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SPINNING MILL A spinning mill is a labour intensive industry and it provides ample job opportunities. Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills is a unit of the subsidiary of NTC. The registered office of APKK & M is located in Bangalore. At present the capacity of the Cannanore Spinning mill has increased to 25920 spindles. The company is a spinning mill with weaving facilities. But currently no weaving process is going on in the mill. Spinning mills used ‘Line Shafting’ which is the means by which the power of the steam engine is transmitted along rotating shafts (rods) to the spinning or weaving mills. Now, however electricity is being used which is much faster than hand spinning. Yarn is the final product of the mill. To maintain the quality aspects an efficient quality control team functions in the mill. Every organization needs to have well- trained and experienced personnel to perform

Training Project

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SPINNING MILLA spinning mill is a labour intensive industry and it provides ample job opportunities. Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills is a unit of the subsidiary of NTC. The registered office of APKK & M is located in Bangalore. At present the capacity of the Cannanore Spinning mill has increased to 25920 spindles. The company is a spinning mill with weaving facilities. But currently no weaving process is going on in the mill.

Spinning mills used Line Shafting which is the means by which the power of the steam engine is transmitted along rotating shafts (rods) to the spinning or weaving mills. Now, however electricity is being used which is much faster than hand spinning. Yar n is the final product of the mill. To maintain the quality aspects an efficient quality control team functions in the mill. Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced personnel to perform the activities that have to be done. If the curr ent or potential job aspirant can meet the requirement, training is not important. But when this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. Inadequate job performance or a decline in productivity or changes resulting out of job redesigning of technological changes requires some type of training and development efforts. As the jobs become more complex, the importance of employee development also increases.

THE TEXTILE MILL INDUSTRY

Cotton/man-made fibre textile industry is the single largest organized industry in the country employing nearly 10 Lakh workers. Besides this, there are large numbers of ancillary industries dependant on this sector such as those manufacturing various mac hinery, accessories, stores ancillary and chemicals. Even on a modest assumption that a workers family comprises of five persons, the direct dependents on the organized mill industry itself works out to about 50 Lakhs. Out of the 1837 cotton/man-made fibre textile mills, 192 mills are in the public sector, 154 mills in the co-operative sector and 1491 mills are in the private sector.Evaluation of the Textile Mill Industry

Whilst farmers were developing new and better methods of agriculture, life in other areas of work had changed little for hundreds of years. Early in the 18 th century most of the population lived in small rural settlements and only a few people lived in town. Many people worked as producers of woolen and cotton cloth. They cleaned, combed, spun, dyed and wove the raw materials into cloth and this work was done in their own houses. This type of production has become known by the general term of domestic (cottage) industry. Work within the cottage industry was usually divided up between the members of one family. The women and girls were responsible for cleaning the sheep fleeces, carding the wool and spinning it.

The process of weaving was physically hard work and traditionally it was the men who were responsible for it. Generally at regular intervals a cloth merchant visited each handloom weavers cottage. He would bring the raw materials and take away the finished cloth to sell at the cloth hall. As soon as the new wool arrived, it was washed to clean out all the dirt and natural oil. After this it was dyed with colour and carded. This was the process of combing the wool between two parallel pads of nails, until all the fibres lay the same way. Next the carded wool was taken by the spinner and using a spinning wheel the thread was wound onto a bobbin. The spun yarn was taken to the loom to be woven. In the weavers cottage the loom was often to be found on an upper floor. There are large windows in the room to let in plenty of daylight. Working of the loom was quite strenuous work, which is why it was traditionally the work of the men of the household. However, with the advent of the industrial revolution all the processes of yarn and the subsequent production of cloth underwent a dramatic change. The industrial revolution brought about the wid e spread replacement of manual labour by machines. Goods that were traditionally been made in the homes or in the small workshops began to be manufactured in factories. Productivity and technical efficiency, improved in part through the systematic and prac tical knowledge of the manufacturing process. Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable etc.) from various rows of fibre materials. Several fibres are twisted together to bind them into strong, long yarn. Characteristics of the yarn

vary based on the materials used, fibre length and alignment, quantity of fibre used and degree of twist. The earliest spinning probably involved simply twisting the fibres with the hand. Later the use of stick to help twist the fibre was invented. The spinning wheel was then developed which allowed continuous and faster yarn production. Spinning wheels are either foot or hand powered. Modern powered spinning used line shafting, which is the means by which the power of the steam engine is transmitted along the rotating shaft to the spinning or weaving mills. Now, however, electricity is being used which is vastly faster than hand spinning. Another major invention was the power loom. The power loom was a steam powered mechanically operated version of a regula r loom, an invention that combined threads to make cloth. In 1785, Edmund Cartwright patented the first power looms and set up a factory in Doncaster, England, to manufacture cloth. William Horrocky and Francis Cobot Lowell improved it upon. Francis Cobot Lowell was an American businessman and the founder of the worlds first textile mill. Together with inventor Paul Moody, Lowell created a more efficient power loom and spinning apparatus.

All this accelerated the growth of the mill industry with more production capacity, and the labourers employed in the industry, rising to millions.

Present Scenario

Global trade in textile and apparels is expected to increase from US $ 356 billion in2003 to US $ 600 billion by 2010. The way forward for the textile mill sector is through transforming the sector from a resource intensive to knowledge intensive, highly innovative sector with high added value products and services. This can only ensure sustainable growth and jobs in the future. It would also help to secure a competitive advantage, which would be based on the best new products and processes in the world. The industry has made tremendous efforts in the last years to invest in new productive assets, to streamline operations and to intensify their innovation activ ities. To achieve a transformation, investment is needed in technological innovations that would assist industry in its transition from resources intensive to a knowledge intensive sector.

The Indian Textile Industry a legacy of its ownThe Indian textile industry has a great legacy, which is perhaps unmatched in the history of Indias industrial development, Indias textile industry evolved and developed at a very early stage and its manufacturing technology was amongst the best. Indias manually operated machines were among the best in the world and served as a model for production of the first textile machines were among the best in world served as a model for production of the first textile machines

in newly industrialized Britain and Germany. Indias textiles were sought after for their finesse, quality and design and attracted people from across the globe like the Chinese, Malaysians, Portuguese etc. Colonization put an end to Indias glorious textile legacy. By 1880, t he domestic market had grown to be served solely by the British manufactures. One of the aspects of freedom struggle led by Mahatma Gandhi was to weaken the British textile industry by weaving homespun clothes, as he was convinced that the textile sector w ould be a catalyst in advancement of the Indian population. Post independence, till 1980, the Government of India put numerous restrictions to ensure mechanization did not occur, labour intensive textiles were produced, which in effect led to increase in price, and decrease in productivity.

Structure of T e Indi n Textile IndustryThe Indi n Textile mill industIndian Textile Mill Industry

s st ucture is as follows:

Organised Sector

Unorganised Sector

Mill Sector (3%)

Handloom Sector

Hosiery Sector (97%)

Powerloom Sector

(% share in total cloth production)

Company ProfileCANNANORE SPINNING AND WEAVING MILLS(APKK & M) LTD

ORIGIN

Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills was originally started by a private owner Shri. Keyath Damodar in 1948 with about 20,000 spindle capacity. The mill earned profit and had no problems till 1970. Thereafter the company incurred heavy loss due to various reasons and hence the management was taken over by the Government of India. The mill was nationalized under Nationalizations Act with the effect from April 1st 1974 and is placed under National Textile Corporation (NTC). Since the production capacity of the mill has increased to 24,000 spindles. The Government introduced new machines and the mill functioned well till 1980. Thereafter the company again incurred loss for many years. Being a Government undertaking, financial support was received from Government and hence the mill was running without much problem. Furthermore the mill along with some other NTC units was referred to the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) under the Stock Industrial Companys Act.LAND AREA STATEMENT

Area of colony compound Area of mill compound Pump House Road Total area

: : : : :

4.21 acres 8.32 acres 0.02 acres 0.04 acres 12.59 acres

ADDRESS

CANNANORE SPINNING AND WEAVING MILLS, UNIT OF NTC (APKK & M) LTD, KAKKAD, KANNUR 670 005 KERALA STATENational Textile Corporations Subsidiary

The mill is a unit of subsidiary of the NTC. APKK & M is the subsidiary under which this mill functions. APKK & M stands for Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Mahe. The registered office of the APKK & M is located in Bangalore (Karnataka). All the mills under APKK & M, including Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills have to report to this Head Office regarding all official matters. Shri. Ramachandra Pillai is the present Chairman and M.D. of the APKK & M subsidiary. Shri. T.V.Jayakrishnan is the General Manager of the Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills.National Textile Corporation (NTC)

The holding company of Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills is the NTC Limited. It was set up with the main objective of managing the affairs of the Sick Textile undertakings taken over by the Government. It was also proposed to rehabilitate and modernize this mill after the takeover and expand them wherever necessary with a view to making them economically viable. NTC was incorporated in April, 1968 and started functioning in October, 1968. At present it is the holding company of the nine subsidiary corpor ations namely, NTC (MP), NTC (GUJ), NTC (TN), NTC (Pondichery), NTC (UP), NTC

(West Bengal), NTC (Assam), NTC (Bihar & Orissa) and NTC (APKK & M). NTC Ltd. has an authorized capital of Rs.585 Crore and a paid up capital of Rs.540.10 Crore, which is fully o wned by the Government of India.Finance

Financial assessment is the backbone of every industry. The company has a cash credit account with SBI, Kannur. They have curtailed the company credit unit from Rs.100 Lakhs to Rs.60 Lakhs from September, 2002 onwards which has affected the company badly. From there onwards efforts are made to restore the units by taking up the matter with their Zonal Office. But currently no credit facility is provided by SBI.Production

The mill is a spinning unit and the final product is yarn on cone in PV/PSF counts. The following counts are produced 45 s PV (65:35), 60s (65:35) and 60 s PSF.Raw material

The company is using Polyester Stable Fibre (PSF) and Viscose Staple Fibre (VSF). Their qualities are checked and supplies are satisfactory. Depending on the consumption, a stock level of 12 to 15 days is maintained.Sales

The market for yarn is a highly competitive one and therefore the prices keep fluctuating which in turn affects the quantity demanded. The main consumers of yarn are weaving merchants and looms.

Products range

Yarn is the final product of the Spinning Mill. The yarns from the cops are wound on paper cones called Cone Yarn. Each cone yarn contains 1.5 Kg of yarn. Usually handloom weavers need Hank yarn and the well organized sector cone yarn.Machinery

Most of the machines installed are old. Some of them are new. The old machines are reconditioned after a period of 10 years. According to the BIFR, the company is planning to install new highly technical and modern machines as the machines now used in Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills are giving less productivity.Building

The condition of the factory building is dilapidated and some roof strengthening work has been attended to which is only temporary in nature. Urgent attention has to be paid towards this matter.Number of workers

There are around 550 workers and 19 administrative staff working in the mill. Three shifts are functioning from 7:00 am to 3:30 pm, 3:30 pm to 12:00 am and from 12:00 am to 7:00 am. Both male and female workers are employed in all sections of the mill. Different categories of workers include permanent, temporary and gate badlies. Trade unions are functioning in the mill and they educate the workers and safeguard their interests. Further they have a very cordial relationship with the management.

Quality control

Routine quality control check up is done in each de partment on a regular basis in order to ensure quality norms of the yarn. To monitor their quality aspects an efficient quality control team is functioning in the mill. Apart from the regular samples of input of each department is being sent periodically to research institutes like SITRA, Coimbatore and Textile Committee Testing Laboratory in Kannur. As per the study report obtained from such research the necessary changes are being done in the processing in order to maintain standard quality norms.

PRESENT POSITION OF THE MILL

The revival package scheme was introduced and the process is now going on. Introduction of new machines and new workload are included in the revival scheme with an objective to make the mill self sustaining without taking any financial help from the Government. The whole work plan is currently slowed down and the management is hopeful that the plan would be implemented as soon as possible. It is also planning to become fully computerized in the forthcoming future. After revival this mill too will be automated and the workforce will be reduced with most of the workers being relieved.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

Accountant

Assistant Accountant

Shift Supervisor

Cashier

Cost Guard

Accounts anag r

Spinning anager

Labour Welfare Officer

Electrical Engineer

Assistant Spinning anager

Time Officer

Electrician & Wireman

Head Time Keeper

Store Keeper

Shift Clerk

Store Clerk

PRODUCT PROFILE

In Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills yarn is the final product. Different quality patterns of yarn are: 60s PV 45s PV 45s PVht 45s PVsht Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocated fibres, suitable for use in production of textiles sewing, knitting, weaving and rope making. Very thin yarn is referred to as thread. Yarn used for fabric manufacturing is made from spinning short length of various types of fibres. Yarn is usually measured by weights. Synthetic fibres which have high strength, artificial lusture and fibre retardant qualities are blended with natural fibres which have good water a bsorbents and skin comforting qualities in different proportions to manufacture yarn for fabrics. The most widely used blends are cotton polyester and wool acrylic fibre blends. The yarns from the cops are wound on paper cones called cone yarn. Usually handloom weavers need hank yarn and the well-organized sector cone yarn.

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTThe most important task of the production management is to deal with decision-making related to production process so that the goods manufactured are according to the specifications in the required quantity, at minimum cess and as per schedule.

HIERARCHYSpinning Manager and Engineer

Deputy Spinning Manager

Assistant Spinning Manager

Senior Assistant

Junior Technical Assistant

PRODUCTION PROCESS

The production process begins with the mixing process and ends with the dispatch process.

Mixing process

B ow room

Dr wing

Simp ex

Ring r me

Cone winding

Pac ing

Dispatch

C r ing

OPENER PROCESS

The opener process is the first process carried on in the production of the cone yarn. During this process Viscose Staple Fibre (VSF) is put into an opening machine, in order to start the production. Before this, anti-static oil is sprayed on viscose in order to avoid the effect of static electricity from polyester and viscose. 0.18% of the total weight of the mixture of polyester and viscose is the amount of antistatic oil required. This oil is mixed with water in the ratio 1:11 and is sprayed on the fibre and kept for a day before it is mixed and is passed to the next department.

MIXING PROCESS

The second step in the production process is called mixing. In this process Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) is mixed with VSF in a pre determined proportion according to the requirements of yarn to be manufactured in that particulars count. There are three varieties of mixing in this mill. They are as follows: 60s PV in 65:35 Blend with yellow tinting. 45s PV in 65:35 Blend 50s PSF HT (100%) without tinting. In order to identify the count and mixing proportion, Polyester Staple Fibre is given a tint. Tinting helps in easy identification of counts. Different food colours, light green, yellow and pink which can be washed easily is used for tinting and is maintai ned until it is given to the weaving merchants. Mixing coolies or mixing attendants as per the

requirements. About five mixing coolies are employed in this department per day and each of them has a workload of 850 -kilo/ day.

BLOW ROOM

The loose mix collected from mixing department is charged to the blow room where they are toppled manually in order to get a homogeneous blend of various ingredients of the mix, polyester and viscose. This toppled mix is then passed through the condenser in to the tanker and through the pipes it is fed to the second blow room machineries. There are three structures in the blow room department and there are two lines of blow room machineries. One is a double structure and the other is a single structure. The objective of this process is to open out thick masses of the new materials of finer pieces and to give a thorough blending of polyester and viscose. Certain amount of impurities of foreign matter and metal particles, if any has to be extracted. The raw materials are converte d into a sheet form and wound on a rod. This is called a Lap, the length of the lap and weight of each lap is determined. The length of lap is 37 yards and standard weight is 13.5 Kg. A tolerance of plus or minus 300 gram is permitted. The duration for forming one lap is six- minutes approximately.

CARDING PROCESS

Carding is the heart of spinning process. The lap collected from the blow room is fed to the carding machines of the carding department. In these machines sheet form of laps are converted into

sliver form. Each lap is drafted 90 to 100 times and parallelization of fibre takes place. Here short fibres, if any are extracted and the fibres are straightened and parallelized into uniform size to eliminate unevenness in the yarn thickness and to ensure uniform weight. Cards are collected to each count, according to the spin plan and the sliver is collected from the carding machines count wise. Each sliver has a length of a 3000 metres and the time for producing 1 can of sliver is 1:00 hours. There are about 50 carding machines running in this mill. Conventional cards have an average life of 50 years.

DRAWING PROCESS

In the drawing process card sliver produced in the carding department is passed on to this department. Here homogeneous blending takes place. The drawing process is of two types 1. Breaker head 2. Finisher headBreaker drawing

In this process 8 cans of silver is fed to one delivery of drawing machines and each of these 8 silvers are converted into a single silver by blending and drafting and is collected in 1 can, 8 doubling is taking place to form a single silver . Each drawing machine can deliver 16 cans. In total, with 8 cans placed each side and collected in two cans. A maximum of 3000 yards

can be collected in a single can after doubling. The product breaker head is breaker-drawing silver.

Finisher drawing

Here 8 cans collected from the breaker head of drawing machines is again processed, in another head of drawing machines. After this processing, about 4000 yards are collected in a can. The silver collected from finisher drawing head is called finisher drawing silver. This is the end product drawing department is 16 deliveries. A drawing tender has to look after 6 deliveries.SIMPLEX(SPEED FRAME)

In this department the finisher dr awing sliver produced in the drawing department is fed to the simplex machine (120 cans LF 1400 speed frames). The sliver is passed through the drafting zone 12 to 13 times. A certain amount of twist is imparted on the body of drafted material, which is called Rove. This Rove is wound on plastic bobbins having a package weight 7500 gm to 1 Kg. speed frame(Simplex) department has 8 simplex machines having 12020 spindles.SPINNING(RING FRAME)

In the spinning department bobbins that are brought from the simplex department are reeled on the ring frame reel and Rove is drawn through the drafting zone. The main object of spinning drafting , twisting and winding. Rove is drafted to a thinner form of yarn. It is drafted to 20 to 27 times according to the count to be spun. Different counts can have different twist, which binds the fiber with

one another. This is called TPI (Twist per Inch). A yarn is wound on plastic tubes that are called Cops. Average yarn content on a cop is about 70 grams. These cops are taken into the next department that is cone waiting.CONE WINDING

In this department yarn on cops is converted into cone form. In the cone department all types of defects in yarn is rectified and also yarn on cone will be defect free. According to the requi rement of the market bigger cone of yarn are packed weighing 1.25 Kg each. A winder has to look after 15-30 runs according to count of the yarn. The full built cone of 1.25 Kg is removed and collected by the winder and then it is stacked in the bins count wise in the packing department. The cone winding machinery has 120 spindles that are winding 120 cones at a time and it takes about 2.30 hours. This department has 8 cone winding machines and thereby each machine requires 4 persons.CONE PACKING

In this department the final product of yarn on cones are packed in polythene bags. One such bag contains 40 cones and the Net Weight of 1 bag is 50 Kg. They put necessary details like count, gross weight, month and year of packing, bag number in lot numbers. Then t hese bags are ready for dispatch to the market or depots. Altogether, there are 6 workers in this department.

TABLE- 1 Total production for the last fi e years

Year 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010

Quantity 1357542 Kg. 1412053 Kg. 1263804 Kg 969000 Kg. 1221854 Kg.

CHART -1

Produ tion1600000

1400000 12000001000000

800000600000

400000200000

0

2005 - 2006

2006 - 200

200 - 2008

2008 - 200

200 - 2010

RAW MATERIALS

Raw materials used for the production of yarn in Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills are Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) Viscose Staple Fibre (VSF) Polyester Staple Fibre is one of the raw materials used in production of cone yarns. Polyester is a synthetic fibre and also a petroleum product. It is a coal tar derivative. The physical property of PSF is 1.2 D* x38mm. Viscose Staple Fibre is a natural polymer made from wood pulp. I t is a regenerated cellulosic fibre, which is similar to natural cotton fibre in respect of its property. The physical property of VSF is 1.5 D* x44mm. VSF is the other raw material used in this identity for the production in cone yarns. D* - Denies (denotes Fineness of Fibre)Suppliers of Raw Materials

In India, the production of polyester is a monopoly of two major companies. Reliance India Limited and Indorama (Indonesian Company). The main supplier of Polyester Staple Fibre for Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mill is Indorama. PSF is supplied in the unit of bales. The weight of one bale is about 400 kg. approx. Landed cost of one bale is Rs. 75.51 per kg. currently (including freight and excise duty of 16% and education cess of 2%). Hence, the cost of o ne bale of polyester is Rs. 28316.25/-. Grasim Industries Ltd. is the only supplier of Viscose in India. Viscose Staple Fibre is supplied in the unit of bale and one bale is

about 384 kg. approx. Landed cost of one bale is Rs. 92.59 per kg. currently (including freight and excise duty of 16% and education cess of 2%). Hence, the cost of one bale of Viscose is Rs. 35554.56/ -.Raw Material Procurement Process in Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills

The procurement process begins with preparation of a spin pla n. A spin plan is a budget that shows the anticipated profitability in producing different blends. It shows the cost incurred allocating a certain number of machines for producing each count of yarn. A selling price is fixed taking into consideration the weekly market trend. The difference in selling price and cost provides the expected profitability. The NTC form Coimbatore makes centralized purchases of raw materials. It is purchased on a monthly basis. Each of the mills will estimate their requirement according to the spin plan and intimate it to the Head Office. The Head Office of NTC will collect the requirement of all the regional subsidiaries and place it before the Price Negotiating Committee in a meeting held every month by NTC in Coimbatore. The price and the terms of payment are then fixed in the meeting and the minutes of the meeting is sent to all the mills. The price is fixed for 1 kg. This is inclusive of excise duty and educational cess. In case of PSF, terms of payment include the following: 1. A cash discount of 0.50 Ps 1 kg. is allowed when payment is made in advance. 2. A quantity discount is allowed for lifting the quantity fixed at the meeting. 3. Interest at the 11% per annum on overdue will be charged by the suppliers.

Since, Grasim Industries are the only suppliers of Viscose, NTC procures it from them. In case of Viscose, blend incentives are given depending on the contents used in the production. Depending upon the range of Viscose contents, that is, 35-45%, 45-65%, 65% and above, the incentives will differ. A monthly production report will be sent to the suppliers and according to the count demanded, incentives will be provided. The raw materials are transported by lorries for whom the payment is made by the suppliers.

Finance DepartmentAll the financial revenues and expenditure of the mill come under the control of NTC. The main sources of revenue for the mill is the sale of yarn and the main expenditure incurred are for procurement of raw materials payment of wages and salaries and payment of electricity charges. In CS & WM Accounts Manager is the head of financial department. He is in charge of all the matters related to finance in CS & WM. There are three types of auditing in CS&WM. They are: Internal auditing, Statutory auditing and Government auditing. The auditing process is fully computeri ed in CS&WM.

HIERARCHY

Accounts Manager

Deputy Manager Accounts

Senior Assistant

Junior Assistant

General Information

Bankers: State Bank of India, State Bank of Travancore Auditors: M/S Jacob & George (Chartered Accountants)Significant Accounting Policies 1. Fixed assets and depreciation

i.

In the case of fixed assets acquired as a result of nationalization, the life of the assets for depreciation purpose has considered as if they were new. These assets have been taken at the value as then approved by the Board of Directors of the corporation. The assets acquired subsequently are stated at cost.

ii.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on the straight line method as per section 205 (2) (b) of the Companies Act, 1956.

iii.

Depreciation has been provided for in accordance with circular number of 14 (9 h). File No. 1/12/92-CL-U dated 20/12/1993 of the Government of India, Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs, Department of the Company Affairs, on the original cost of all the assets including the existing assets including the existing assets at the rates prescribed in the schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956, retaining the residual at 5 %.

iv.

For the fixed assets required after 01.04.1974 and whose actual cost does not exceed at Rs. 5000/-. Depreciation has been provided 20%.

v.

Depreciation on the amount capitalized subsequently on account of foreign exchange fluctuation is provided prospectively over the residual useful life of the asset.

vi.

Gains or losses on disposal of fixed assets are recognized in the profit and loss account.

2. Inventories Valuation of inventories is as follows:

a. Stores, spares, dyes, chemicals and coal are at weighted average cost in respect of inventory (consumable stores/spares) the provision is made as follows: Value of items held in and not moved for more than 5 years 50% Value of items held in stocks and not moved for more than 3 years - 25% Value of items held in stocks and not moved for up to 3 years Nil. b. Raw materials at weighted average cost or net realizable value whichever is lower. c. Finished goods packed cloth and yarn at cost or net realizable value after making provisions for obsolescence, whichever is lower. d. Waste at net realizable value. e. Materials in process:- Spinning and weaving in process loose yarn, cloth-in-process at lower cost or net realizable value. f. The unfinished job conversion contracts for yarn and cloth are recognized as work in process valued at contracted price less expenses still to be incurred by making ready for delivery.

3. Investment

a. Quoted value at lower cost or market value b. Unquoted value at cost.

4. Debt or receivable

i.

Debt or receivables from private parties which are doubted of recovery or adjustment and outstanding for more than three years

ii.

Debts or receivables from the sister concern into subsidiaries. Employees of the mill/ Government department/ other PSUs.

5. Prior period expenses and income

Expenses and income of prior years less than Rs. 10000/ - in each case has been charged or accounted in the current year itself.

6. Repairs Store consumptions,

and

maintenance

salaries

and

wages

incurred

on

maintenance are charged to primary held of accounts.

7. Carrying charge

Carrying charges on cotton purchase has been accounted under administrative expense.

8. Gratuity

The gratuity liability in respect of existing employees has been calculated on actual valuation, based on February month earnings.

9. Insurance claims

Insurance claims arising out of fire accident, machinery break down, transit loss and other miscellaneous losses will be

accounted only when the claim is admitted by the insurance and the claim voucher discharged by the company.10. Foreign currency liability

The foreign currency liability in respect of import of machinery, under deferred payment guarantee arrangement through holding company, is revalued at the prevail ing market rates as on the Balance Sheet. The adjustments for the differences, if any in respect of: a. Principal amount is adjusted to the cost of machinery. b. Interest accrued up to the date of balance sheet is dealt within the profit and loss account. c. Unaccrued future interest is treated as current asset.

11. Foreign currency transactio n

The transactions in foreign exchange are accounted at exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Any exchange gains or losses arising out of the subsequence fluctuation are accounted for in profit and loss account except loss relating to acquisition of assets.

12. Leave with wages or salary provision

Provision for leave with wages or salary is made for the number of days of the credit of the employee on date of balance sheet based on February month earnings.

13. Expenditure on voluntary retirement scheme

Expenditure

incurred

for

implementation

of

voluntary

retirement scheme is charged to profit and loss account in the year in which the employees relieved and the same is treated as an extra ordinary item.

SALES AND MARKETING DEPARTMENTTABLE-2 Total sales in the last fi e years

Year 2005 - 2006 2006 - 2007 2007 2008 2008 - 2009 2009 - 2010

Sales Rs. 1582600 Rs. 1276570 Rs. 1061400 Rs. 122951370 Rs. 156397972

CHART- 2

Sal s6000000 000000 229 3706397972

2000000 0000000

80000000 Sales 60000000 0000000

0

2006

2007

20000000

82600

276 70

06

00 2009 20 0

2008

The final product of Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mill is yarn. The market for yarn is a highly competitive one and therefore the prices keep fluctuating, which in turn affects the quantity demanded. The main consumers of yarn are the weaving merchants and looms. Yarn is their raw material with they produce fabrics. Most of the fabrics thus produced is exported to different countries and also used for domestic purpose within the country. Hence, it is absolutely a must that the yarn is of very good quality. Otherwise they will be immediately rejected and returned to the mill itself. In case of Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mill, the manufactures have direct contact with the depot keepers. Depot keepers are traders who purchase the yarn from various mills and sell it to different consumers. There are various depot keepers who purchase yarn from NTC mills and some of the main ones are located in Maharashtra (Bhiwandhi), Gujarat (Surat, Ahmadabad), Delhi etc. The Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills sell most of its yarn to the depot keeper of Bhiwandhi (Maharashtra). Various counts of yarn will be produced according to the quantity demanded by the deport keepers. They inform the mill about the changing demand conditions. Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills does not sell its products in Kerala, but sold to Bombay and Ahmadabad. Every week meeting is held to fix the yarn price. There are four depots, three in Bombay and one in Ahmadabad. The depots in Bombay are Htel Enterprises, Shah Enterprises and Sangeetha traders. The stock is sent on 1st of every month to each depots. 50 paise discount is allowed for

each kg. of stock sold before 5 th. Out of the cash received from depots, 60% goes to Sub Office, Bangalore and 4 0% comes to Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills.Fixing of rates for the yarn

The price of yarn produced in various NTC mills located all over India is fixed by yarn pricing committee. For the regional subsidiaries (APKK & M) and (TN), the committee holds its meeting in Coimbatore (TN). The price fixed by the committee is sent to the various mills along with minutes of the meeting. According to the price fixed, the yarn will be allocated to the depot keepers along with the rates. Each bag contains about 40 cone yarn, weight 1.25 kg. each. Gross weight of a pack is 54.1 kg. and the net weight is 50 kg. The packed sacks of yarn are loaded into lorries. Each lorry contains about 180 to 250 sacks. The lorries are hired on contract basis for which quotations are called for. The transport company, which quotes the lowest price, is selected. These lorries transport the yarn to godowns owned by NTC. All documents will be sent to the godown. They in turn inform the depot keepers about the arrival of the stock. The depot keepers can take the yarn after making the payment for it. If they make the payment within two days they can avail a discount and send the remaining amount to the mill. The depot keepers have to produce the proof of delivery to the godown keepers of the NTC. The godowns of NTC serve a dual purpose: It helps in centralized control of sales.

It provides the buyer with storage facility. The depot keepers will take the yarn from these godowns only in small quantities by sending slips. However, payment wi ll be made for the whole lot even though the sale is made in small quantities. Sales report and accounts report will be consolidated by the depot keepers and send to the respective mills. The sale of yarn is made on cash basis only and only after actual sales is made; it will be recorded in the books of accounts of the mill. No discounts or concession of any type can be provided to the consumers without the permission of NTC. Depot keepers receive 1.5% commission of the ex -mill value on the sales made of the NTC products. They represent NTC product in the yarn market and are also dealers of yarn for various other mills.List of depot keepers of Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills

1. Messers Htel Enterprises 2. Messers Shah Enterprises 3. Chopra Textile (Ahmadabad)

Stores DepartmentIn Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills, the stores department is a separate building built for preserving material, spares and finished goods. It is functioning under the control of Spinning Manager (SM). The departments main task is to store spare and stationary items needed by the undertaking and issue it at the time of need. One of the main functions of the stores department is to purchase the spares and stationary as per the requirement of the undertaking. For this the stores department must get the purchase indent which is a journal requisition letter sent by the required department with the sign of the factory manager to the store keeper. If the required spares are of low cost, the spares are purchased from the local market and then it is passed to the respective department. In case of high cost of spares, purchase committee that consist of Chairman, General Manager, Factory Manager, Accounts Manager, Engineer and stock keeper will take the decision regarding the purchase. The high value spares are purchased by inviting quotations and quotations from at least three suppliers is must. The following are the procedures followed in the selection of quotations: 1. Inviting the quotations 2. Receipt of quotations 3. Opening of quotation 4. Tabulation 5. Verification

6. Placing order In the stores department racks and cupboards are being maintained for storing of spares. In order to control and record different transactions of material, Bin Card is used and it is tagged with each stock. Bin Card is a quantitative record showing receipt, issue and closing balance of particular items of stores. It is possible to know the stock position as each and every transaction of materials is entered into Bin Card with date. In Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mill s there is a formal procedure for the issue of materials. Every department has to follow this procedure in procuring the materials. Firstly, the department requiring materials has to prepare a requisition slip in which the material needed, quantity etc. ar e written. Then this requisition has to be signed by the Spinning Manager and then it is passed to the stores department. Through this requisition slip the store keeper issue the requested list of materials to the department and these issues are noted in issue register. In order to exercise an efficient control over the stores department, the store keeper must prepare and maintain different registers. Following are the registers maintained in the stores department: 1. Purchase register 2. Issue register 3. Purchase order register 4. Stock register 5. Quotation register 6. L/R register

Inventory Management

The need for inventory management with uniform policy throughout the nine subsidiary corporations is the prime and pressing need of the hour, as most of the units is yet to turn as viable units and very few units are operating with very meager profits. Inventory management helps to bring uniformity in the policies, procedures and methods to be adopted for the material management function in all the mills under the control o f NTC. Objectives of inventory management in Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills: a. To provide timely assistance for the mills b. To ensure uninterrupted supply of materials without stock or excess storage c. To achieve standardization d. To reduce heavy investment in inventory e. To assume mills the right quality at right price at the right time. In Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills inventory is maintained in the following ways: i. Stores, spares, dyes, chemicals and coal are at weighted average cost. ii. Raw materials at weighted average cost or net realizable value whichever is lower.

iii.

Finished goods packed cloth and yarn at cost or net realizable value whichever is lower, yarn stock in depot at landed cost or net realizable value whichever is lower.

iv.

Stock with retail shop at landed cost/ latest landed cost or realizable value after making provision for obsolescence, whichever is lower.

v. vi.

Waste at net realizable value. Materials in process:- Spinning and weaving in process loose yarn, cloth-in-process at lower cost or net realizable value.

vii.

The unfinished job conversion contracts for yarn and cloth are recognized as work in process valued at contracted price less expenses still to be incurred by making ready for delivery.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENTThe employees of an organization are precious and the backbone that plays a stupendous role in its development and productive activities. Its employees significantly influence the prosperity of the organization. Liberalization and globalization has created challenging opportunities to make its human resource competent enough to take a challenge. All these calls for the existence of HRM department in the organization. Human Resource Management is an art and science of managing people who are engaged in productive occupations. Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to employees such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organizational development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administra tion and training. Human Resource Management is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, management and provides direction for the people who work in the organization. Human resource management can also be performed by line managers . Human resource management is, no doubt, an outgrowth of the older process and approach. But it is much more than its parent disciplines personnel management and behavioral science. Its approach is more comprehensive from beginning to end. Its emphasis is not only on production and productivity but also on quality of life .It seeks to achieve the fullest development of human resource and fullest possible socio-economic development.

Maximum individual development, developing working relationship and effective utilization of human resources are the primary goals of human resource management. A healthy climate, characterized by the values of openness, enthusiasm, trust, mutuality and collaboration is essential for developing human resources.

Definition of Human Resource Management

According to Dale Yoder the management of human resource is viewed as a system in which participants seek to attain both individual and group goals.

Process of Human Resource Management

1.

Acquisition function:

Acquisition process is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing the required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives. The acquisition function begins with planning. It also covers the function such as job analysis, human resources planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and internal mobility.

2.

Development function:

It is the process of improving, moulding and changing the skills, knowledge, creative ability, aptitude and value. The development function can be viewed along three dimensions.

Employee training - it is the process of imparting to the

employees the technical and operating skills and knowledge. It also includes changing the attitudes among workers. Management development

it is primarily concerned with

knowledge acquisition and the enhancement of an executives conceptual abilities. Career development it is a continual effort to match long-term

individual and organizational needs. When human resources have been developed effectively, one can expect to have competent employee with up-to-date skills and knowledge.

3.

Motivation function:

The motivation function begins with the recognition that individuals are unique and that motivation techniques must reflect the needs of each individual.

4.

Maintenance Function:

The maintenance function is concerned with providing those working conditions that employees believe are necessary in order to maintain their commitment to the organization.

OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

In order to achieve organizational objectives in tegration of employers and employees interest is necessary. In this light it can be summarized as follows: i. To improve the services rendered by the enterprise to society through building better employee morale, which leads to more efficient individual and group performance. Thus HRM seeks to

manage change to the mutual advantage of individuals, groups, the organization and the society. ii. To establish in the mind of those associated with the enterpriseemployees, shareholders, creditors, customers and the public at large- the fact that the enterprise is rendering the best service of which it is capable and distributing the benefits derived from their fairly and contributing to the success of the enterprise. iii. To create and utilize an able and motivated workforce to accomplish the basic organizational goals. iv. To organize and satisfy individual and group needs by providi ng adequate and equitable wages, incentives, employee benefits, social security, challenging work prestige, recognition, security status etc. Thus an organization can identify and satisfy individual and group goals by offering appropriate monetary and non-monetary incentives. v. To employ the skills and knowledge of employees efficiently and effectively i.e., to utilize human resources effectively in the achievement of organizational goals. vi. To strengthen and appreciate the human assets continuously by providing training and development programmes. vii. To maintain high employee morale and sound human relations by providing the various conditions and facilities. viii. To enhance job satisfaction and self-actualization of employees by encouraging and assisting every employee to realize his full potential. ix. To provide facilities and conditions of work, and create favourable atmosphere for maintaining stability of employment.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT OF CANNANORE SPINNING AND WEAVING MILLS Human Resource department plays a very important function in management concept. It is said to be a method of developing the potentialities of employees so that they will get maximum satisfaction out of their work and as a result give their best efforts to the organi ation.

HIERARCHY

Labour Welfare Officer

Time Keeping

Senior Assistant

Junior Assistant

In Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills, the personnel department has the task of keeping the organization together as an outgoing entity in the face of external and internal stresses and is of considerable importance. Here employee becoming surplus will not be retrenched but will be redeployed suitably filling up the existing vacancies. Whenever vacancies arise in future, the surplus staff will be posted as per seniority. Necessary alternations in the duties and responsibilities of remaining staff members shall be made for the effective and smooth functioning of the mills. The resultant surplus staff fills temporary vacancies and carries out alternative duties and responsibilities as per direction of the management until they are allocated to permanent position. It is agreed that the staff members in all sections shall work as a team and every one shall attend to other members work also as and when required.Functions of Human Resource Department in Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills

In Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills, the Personnel Manager is the head of personnel department. He is in charge of administration disciplines and other administrative functions. The following are the main areas of administration:1. Recruitment, training and promotion

Currently no recruitment is taking place in Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills. Time to time training program is conducted. Apprentice training is held as per the Apprentice Act. Clerical

Staffs is decided by the NTC. Promotion for the workers or staffs is based on seniority level over merit.

2. Provident Fund contribution

All the employees are covered under PF and ESI Act; the employees contribute 10% of their wages to Employees Provident Fund or salary with 10% contribution by the employer. The employees are eligible for Employees Pension services with a ceiling of Rs. 6500 per month. The pension is worked out as per the following formula: 1/70 x pensionable salary x pensionable service.

3. ESI contribution

4.75% of employers contribution 1.75% of employee contribution Medical benefit, accidental benefit, sick benefit lea ve are provided if necessary. Funeral benefits are also provided if any one dies during the period of his service.4. Gratuity

Gratuity is calculated using the formula: Per month salary/ 26 days x 15 days (Monthly salary will be calculated only for 26 days) The present ceiling limit of total amount of gratuity payable is 10 Lakhs.5. Wage administration

There are two types of wage payment systems followed in Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills according to the production stages. For mixing, blow room and cardi ng wages are

paid on the basis of piece rate system and for all other production process time rate system is obtained.6. Retirement benefit

At the time of retirement all these benefits are provided. Gratuity Provident Fund Pension Leave with wages if any.7. Administrative actions

If a worker takes a long leave the management wont terminate him suddenly. There is a procedure in Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills before termination. First the absentee is admitted for counseling. Thereafter, a notice is sent an d then warning notice is sent. Even then he continues to be absent a call notice is sent, and then the management may suspend him and after further enquiries of termination is held as per standing orders.

There are two categories of workers in CS & WM and they can be classified into the following:

Workers

Skilled

Unskilled

Jobbers

Fitters

Maistri

Spinners

Doffing boy

Number of workers There are about 540 workers and 19 administrative staff working in the mill. 3 shifts are functioning from 7:00am - 3:30pm, 3:30pm - 12:00am and from 12:00am - 7:00am. Both male and female workers are employed in all sections of the mill. Different categories of workers include permanent, temporary and gate badlies.

TRAININGMeaning of Training:

Training is the process of increasing the knowledge and skills for doing a particular job. It is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. The purpose of training is basically to bridge the gap between job requirements and present competence of an employee. Training is aimed at improving the behavior and performance of a person. Training is often described as focusing on the acquisition of KSAs (Knowledge, Skills and Abilities) needed to perform more effectively ones current or future job. Training is job oriented or occupational, having an immedi ate utilitarian objective, and the major burden of training falls upon the employers. Training is essentially practical consisting of knowledge and skills required to perform specific tasks. Training is valuable to employees because it will give them greater job security and an opportunity for advancement.Definition of Training:

According to Edwin.B. Flippo Training is the act ofincreasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job What does training include?

Training enables the employees to get acquainted with jobs and also increase their KSA. It makes a newly recruited employee fully productive in the minimum of time. Even for the old workers, it is necessary to refresh their job skills and to enable them to ke ep up with

new methods and techniques as well as new machines and equipments for doing the work. Training job will never be finished as long as the organization remains in operation. Training includes the learning of such techniques as required for the intelligent performance of different tasks.

TRAINING EFFECTIVENESSThe training effectiveness is concerned with studying about the current practices used by the training department for training employees of this organization. According to one of the definit ions Training Effectiveness means the extent to which the training activity fulfills its intendedpurpose or function . However, there has been lot of definitions given

by various experts in the field of Human Resource Management. One of the noted definition is by Descy and Westphalen(1998), who defined training effectiveness as training that meets its objectives as defined by its funding body. This is a notable definition since it is undoubtedly the funding body that ultimately decides whether or not training will be made available. Whilst this is a useful heuristic, there are two points to bear in mind. First, it is not always the case that the funders precise objectives are transparent, although their general aims may be. Second, whilst the funders may have objectives, it is only by relating the extent to which these are perceived to have been met - by the various stakeholders (e.g. individuals, enterprises) that one can really understand the extent to which the training has been effective. There may also be unintended consequences of training that aid an

individuals employability for example, improving soft skills such as an individuals self-esteem, motivation or ability to work in a team.

Evaluation of the current training mechanism is done to understand the following:

o

Provide feedback on whether the existing training and

development activity is effective in achieving its aims. o The extent to which the organization has benefited from

employee development and progress. o place. o It helps you to understand the attitude of staff towards the training programmes. o It helps you to track the development of staff knowledge To find out if the learning is being applied in the work

and skills. o Identifying training gaps and future training needs.

TYPES OF TRAINING:

Training programs may be of the following types.i. Orientation Training

Induction or orientation training seeks to adjust newly appointed employees to the work environment. Induction training creates self confidence in the minds of employees.

ii.

Job Training

It refers to the training provided with a view to increase the knowledge and skills of an employee for increasing performance on the job.iii. Safety Training

Training provided to minimize accidents and damage to machinery is known as safety training.

iv.

Promotional Training

It involves training of existing employees to enable them to perform high level jobs.

v.

Refresher Training

When existing techniques become obsolete due to the development of better techniques, employees have to be trained in the use of new methods and techniques. Refresher training is designed to revive and refresh knowledge.

NEED OF TRAINING

Job requirement - New and inexperienced employees

require detailed instructions for effective performance on the job.Technological change - Technology is changing very

fast. Now automation and mechanization have been increasingly applied in offices and service sector. Increasing the use of fast changing techniques require training in new technology. Organizational viability - In order to survive and grow,

an organization must continually adopt itself to the changing environment. An organization can build up a second line of

command through training in order to meet its future needs of human resource. Internal mobility - Training becomes necessary when an

employee moves from one job to another due to transfer.Remedial training - This training is arranged to

overcome the short comings in the behaviour and performance of old employees.

METHODS OF TRAINING

There are many methods of training. The management should select an appropriate method which is suited to the organizational needs. The training methods are:On-the-Job Training

The most common method used by the industry to train individuals is on-the- job training. Virtually every employee from clerk to General Manager gets some on-the job training. Under this method, the immediate superior who knows exactly what the trainee should learn to do, give training at his workplace. Following are the on -the-job training methods:i. Coaching

Under this method, the supervisor guides or coaches his subordinate to acquire knowledge and skill. ii. Job or Position Rotation The trainee is transferred systematically from one job to another so he can get the experience of different jobs. iii. Special assignment

This is used to provide the employee s with first hand experience in working on the actual problem.

Off-The-Job Training

This type of training is not a part of everyday job activities. Classroom or off-the-job instructions are useful, when the concept, attitudes, theories and problem solving abilities are to be total. The following are the off-the-job training methods. i. Lecture Methods It is a verbal presentation by an instructor to a large audience. It is an excellent and economic technique for group trainingii. Conference Method

In this method, the participating individuals confer to discuss points of common interest for each other. It is an effective training device for person in the possession of both conference member and conference leader.iii. Case Study Method

Under this method, the trainee may be given a problem to discuss, which is more or less related to the principles already taught. In this method, the trainee is given an opportunity to apply his knowledge to the solution of a realistic problem.iv. Sensitivity Training

A group consisting of 10 to 15 persons is selected. They can share their experiences. This type of training is aimed at creating and improving sensitivity to the feelings of the employee.v. Role Playing

Here trainers are required to play the role of supervisor. A problem or work situation is given, in which they are e xpected to take up that role. vi. Simulation It is an attempt to create a realistic decision making environment for the future.

Steps in the Training Programme

Training is a costly and time-consuming process. This training procedure discussed below is essentially an adoption of the job instruction training course. The following steps are usually considered as necessary.i. Discovering or identifying training needs

A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific problems. Identification of training needs must contain 3 types of analysis. a) Organizational analysis b) Operational analysis c) Man analysisOrganizational analysis

It involves the study of the entire organization in terms of its objectives, its resources, resource allocation and its environment.Operational analysis

It is a systematic and detail analysis of jobs. It is mainly to assess the job contents, skills and aptitude required to perform jobs, the knowledge and work behavior.Man analysis

The persons to be trained, changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of the employees are to be determined.ii. Preparing the instructor

The instructor is the key figure in the entire programme. He must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. The training programmes then follow a general sequence aimed at supplying the trainee with the opportunity to develop his skills and abilities.iii. Preparing the trainee

In putting the learner at ease, in stating the importance and ingredients of the job and its relationship to workflow, in explaining why he is being taught, in creating and encouraging questions finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs.iv. Presenting the operation

It is the most important step in the training programme. The training should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put across the new knowledge and operations.v. Try out the trainees performance

Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the jobs several times slowly, explaining each step. vi.Follow up

The final step in most training procedures is the follow up. It is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts.

Aims and Objectivesa. Primary objectives To do a research on the effectiveness of training methods. b. Secondary objectives To find out how far employees are satisfied in their designated job and how the present environment help them to increase their productivity. To understand what type of needs influence the employees most and to find out ways to utilize employee needs to achieve organizational objective. To do a general search on valence and expectations of employees and find out means to increase it.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH:

Researc is a r cess i w ic the researcher wishes to i d out the end result or a given roblem and thus the solution helps in uture course of action. The research has been defined as A careful investigation or enquiry especially through search for new fact in any branch of knowledge .

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

The procedure using, which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena, is called

Methodology. Methods compromise the procedures used for generating, collecting, and evaluating data. M ethods are the ways of obtaining information useful for assessing explanation.

RESEARCH DESIGN

A Research Design is purely and simply the fame work or plan for the study that guides the collection of the data .

Types of Research Design:

y Exploratory Research Design y Descriptive Research Design y Casual or Experimental Research Design n this study, the researcher has adopted Descriptive Research Design

Descriptive Research Design

A Descriptive Research Design is the one that simply describes something such as demographic characteristics of certain people who use something.

The descriptive study we typically concerned with determining frequently with which something occurs or how two variables vary together. This study is typically guide d by an initial hypothesis. A descriptive study requires a clear specification of who, what, when, where, why and how aspects of the research.

!

SAMPLIND DESIGN

Convenience Sampling:

y The sampling adopted in this study was convenience sampling. As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient to the researcher.

y A convenience sample is used when you simply stop anybody in the street who is prepared to stop, or when you wander round a business, a shop, a restaurant, a theatre or whatever, asking people you meet whether they will answer your questions.

Sampling Unit:

y A Survey is conducted in S&S Power Switchgear Equipment Limited at Sedarapet

Sample Size:

The sample size for the survey is 50

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Since time limit is very less an intensive study is not possible. The non-availability of certain data within the limited time is also one of the limitations of the study. Some data are confidential so they do not give more details. There may be errors due to respondents bias.

WORK EXPERIENCE OF EMPLOYEES

Table.1

Variable

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Less than 3 yrs 3 - 5 yrs Above 5 yrs Total

8 25 17 50

16 50 34 100

Chart. 1

WORK E PERIENCE OF EMPLOYEES

0

30

20

Inference: From the above table, it can be seen that one half of the employees have an experience of 3-5 years in the job. While 34 percent of them have a work experience of above 5 years. Only 16 percent of employees were having experience less than 3 years.

$

$

# "

$

0

0

0 less than 3 years 3 to years more than years

TYPES OF TRAININGTable.2

Particulars

Number of Respondents

Percentage

On-the-job training Off-the-job trainingTotal

41

83

9

17

50

100

Chart. 2

TYPES OF TRAINING

Off-the-job Training

83

Inference:

From the above table, it can be seen that a majority of employees got On-the-job training at the time of joining.

'

%

%&7 n -the-job training

TYPES OF TRAINING UNDER ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

Table. 3

Particulars

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Job rotation Coaching Special AssignmentTotal

8 42 0

16 84 0

50

100

TYPES OF TRAINING UNDER ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

Chart. 3

90 80

7060

00

30 200

Inference: From the above table, it can be seen that a majority of the employees got coaching method of On-the-job training. While 16% of them are trained in rotation method of On-the-job training.

1

) 0 (

0Job Rotation oaching Special Assignment

TYPES OF TRAINING UNDER OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING

Table.4

Particulars

Lecture Method Conference Method Seminar or team discussion Total

Number of Respondents 42

Percentage

84 16 0

8 0

50

100

Chart.4

TYPES OF TRA NING UNDER OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING METHODS0% 6%

8 %

Inference: From the above table, it can be seen that 84% of employee get lecture method of Off-the-job training, 16% get conference method and none of the employees are trained on seminar or team discussion.

5

Conference

4

2

3

Lecture

ethodethod

INTERVAL OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES

Table. 5

Particulars

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Once in a month Once in 6 months Once in a yearTotal

0 0 5050

0 0 100100

Chart.5

INTERVAL OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES

Once in a year Percentage

0

20

0

60

80

Inference:

This table shows that 100% of employees get training once in a year.

6 8 6

6

67 6

6

@

nce in a

B

n ce in 6

o nths

9

A

onth

00

EFFECTS OF TRAININGTable. 6Particulars Number of Respondents Percentage

Performance Improvement Self confidence Personality development Improvement of products and productionTotal

33

66

8 0

16 0

9

18

50

100

Chart. 6

Eff ts of Trainin70

600

Performance ImprovementSelf Confidence Personalit Development Improvement of Products and Production

3020

0 0

Inference: From the above table, it can be seen that 66% of the employees improved their performance through training method. While 16% of employees creates self confidence through training method and 18% improved the product and production through training method.

F

D C

E

0

NUMBER OF TRAINING ATTENDED

Table. 7

Variable

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Less than 5 5-10 More than 10Total

34 16 050

68 32 0100

Chart. 7

NUMBER OF TRAINING ATTENDED70

0 00

30 200

Inference: From the above table, it can be seen that 68% of the employees attended less than 5 training sessions. 32% attended 5-10 training sessions and none attended more than 10 training sessions.

G

G Q

Q

H I P G

0Less than to 0 More than 0

TYPES OF TRAINERTable.8

Particulars

Number of Respondents

Percentage

External Expert Company TrainerTotal

0 5050

0 100100

Chart. 8

TYPES OF TRAINER

External expert

Company Trainer

Inference:

It is clear from the table that only company trainers are engaged in giving training to employees.

R

100

TYPES OF TRAININGTable.9Particulars Number of Respondents Percentage

Group Training Individual TrainingTotal

37 13

74 26

50

100

Chart. 9

TYPES OF TRAINING

7

Inference:

From the above table, it can be seen that 74% of the employees preferred group training while only 26% preferred individual training.

U

TS

Troup Training

26

IMPACT OF TRAINING IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Table.10

Variable

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Agree DisagreeTotal

50 050

100 0100

Chart. 10

IMPACT OF TRAINING IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Agree

Disagree

Inference: From the above table, it can be seen that whole of the

employees agreed that training is helpful to improve the employee career.

V

0

20

0

60

80

100

RATING OF PRESENT TRAINING PROGRAMMES

Table.11

Particulars

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Excellent Very Good Good PoorTotal

7 10 30 350

14 20 60 6100

Chart. 11

RATI

OF PRESENT TRAINING PROGRAMMES6%

14%

Good 20%60%

Very GoodExcellent Poor

Inference: From the above table, it can be seen that 60% have the response as good, 20% stated it is very good, 14% rated that training programme is excellent and only 6% rated training programme as poor.

FINDINGS OF THE STUDYy

The company provides training to all workers at the time

of joining.y

Most of the workers preferred the group training system

more than individual training.y

All the workers agreed that training is helpful to improve

the employees career.y y y

There is no highly efficient and effective training system. Most of the workers prefer job rotation method of training. The company does not prefer to select experienced

candidates as workers. Previous work experience is not the important criteria for getting selection.y

84% of the workers were working in the company for

more than 3 years.y

It is found that the company provided coaching training

method to most of the employees under on -the- job training system. Currently the company mainly provides job rotation training.y

The company focused on lecture method of training under

of f the job training, especially for safety training.y

Human Resource Department does not provide training

regularly.

y

The majority of workers improved their performance

through training system.y

All workers agreed with the fact that training is an

essential part of every organization.

RECOMMENDATIONS There should be regular training sessions. Training must be focused to enhance the knowledge about

the latest technological change. Special attention must be given to provide highly efficient

and effective training. Safety training should be given, especially to new

workers. Effectiveness of training programmes should be evalu ated

periodically. The follow ups and reviews on training learning needs to

be undertaken by the training department on a regular basis and document it.

CONCLUSIONTraining method play an important role in enhancing

productivity and overall performance of workers. It has great influence in boosting the morale and loyalty of employees. Training is essential to develop skills and also update knowledge. CS&WM provide only high quality and high standard products. The company produces innovative parts like twist and super high twist synthetic fibres, which are of high element in the current market. So it has forced a large market in India. The aim of the study is to find the effectiveness of training methods, and the merits and demerits of training methods. Employees are satisfied with the training methods of the company. They require more training programmes especially for safety and to keep pace with the latest technological changes.

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Personal data Name: Age: Sex: a) Male Department: Nature of work: Qualification: a) Below SSLC C) PDC/+2 d) Degree Year of service: a) 0-2years years b) SSLC e) PG f) Diploma c) Above 5 b) Female

b) 2-5years

2. Did you get On-the -job training or Off-the-job training at the time of joining? a) On-the-job training b) Off-the-job training

3. What type of On-the-job training did you get? a) Job rotation Assignment b) Coaching c) Special

4. What type of Off-the-job training did you get? a) Lecturer method b) Conference c) Seminar or Group discussion 5. How often do you get training?

a) Once in a month c) Once in a year

b) Once in 6 months

6. Did you get training for any of the following purpose? a) Performance improvement b) Personality Development

c) Improvement of products and production 7. How many training session did you attend? a) Less than 5 b) 5 to 10 c) More than 10

8. Whom did you get as trainers? a) External expert b) Company trainers

9. Rate the present training programme available to you a) Excellent d) Poor b) Very good c) Good

10. Which of the following training do you prefer? a) Group training b) Individual training

11. Do you think training help employees to improve his career? a) Agree b) Disagree

12. What is your opinion about employee morale and discipline? a) Very good b) Good c) Average d) Bad

13. Did you get more opportunities for your advancement? a) Strongly agree c) Agree b) Strongly disagree d) Disagree

14. Are you able to adjust when an unpleasant circumstance arrives? a) Yes b) No

15. Training is an essential part of every organization how far do you agree with the statement?

a) Agree

b) Neither agree nor disagree

c) Disagree

BIBLIOGRAPHYData collected directly from workers. References H.R.M T.N.CHHOBRA H.R.M C.B.GUPTHA H.R.M ABDHUL ASSIZ Website address www.textile spinning.com www.entyce .com www.textile fibre.com