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Trait Leadership Trait Leadership Theory Theory

Trait Leadership Theory

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Trait Leadership Theory

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Page 1: Trait Leadership Theory

Trait Leadership TheoryTrait Leadership Theory

Page 2: Trait Leadership Theory

Trait Leadership TheoryTrait Leadership Theory

A range of theories which share the belief that all leaders A range of theories which share the belief that all leaders are born with, or at least, certain key personally traits. are born with, or at least, certain key personally traits. Since certain traits are associated with proficient Since certain traits are associated with proficient leadership, if one could identify people with the correct leadership, if one could identify people with the correct traits, one would be able to identify good leaders.traits, one would be able to identify good leaders.

Page 3: Trait Leadership Theory

Assumptions of Trait TheoryAssumptions of Trait Theory

People are born with inherited traits.People are born with inherited traits.

Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.

People who make good leaders have the right (or People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traitssufficient) combination of traits..

Page 4: Trait Leadership Theory

1947 – The Myers-Briggs Type 1947 – The Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorIndicator

The Merys-Briggs Type Indicator is a personally model The Merys-Briggs Type Indicator is a personally model which classifies people according to their psychological which classifies people according to their psychological types (1920s). It was developed by Katharine Cook Briggs types (1920s). It was developed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers during World War II.and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers during World War II.

Page 5: Trait Leadership Theory

Managers / Employees /Students / People may be:Managers / Employees /Students / People may be: FAVORITE WORLD / ATTITUDE:FAVORITE WORLD / ATTITUDE: ExtravertsExtraverts (try things out, focus on the outer world of (try things out, focus on the outer world of

people) or people) or IntrovertsIntroverts (think things through, focus on the (think things through, focus on the inner world of ideas).inner world of ideas).

INFORMATION / PERCEIVING:INFORMATION / PERCEIVING: SensorsSensors (practical, detail-oriented, focus on facts and (practical, detail-oriented, focus on facts and

procedures) or procedures) or IntuitorsIntuitors (imaginative, concept-oriented, (imaginative, concept-oriented, focus on meanings and possibilities).focus on meanings and possibilities).

Page 6: Trait Leadership Theory

DECISIONS:DECISIONS: ThinkersThinkers (skeptical, tend to make decision based on (skeptical, tend to make decision based on

logic and rules) or logic and rules) or FeelersFeelers (appreciative, tend to make (appreciative, tend to make decisions based on personal and humanistic decisions based on personal and humanistic considerations).considerations).

STRUCTURE: STRUCTURE:

JudgersJudgers (set and follow agendas, seek closure even (set and follow agendas, seek closure even with incomplete data) or with incomplete data) or PerceiversPerceivers (adapt to changing (adapt to changing circumstances, resist closure to obtain more data.circumstances, resist closure to obtain more data.

Page 7: Trait Leadership Theory

1955 – 3-Skill Taxonomy of Katz1955 – 3-Skill Taxonomy of Katz

Page 8: Trait Leadership Theory

Things LeadersThings Leaders Knowledge about methods, processes, procedures, and Knowledge about methods, processes, procedures, and

techniques for conducting a specialized activity, and the techniques for conducting a specialized activity, and the ability to use tools and operate equipment related to that ability to use tools and operate equipment related to that activity.activity.

People LeadersPeople Leaders Knowledge about human behavior and interpersonal Knowledge about human behavior and interpersonal

processes, ability to understand the feelings, attitudes, processes, ability to understand the feelings, attitudes, and motives of others from what they way and do and motives of others from what they way and do (empathy, social sensitivity), ability to communicate (empathy, social sensitivity), ability to communicate clearly and effectively (speech fluency, persuasiveness), clearly and effectively (speech fluency, persuasiveness), and ability to establish effective and cooperative and ability to establish effective and cooperative relationships (tact, diplomacy, knowledge about relationships (tact, diplomacy, knowledge about acceptable social behavior.acceptable social behavior.

Page 9: Trait Leadership Theory

Ideas LeadersIdeas Leaders General analytical ability, logical thinking, proficiency in General analytical ability, logical thinking, proficiency in

concept formation and conceptualization of complex and concept formation and conceptualization of complex and ambiguous relationships, creativity in idea generation ambiguous relationships, creativity in idea generation and problem solving, ability to analyze events and and problem solving, ability to analyze events and perceive trends, anticipate changes, and recognize perceive trends, anticipate changes, and recognize opportunities and potential problems (inductive and opportunities and potential problems (inductive and deductive reasoning).deductive reasoning).

Page 10: Trait Leadership Theory

1960 – Theory X Theory Y of 1960 – Theory X Theory Y of McGregorMcGregor

Page 11: Trait Leadership Theory

1965 – McClelland’s Theory of 1965 – McClelland’s Theory of NeedsNeeds

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1970 – Servant Leadership by 1970 – Servant Leadership by GreenleafGreenleaf

Page 13: Trait Leadership Theory

1974 – Stogdill’s Review of 163 1974 – Stogdill’s Review of 163 Leadership Trait StudiesLeadership Trait Studies

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1982 – The Managerial Competency 1982 – The Managerial Competency Traits of BoyatzisTraits of Boyatzis

Efficiency OrientationEfficiency Orientation Concern with impactConcern with impact ProactivityProactivity Self-confidenceSelf-confidence Oral presentation skillOral presentation skill ConceptualizationConceptualization Diagnostic use of ConceptsDiagnostic use of Concepts Use of Socialized PowerUse of Socialized Power Managing Group ProcessManaging Group Process

Page 15: Trait Leadership Theory

1983 – McCall and Lombardo 1983 – McCall and Lombardo identify Four Primary Traitsidentify Four Primary Traits

Emotional stability and composureEmotional stability and composure Calm, confident and predictable, particularly when under Calm, confident and predictable, particularly when under

stress.stress.

Admitting errorAdmitting error Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into

covering up.covering up.

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Good interpersonal skillsGood interpersonal skills Able to communicate and persuade others without resort Able to communicate and persuade others without resort

to negative or coercive tactics.to negative or coercive tactics.

Intellectual breadthIntellectual breadth Able to understand a wide range of areas, rather than Able to understand a wide range of areas, rather than

having a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise.having a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise.

Page 17: Trait Leadership Theory

1989 – Steven Covey publishes his 1989 – Steven Covey publishes his Seven HabitsSeven Habits

1.1. Be proactiveBe proactive This is the ability to control one’s environment, rather This is the ability to control one’s environment, rather

than the opposite, as is so often the case. Managers than the opposite, as is so often the case. Managers need to control their own environment, by using self-need to control their own environment, by using self-determination and the ability to respond to various determination and the ability to respond to various circumstances.circumstances.

2.2. Begin with the end in mindBegin with the end in mind This means that the manager must be able to see the This means that the manager must be able to see the

desired outcome, and to concentrate on activities which desired outcome, and to concentrate on activities which help to achieve that end.help to achieve that end.

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3.3. Put first things firstPut first things first A manager must manage his own person. Personally, A manager must manage his own person. Personally,

and manager should implement activities which aim to and manager should implement activities which aim to achieve the second habit. Covey says that habit 2. is achieve the second habit. Covey says that habit 2. is the first, of mental creation; habit 3. is the second, or the first, of mental creation; habit 3. is the second, or physical creation.physical creation.

4.4. Think win-winThink win-win This is the most important aspect of interpersonal This is the most important aspect of interpersonal

leadership, because most achievements are based on leadership, because most achievements are based on shared effort. Therefore the aim needs to be win-win shared effort. Therefore the aim needs to be win-win solutions for all.solutions for all.

5.5. Seek first to understand and then to be understoodSeek first to understand and then to be understood By developing and maintaining positive relationships By developing and maintaining positive relationships

through good communications, the manager is through good communications, the manager is understood by others, and he can understand the understood by others, and he can understand the subordinates.subordinates.

Page 19: Trait Leadership Theory

6.6. SynergizeSynergize This is the habit of creative cooperation: the principle This is the habit of creative cooperation: the principle

that collaborating towards attaining a purpose often that collaborating towards attaining a purpose often achieves more, than could be achieved by individuals achieves more, than could be achieved by individuals working independently.working independently.

7.7. Sharpen the sawSharpen the saw We should learn from our previous experiences. And We should learn from our previous experiences. And

we should encourage others to do the same. Covey we should encourage others to do the same. Covey sees development as one of the most important sees development as one of the most important aspects for being able to cope with challenges, and for aspects for being able to cope with challenges, and for aspiringaspiring towards higher level of abilitytowards higher level of ability..

Page 20: Trait Leadership Theory

Find your voice and inspire others to find theirsFind your voice and inspire others to find theirs Striving towards “greatness”, means to act with integrity as an individual Striving towards “greatness”, means to act with integrity as an individual

and to help others to do the same. According to Covey, this habit and to help others to do the same. According to Covey, this habit represents the 3represents the 3rdrd dimension of his model. Greatness is the overlap of: dimension of his model. Greatness is the overlap of:

Page 21: Trait Leadership Theory

Personal GreatnessPersonal Greatness

Applying the 7 habits in the forms of vision, discipline, Applying the 7 habits in the forms of vision, discipline, passion and consciencepassion and conscience..

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Leadership GreatnessLeadership Greatness

Applying the 4 roles of leadership, which are modeling the Applying the 4 roles of leadership, which are modeling the 7 habits:7 habits:

Path findingPath finding Creating the blueprint.Creating the blueprint.

AligningAligning Creating a technically elegant system of work.Creating a technically elegant system of work.

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EmpoweringEmpowering Releasing the talent, and contribution of people.Releasing the talent, and contribution of people.

ModelingModeling To build trust with others. The heart of effective To build trust with others. The heart of effective

leadership.leadership.

Page 24: Trait Leadership Theory

Organizational GreatnessOrganizational Greatness

This is greatness turned into a vision, mission and values. This is greatness turned into a vision, mission and values. This brings clarity, commitment, translation, synergy, and This brings clarity, commitment, translation, synergy, and enables accountability.enables accountability.

Page 25: Trait Leadership Theory

Problems with Trait TheoryProblems with Trait Theory RelativelyRelatively Not possible to clarify the relative importance of the Not possible to clarify the relative importance of the

various traits.various traits.

InteractionInteraction Most trait type models are disregarding interaction Most trait type models are disregarding interaction

effectseffects

UniversalismUniversalism Situational studies have found that traits are not Situational studies have found that traits are not

universal; they depend on the situation.universal; they depend on the situation.

Page 26: Trait Leadership Theory

ChangeChange Traits transform over timeTraits transform over time

Cause & EffectCause & Effect Cause and effect are unclear. For example: Are leaders Cause and effect are unclear. For example: Are leaders

ambitious or does being a leader lead to ambition?ambitious or does being a leader lead to ambition?

Cultural FactorsCultural Factors What is effective leadership in the USA may be not as What is effective leadership in the USA may be not as

effective in Japan.effective in Japan.

TheatricsTheatrics If we take a theatrics view of leadership, then the leader If we take a theatrics view of leadership, then the leader

performs those traits that move the audienceperforms those traits that move the audience

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Managing AuthenticityManaging Authenticity

Page 28: Trait Leadership Theory

What is Authenticity?What is Authenticity?

SinceritySincerity HonestyHonesty IntegrityIntegrity It’s not innate; others should tell you.It’s not innate; others should tell you. Keeping your real self intact, while managingKeeping your real self intact, while managing

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Managing the PerceptionManaging the Perception

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Know YourselfKnow Yourself Exploring your autobiography.Exploring your autobiography.

Returning to your roots.Returning to your roots.

Avoiding comfort zones.Avoiding comfort zones.

Getting honest feedback.Getting honest feedback.

Page 31: Trait Leadership Theory

Know OthersKnow Others Building a rich picture of your environment.Building a rich picture of your environment.

Removing barriers between yourself and others.Removing barriers between yourself and others.

Empathizing pEmpathizing p

Getting others know what’s unique about them.Getting others know what’s unique about them.

Page 32: Trait Leadership Theory

Use where You Come FromUse where You Come From

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Conform – But Only Just EnoughConform – But Only Just Enough

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The Five MinuteThe Five Minuteo Managing Self :Managing Self : The Reflective Mindset The Reflective Mindset

o Managing Organizations:Managing Organizations: The Analytical Mindset The Analytical Mindset

o Managing Context:Managing Context: The worldly Mindset The worldly Mindset

o Managing Change:Managing Change: The Action Mindset The Action Mindset

o Learning the Mindsets togetherLearning the Mindsets together

Page 35: Trait Leadership Theory

Level 5 LeadershipLevel 5 Leadership Level 1 : Highly Capable IndividualLevel 1 : Highly Capable Individual Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge,

skills, and good work habits.skills, and good work habits.

Level 2: Contributing Team MemberLevel 2: Contributing Team Member Contributes to the achievement of group objectives; works Contributes to the achievement of group objectives; works

effectively with others in a group setting.effectively with others in a group setting.

Level 3: Competent ManagerLevel 3: Competent Manager Organizes people and resources toward the effective and Organizes people and resources toward the effective and

efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives.efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives.

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Level 4: Effective LeaderLevel 4: Effective Leader Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear

and compelling vision; stimulates the group to high and compelling vision; stimulates the group to high performance standards.performance standards.

Level 5: ExecutiveLevel 5: Executive Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical

combination of personal humility plus professional will.combination of personal humility plus professional will.

Page 37: Trait Leadership Theory

Not by Level AloneNot by Level Alone First whoFirst who

Stockdale ParadoxesStockdale Paradoxes

Buildup –Break through FlywheelBuildup –Break through Flywheel

The Hedgehog ConceptThe Hedgehog Concept

A culture of DisciplineA culture of Discipline

Page 38: Trait Leadership Theory

Summing UpSumming Up A compelling ModestyA compelling Modesty

An Unwavering ResolveAn Unwavering Resolve

The Window and the MirrorThe Window and the Mirror

Born or Bred?Born or Bred?

Page 39: Trait Leadership Theory

Seven transformation of LeadershipsSeven transformation of Leaderships

Action LogicAction Logic CharacteristicsCharacteristics StrengthsStrengths

OpportunistOpportunist Wins any way possible. Self-Wins any way possible. Self-oriented; manipulative; “might oriented; manipulative; “might makes right”.makes right”.

Good in emergencies and Good in emergencies and in sales opportunities.in sales opportunities.

DiplomatDiplomat Avoids overt conflict. Want to Avoids overt conflict. Want to belong; obeys group norms; belong; obeys group norms; rarely rocks the boat.rarely rocks the boat.

Good as supportive glue Good as supportive glue within an office; helps within an office; helps bring people together.bring people together.

ExpertExpert Rules by logic and expertise. Rules by logic and expertise. Seeks rational efficiency.Seeks rational efficiency.

Good as an individual Good as an individual contributorcontributor

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Action LogicAction Logic CharacteristicsCharacteristics StrengthsStrengthsAchieverAchiever Meets strategic goals. Effectively Meets strategic goals. Effectively

achieves goals through teams; achieves goals through teams; juggles managerial duties and juggles managerial duties and market demands.market demands.

Well suited to managerial Well suited to managerial roles; action and goal roles; action and goal oriented.oriented.

IndividualistIndividualist Interweaves competing personal Interweaves competing personal and company action logics. and company action logics. Creates unique structures to Creates unique structures to resolve gaps between strategy resolve gaps between strategy and performanceand performance

Effective in ventures and Effective in ventures and consulting roles.consulting roles.

StrategistStrategist Generates organizational and Generates organizational and personal transformations. personal transformations. Exercise the power of mutual Exercise the power of mutual inquiry, vigilance, and vulnerability inquiry, vigilance, and vulnerability for both the short and long termfor both the short and long term

Effective as a Effective as a transformational leader.transformational leader.

AlchemistAlchemist Generates social transformations. Generates social transformations. Integrates material, spiritual, and Integrates material, spiritual, and societal transformationsocietal transformation

Good at leading society-Good at leading society-wide transformationwide transformation

Page 41: Trait Leadership Theory

Exploring as a LeaderExploring as a Leader From Expert to AchieverFrom Expert to Achiever

From Achiever to IndividualistFrom Achiever to Individualist

To Strategist and Beyond.To Strategist and Beyond.