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TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY GOLDBELT HERITAGE FOUNDATION INVESTIGATING TLINGIT ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

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TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY. GOLDBELT HERITAGE FOUNDATION INVESTIGATING TLINGIT ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE. What does it take to thrive in Southeast Alaska?. Focused observation over generations Trust for inherited wisdom from ancestors Qualitative oral record Life-encompassing moral code - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGYGOLDBELT HERITAGE FOUNDATIONINVESTIGATING TLINGIT ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

Page 2: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

What does it take to thrive in Southeast Alaska?

Focused observation over generations

Trust for inherited wisdom from ancestors

Qualitative oral record

Life-encompassing moral code

Respect for the interconnectedness of everything (awareness of the metaphysical)

Page 3: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

What else?• Deep understanding of ecological conditions

• bedrock geology

• surficial geology & soils

• climate

• marine ecology & oceanography

• vegetation

• fish & marine invertebrates

• wildlife

• human relations

• Ability to move great distances for trade, safety, and defense (navigation, transportation)

• Fishing technology & gear

• Food preservation

Page 4: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

TransportationSoutheast Alaska requires inter-coastal waterway travel in difficult conditions (low visibility, wave and wind variability)

Knowledge of the Interior navigation

Good relationships for trade, design of canoes came from Haida

Page 5: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Understanding Boat Technology

PLANING BOATS

Bottom is a flat line to stern

At rest, uses hydrostatic lift (buoyancy)

At speed, uses hydrodynamic lift

Hull comes almost entirely out of water at high speeds

DRAFT AS SPEED

Powerboats need high power engine to overcome gravity to plane

DISPLACING BOATS

Hull below water, at high speed “appears trapped” behind a bow wave

Speed limited by waterline and displacement weight

Relies more on hydrostatic lift

Speed determined by distance between bow and stern waves

DRAFT AS SPEED

Higher resistance because bow is trying to climb waves while stern is being sucked back down by dynamic forces

Page 6: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Are Tlingit canoes planing or displacing boats?

In this picture, huge amount of the hull is below the waterline (not able to be seen)

Displacing hull speed video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lffCqqluYI

Planing boat demonstration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyME1EDreNg

Page 7: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Specialized Features of Boat Hulls

Rocker

Forward flotation/extended forward floatation

Wave blocking devices

Bulbous bows and bow wave dispersion devices

C-shaped double ender

Page 8: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Rockers

Flat bottom boats do not have rockers

In Southeast Alaska, the design is necessary to withstand the waves and wind

Page 9: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Does the Chief Shake canoe have a rocker?

Page 10: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

In addition to rockers, many of these early engineering devices are seen in most boats today

Extended forward flotation devices

Wave dispersion devices

Large bulbous bows to draw boat up onto the wave

Page 11: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Elsewhere in Alaska….

Page 12: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY
Page 13: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Based on the shape, what are these boats used for?

Water-line length?

Rocker?

Forward bow flotation?

Bulbous bow structure?

Page 14: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

More influences on today’s technology

Tools

• Adze

• Halibut hooks

Food Preservation techniques:

• Drying

• Smoking

• Oils

• Fermentation

Page 15: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Food PreservationSMOKING:

•Region-dependent wood use

•Cottonwood in Chilkat region (Klukwan)

•Alder throughout Southeast

•Alder contains toxins that help eliminate bad bacteria during smoking process

•Smoking also evaporates water (preventing growth of bacteria)

•Aas Kwaani-the Tree People communicate with one another (evidence in oral narratives)

chemical communication between root systems

one alder will alert the grove to raise levels of toxins when deer are grazing nearby

Page 16: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Food PreservationDRYING:

• Water removal inhibits growth of microorganisms (evaporation through sun or wind drying)

OIL AS A PRESERVATIVE:

• Hooligan and seal oils were used to preserve fats and meat

• Prevents oxygen from reaching the meat, depriving bacteria of basic needs

Page 17: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Food Preservation

FERMENTATION:

• Occurs in oxygen-deprived environments

• Metabolic process that converts sugars into acids, alcohols, or gases

• Wine and beer fermentation is relatively safe and controllable because adding yeast means that the yeast outcompetes other microorganisms

• Fermentation of meat is more high-risk and can be fatal if done wrong

Page 18: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Fermentation ContinuedBio-preservation adds lactic acid

When the fish muscle drops below a pH of 4.5 it greatly inhibits microbial growth

Traditionally, fish pits were dug and plant material and sticks were added into the pit

Today, plastic gallon jugs and bags are used

Increased risk of Botulism caused by the Botulinum bacteria which thrives in anaerobic environments

Page 19: TLINGIT INGENUITY & TECHNOLOGY

Images & References

Slideshow modified from Henry Hopkins, Helen Watkins, and Fred White’s presentation during pilot class

Wikimedia Commons Images:

• Albacore Dinghy-Dabbler 2005

• Imperial War Museums A-724-Royal Navy Officer Tomlin 1940

• Archimedes; Principle-Finot 2006

• Carving adze-Waldo Brown 1910

• Walrus meat-Ansgar Walk 1999

Tlingit canoe-SMU Central University Library 1887

Chief Shake’s canoe-University of Washington Libraries 1916

Halibut Hook-FishEx Alaska Seafood