardous waste policy and strategy)An example of a long term, national strategic approach is that taken in Hong Kong for its central treatment facility for hazardous wastes. The first detailed planning study was undertaken in 1981, after which a site was selected. A detailed feasibility study was commenced in 1987. A contractor was appointed in 1990. The facility began operation in 1993. In the intervening period, interim arrangements were put in place to deal with hazardous wastes, including the co-disposal of selected wastes in controlled municipal solid waste landfill sites and the export of small quantities of very difficult wastes (eg PCB capacitors) for high temperature incineration in Europe. (See also Chapter 6.7 Transitional technologies)Landfills will have a central place in hazardous waste strategies for some time to come, although in the long term they should ideally be used only for stabilised residues from treatment. While controlled municipal solid wastes landfills can in the interim take some of the less hazardous wastes, hazardous waste landfill sites are likely to be needed in the medium term. Slide 6 Information needed for facility developmentBefore deciding what kinds of facilities are needed and where, it is important to have a good understanding of the wastes to be dealt with. All facility planning - whether for the short, medium or long term - needs a basic level of information if the facilities are to be appropriate in the treatment options they provide and their size. Therefore one of the first steps in developing treatment disposal and storage facilities is

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