Traning and Development1

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    Training

    Systematic development process whereby people acquire

    knowledge, Skills and attitudes for the achievement of

    organizational goals or enhancement of the performance of

    the employees.

    The Context of Training

    Training make organizations more competitive Training helps retain valuable employees

    Motivating

    Improving Employee performance

    Preparing for promotion & succession HRD: Traning:Activities to teach employees how to

    better perform their present job.

    Development: Involves those activities that prepare

    an employee for future responsibilities.

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    TRAINING refers to a planned effort by anorganization to facilitate employees in acquiring

    skill, attitude and behavior that are critical forsuccessful performance on the job.

    On acquiring the knowledge and skills, the

    employees are expected to apply them to day-to-

    day activities without which the relevance oftraining would be lost .

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    A SYSTEMATIC TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    Identify

    Training Needs

    Organizational

    Variables

    Task Variables

    Person

    Variables

    Develop

    Evaluation

    Criteria

    Reaction

    Learning

    BehaviorResults

    Establish

    Training

    Objectives

    Select &

    Design

    Programs

    Evaluate

    outcomes

    against

    criteriaConduct

    Program

    ACTIVITY EVALUATIONASSESMENT

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    Assessment Phase: Translation of training needs intotraining objectives and gives direction purpose of training.

    Need assessment: Is a systematic analysis of the specific

    training activities the organization requires to achieve itsobjectives.

    Organizational Variables;(In what context will training

    occur)Organizational culture, organizational external

    environment, Hr objectives ,Hr planning.

    Person variables: (Who needs to be trained and why) Job

    specification, Performance Appraisal

    Observation by supervisor, Feedback Task variable: (What needs to be taught) Job analysis

    and Job description.

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    Five methods to gather need assessment.

    Interviewing the employees

    Questionnaires Observation

    Focus group

    Documentation/ Records.

    InterviewQs

    1. What problems is the employee having in his/her job?

    2.What additional skills and/knowledge does the

    employee need to better perform the job? 3. What training does the employee believe is needed.?

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    Qs. Developing a list of skills required to perform a

    particular tasks and asking the employees.

    Attitude survey. Observer: Trained Observer/ job analyst and develop

    training needs.

    Focus: Composed of employees from various departments

    and various levels within the organization. Qs1. What skills/ knowledge will our employees need for

    our organization to stay competitive over the next five

    years

    Qs2 What problem does our organization have that can besolved through training?

    Documentaton:Absenteeism; turnover; accident rates

    performance appraisal..

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    Training Objectives

    State what will result for the organization, department

    or individual when the training is completed.

    Instructional objectives: What principles , facts ,

    concepts are to be learned, who and when to be

    taught in the training program.

    Organizational & departmental objectives: What

    impact will the training have on the organizational and

    departmental outcome; absenteeism, turnover, produt.

    Individual performance & Growth objectives:What impact will the traning have on the behavioral

    and attitudinal outcome of the individual traniee and

    personal growth of the traniee

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    Activity phase: How to Achieve.

    Location: on the job vs off-thejob

    Timing: Spaced, massed and session

    Presenter: external vs internal Delivering Off- the-job: Classroom activities

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    Delivering Off- the-job:

    Classroom activities: Effective means of imparting

    knowledge to large groups with limited or no knowledge. SIMULATION: A Training Device designed to reproduce

    a real-world situation in a risk-controlled learning

    environment.

    VESTIBULE TRAINING: Training that takes placeaway from the production area on equipment that

    closely resembles the actual equipment used on the

    job.

    ROLE-PLAYS: Training activities in which participantsassume the roles of specific people in situations (such

    as the role of interviewer and job applicant), act out

    the event and then review the implications of their

    behavior.

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    IN-BASKET EXERCISES: A simulation in which

    the participant is asked to establish priorities for

    handling a number of business papers, such asmemos, reports and telephone messages, that

    would typically cross a managers desk.

    ADVENTURE TRAINING: Presents managers

    with physical & mental challenges.The aim is topromote self-awareness, confidence & teamwork.

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    On-the-job Traning(OJT)

    Traning that shows the employee how to performthe job and allow to do it under the trainer's

    supervision.

    JOB ROTATION/ cross traning : Increases task

    variety by moving employees from one task to

    another for specified time period .

    COACHING: On-the-job approach to

    management development in which the manager

    is given as opportunity to teach on a one-to-one

    basis.

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    MENTORING: A developmentally oriented relationshipbetween senior & junior colleagues or peers that involvesadvising, role- modeling, sharing contacts & giving general

    support. BEHAVIOR MODELING: A process of learning from other

    peoples experience by simulating (copying) their behavior.

    ACTION LEARNING: Based on learning by experience.Uses real problems from the work situation for trainees to

    solve. COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING: Skill approach to

    employee development. Focus is on performing to specifictasks to a pre-determined standard.

    Apprenticeship Traning: Giving instruction, both on

    andoff the job in the practical and theoreticalaspects of the work required in a highly skilledoccupation. Airplane mechanic, Automotive mechanic,Technician

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    Steps for effective onthe job

    training

    Preparation of the trainee for learning the job:Showing interest, explaining the importance etc.

    Breakdown of work into components and

    identification of key points:

    Presentation of the operation and knowledge

    Told and demonstrate , explained.

    Performance tryout: Perform the job under the

    guidance Follow up

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    Traning Evaluation: Kirkpatrick model

    1. Reaction: How much did the trainees like theprogram? Pleased /?

    2. Learning: What principles ., facts, concepts

    were learned in the program?

    Behavior: Did the job behavior of the trainees

    change because of the program?

    Results: What were the results of the program in

    terms of factors such as reduced cost ; Reductionin turnover?

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    TRAINING TECHNOLOGIES

    PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION

    COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING

    MULTIMEDIA TRAINING

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    Structure of Training programSTRUCTURE RATIO OF CLASSROOM/

    STURED TRAINING TO

    ON-THE-JOB

    Private

    Organization

    Induction

    Structured Classroom training (6 weeks for GETs and 15 days for

    DETs)

    1.5 month-Site and field visits

    On-the-job training at corporate as well as site offices.

    The trainees are directly placed at sites

    At sites after 1 day induction the trainees are put on on-the-job

    trainingIn-between various classroom sessions are organized as per the

    requirements of the trainees and the recommendations of the

    Project Managers

    6 months training at corporate office which is comprised of

    induction, classroom training as well as on-the-job training

    6 months training at various sites. This is completely on-the-job

    training.

    20:80

    10:90

    Private Organisation Induction

    1 month classroom training

    3 month on-site training

    Followed by on-the-job training at corporate office as well as at

    sites.4 months structured classroom training

    Followed by 6 months on-the-job training at sites

    2 months advance training. This advance training is a combination of

    both classroom as well as on-the-job training.

    20:80

    40:60

    O O C C G O O

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    RATIO OF TECHNICAL TRAINING TO BEHAVIORAL

    TRAINING

    Private Organisation

    80:20 /70:30

    Public Organisation 80:20

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    CONSTITUENTS OF BEHAVIORAL