Tips of Food Handling

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  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    Handling Food Safety In The Restaurant

    Most people rarely get sick from contaminated foods because their immune systems are

    strong enough to protect them. But when harmful bacteria multiply beyond safe limitsdue to unsafe food handling or lack of refrigeration, that's when food poisoning strikes.

    When the immune system is impaired by sickness, age, or other factors, food poisoning is

    also more likely.

    Handle food as little as possible.

    Throw away plastic gloves after one use.

    eep fingers away from mouth, hair, face, skin and other parts of

    the body.

    !se the rest room sink or the hand"washing sink in the food

    preparation area for washing hands, not the food preparation sink. Wash fresh produce under running water before it is served either

    raw or cooked.

    Thaw fro#en foods in the refrigerator, under cold running water, or

    as part of the cooking process.

    $repare precooked fro#en foods e%actly as the directions state. Have foods ready at serving time but not any longer than necessary

    before serving time.

    &o not leave cooked foods at room temperature.

    lean and saniti#e food preparation surfaces between different

    types of raw food products (beef, pork, poultry, etc.) and between

    the preparations of raw products and ready to eat products.

    *void placing cartons or bo%es on surfaces used for food


    Wipe food contact surfaces with clean cloths, which are used only

    for that purpose. eep kitchens free of clutter.

    eep worktables clear and clean while in use.

    Wash and put away e+uipment that is not being used.

    Wash and saniti#e flatware or other utensils, which fall to the floor.

    &o not taste foods with any utensil used either to mi% or stir foods.

    &o not use fingers to sample food. *lways use a clean spoon.

    !se clean tongs, scoops, forks, spoons, spatulas, or other suitable

    utensils to handle food.

    $ick up and hold all tableware by the handles.

    tore tableware away from dust. $rovide straws either individually wrapped or from an approved


    -ce machines should be covered. -ce should be transferred to

    serving containers using approved scoops. ever use hands, cups,

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    or glasses to scoop ice. eep scoops protected when not in use. &o

    not store food items on ice used for drinks.

    !se a spoon or other suitable utensil to remove any serving or

    mi%ing spoon that falls into the food.

    When handling plates and trays do not touch eating surfaces with


    ommon /uestions0

    Are restaurant workers required to wear hairnets?

    *nswer0 Hairnets are not re+uired, but food handlers are re+uired to wear some sort of

    hair restraint. -t can be a cap, visor or a hair restraint of some sort.

    Is it ok to use dented cans in the restaurant?

    *nswer0 Because dented cans can have holes or compromised areas, they are not safe and

    should not be used. *ll it takes is a microscopic hole in these cans to set up dangerous

    bacteria like botulism and make your customers sick.

    Why aren't food workers allowed to have drinks in the food re area?*nswer0 -n a hot kitchen drink containers may sweat on the outside because of the heat.

    When you put the drink up to your mouth and then set the drink down on a table where

    you are preparing raw food, the bacteria from your mouth, can contaminate the preptable. *lso, most food handlers usually forget to wash their hands after they've taken a

    drink, contaminating their hands, which, in turn contaminates the food.

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    How to reare for a Health Insection

    seeing your health inspection as help rather than a hindrance could be good forbusiness.

    Section !" What to #o $efore an Insector %isitsWithout a health inspection, your restaurant could fall victim to a food borne"illnessoutbreak that could ruin your establishment's reputation and even force you to close your


    The proper strategy for a successful health inspection is to be ready for an e%amination at

    any time. This means that you and your managers should become inspectors and conduct

    weekly, in"house e%aminations before health inspectors arrive.

    1 When conducting a self"assessment, you should use the same form"or a similar form"

    that your health department uses and put yourself in the health inspector's place.

    1 2our self"inspection should include walking into your establishment from the outside to

    get an outsider's impression. !sing the outlet checklist.

    1 *fter you inspect your operation, hold a 34"minute briefing with kitchen5outlet staff to

    review any problems. This step will help convey the importance of food safety to staff


    1 -f your staff includes employees for whom 6nglish is a second language, ask a bilingual

    employee to translate the findings to them so they also understand how importantcleanliness is to the success of your restaurant.

    1 2our self"inspection priorities for kitchen5outlet employees should include0 food

    temperature, awareness of food types and hand washing.

    1 Temperature guidelines include checking the temperature of products when they arrive,

    when they are stored and when they are served. &oing this will reduce food borne"illnessoutbreaks by 74 percent.

    1 8ood"type guidelines are divided into three categories0 beef and beef blood9 chicken9and all other types of food. These three categories can never touch each other during


    1 The importance of hand washing should be re"enforced by posting signs at all kitchen

    sinks and in employee restrooms.

    1 Train your managers to ensure that they are up"to"date on the latest food"safetytechni+ues. :estaurant employees are re+uired to attend the food"safety training program.

    1 :eview your local health code for any special, local re+uirements.

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    Now that you know what to do when a health inspector arrives. Be warned that

    examiners usually arrive unannounced, so you'll want to be ready on any occasion, even

    during a rush.

    Section &" What to #o When a Health Insector %isits

    &on't panic when an inspector arrives. Think of this as a learning opportunity that willbenefit your operation by making it as safe as possible.

    To make an inspection as pain"free as possible, you should0

    1 *sk to see the inspector's credentials first. -n some cases, people have tried to pass

    themselves off as health officials. -f you're unsure of the person's credentials, call the

    local health department or the inspector's supervisor for verification.

    1 &o not refuse an inspection. The e%aminer will likely get an inspection warrant that you

    can't refuse and the e%amination will be even more thorough.

    1 Tag along with the inspector and take notes of any violations he or she finds. This gives

    you the chance to correct simple problems on the spot and the e%aminer will note your

    willingness to fi% problems.

    1 :efrain from offering any food or any other item that can be misconstrued as an attempt

    to influence the inspector's findings.

    1 *fter the e%am, be sure to sign the inspector's report. igning it doesn't mean that you

    agree to the findings9 it only means that you received a copy of the report.

    1 *sk the inspector to e%plain his findings to you and your staff and offer suggestions on

    areas that need improvement. 6ven the cleanest restaurants sometimes contain health"

    code violations.

    Section " What (ou )an #o if (ou Are )ited

    Here's what you can do to limit the damage of an adverse health inspection0

    1 8i% small problems during the inspection to let the e%aminer know you are willing towork with him or her.

    1 -f you don't understand the violation, ask the health official to e%plain. &on't beconfrontational.

    1 -f you disagree with the inspector's findings, keep +uiet for the time being and appeal

    the decision later. 2our health inspector should be your ally. He or she can improve the+uality of your cuisine and save you from the devastation of a food borne"illness incident.

    *dditional resources0 The ational :estaurant *ssociation and its 6ducation 8oundation

    offer a variety of courses to improve food safety in your restaurant, including0

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    How to $uild a $etter Relationshi with (our Health Insector* +The need for good

    co,,unication with health insectors-

    -n the foodservice industry, effective food safety and sanitation programs are an essential

    element of every successful operation. The relationship you build with your local health

    inspector can be of great benefit to your food safety and sanitation programs and thushelp you please your customers. pending a little +uality time and effort to improve

    communication with your health inspector can be very beneficial to your business and

    can help eliminate costly misunderstandings.

    The ultimate goal ;of a health inspection< is to protect the public and prevent people from

    becoming ill. either the health department nor the restaurant ever wants a customer tobecome sick. -t's not good for the restaurant or the Health &epartment. Therefore, the

    goal of health inspections is =T to catch something or get somebody into trouble, but toprevent illness.

    ince this is clearly a common goal shared by both entities, the ne%t step is to assure

    effective communications and build a strong relationship in order to make that goal a

    reality together. Health inspections involve much more than a simple look around yourrestaurant, says teven >rover, the ational :estaurant *ssociation's ?ice $resident of

    Health and afety :egulatory *ffairs. :estaurateurs who have successful interaction with

    their local health "" inspection agencies and run clean, safe operations agree that theprocess does not begin when an inspector arrives at the restaurant, armed with a list of

    things to scrutini#e. The process begins before the inspection with preventative measures

    such as safe, clean practices in the operation day in and day out. -t also involvesdeveloping avenues of clear communication and a mutually respectful relationship with

    the people who work for the health department.

    Be polite

    There is a reason why @first impressions are lasting impressions@ is a popular e%pression.

    -t is very important that you treat your health inspector with respect from the verybeginning. Those first few minutes help to set the tone for the ne%t hour and for many

    inspections to come. 8or this reason, it is important to greet your inspector professionally

    and give him5her respect, even if you are busy. 2ou should treat the inspector as youwould any other guest in your establishment9 after all we are the hospitality industry. 8or

    one thing, don't get angry if an inspector shows up during a mealtime, says >rover, who

    is also a former ?irginia health inspector. @>enerally inspectors are there to see youprepare food,@ he says, @so sometimes you should e%pect an inspection at mealtimes.@

    When the inspector arrives, greet him or her pleasantly and ask to see his or her

    credentials. -t is important that you establish the basis for the inspection and the

    authenticity of the inspector from the very beginning. Be professional, cooperative,

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    friendly and open, says >rover. &on't offer any favors or food, and don't be

    argumentative or defensive. ever argue with a health inspector during the inspection. -f

    there's a problem, try to work it out with the inspector in a professional manner and don'ttake the inspector's observations or violations personally. -f you can't work it out during

    the inspection or during the post inspection discussion, remember you can always call the

    inspector's supervisor and ask for clarification later.

    *s :adke advises, @&on't take the inspection personally. -t is not a personal attack. -t isthe Aob of the inspector to find errors and he or she may find

    some things that need to be corrected. The nature of the inspection is to verify that your

    operation is taking the necessary precautions to help avoid a serious food"related illness


    ?ictoria &ecker, 8oodservice &irector of /uality *ssurance for lyde's :estaurant

    >roup says that @=perators should take the health inspectors seriously. They are

    forecasting and preventing future problems for the restaurant.@ 8or this reason, &eckersays that her company takes a proactive role with the inspectors and welcomes the health

    inspectors into its restaurants. 8urthermore, &ecker adds, @we correct most errors orinspector observations on the spot.@

    *ccompany your health inspector

    *fter you greet your health inspector9 show him5her that you take a great interest inproviding your customers with safe and high +uality food by accompanying him5her

    during the inspection.

    @-t is nice when the person in charge is able to go around with the inspector during an

    inspection. -f not the manager or the assistant manager, then at least one of the staff.

    Because inspectors usually show up unannounced, it is perfectly understandable ifrestaurant operators are too busy to accompany us,@ says :adke. *ccompanying the

    inspector during the inspection shows the inspector that you're interested in the processand in correcting any problems immediately.

    =bserving the inspection allows you to better understand the basis for the

    recommendations that are being made. @* picture is worth a thousand words,@ :adke

    notes. @Having violations physically pointed out gives you a better understanding of theproblem because the inspector is able to show why something is a violation.@

    *s you walk around your facility with your environmental health specialist, there are

    several things that you can do to demonstrate that you take public health seriously. Tobegin with, bring a note pad and write down any observations that your health inspectormakes. This allows you to have your own record of the recommendations for later

    reference. -t also shows your inspector that you are serious about implementing the

    necessary changes over the long term and not Aust while the inspector is there.

    -f you don't understand something that your inspector says, or why something is a

    violation, +uestion the inspector immediately. =pen communication is the best way for

    you to understand the regulations and what you can do to fully comply with them. -t also

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    is a good way to become educated and show him5her that you want to improve your

    knowledge of food safety and regulations.

    eeping foods at safe temperatures is critical to food safety, so be prepared to taketemperatures of foods along with the inspector. This demonstrates to the inspector that it

    is common practice for you, and that you know how to do common practices. :adke

    notes that when an operator is not aware of critical issues or if he or she can't give general

    information about critical temperatures, it gives the health inspector the impression thathe5she is not dealing with a responsible operator. 3f however, you show your inspector

    that these practices are commonplace, you are immediately eliminating any doubt

    regarding your professional food safety knowledge.

    now the rules

    6ven though at times the rules seem to change ever so +uickly, and the interpretation of

    the individual health inspector may be a little different than the previous one, there are

    some effective means to ensure a clean restaurant, which will lead to a satisfactoryinspection. 8irst, it is very important to know what the health inspector is looking for

    when conducting an inspection. -f your restaurant has a /uality *ssurance Manager9 thatperson must understand key food safety issues in order to ensure safe food preparation

    and handling to, in turn, prepare for a health inspection. To gain a better understanding ofwhat is e%pected, get a copy of the regulations from your local health agency and make

    an effort to learn the re+uirements. *lso, utili#e the knowledge of your health inspector

    and ask +uestions where you may be uncertain on how they may interpret the regulation.onsider inviting your health inspector to your restaurant to give an educational

    presentation on a specific food safety or regulatory is sue. =pen communication and

    training will better prepare you for inspection day and help you to better understand howthe inspector is evaluating your restaurant.

    orrect mistakes

    :adke says that one thing that gives him the impression that he is dealing with an

    irresponsible operator is when he sees that no efforts have been made to correct code

    violations, even after repeated violations are observed. &o not leave this impression withan inspector. *s soon as he or she states a violation, do what you can to correct it or start

    corrective actions immediately.

    8or e%ample, if a health inspector cites that the three compartment sink's saniti#ing

    solution does not meet the minimum concentration re+uirement, don't Aust nod your headin agreement and write it down. -nstead, have someone immediately drain the sink and

    prepare the saniti#ing solution at a proper concentration in order to saniti#e e+uipmentproperly and correct the observation. This shows your inspector that you areconscientious about the recommendations he5she gives and that you want to correct them

    as soon as possible. 8rom the perspective of the health inspector, if you are not even able

    to make the small, simple changes right away, he5she is likely to think that you will notmake larger9 more critical changes later.

    -n addition to making simple corrections on the spot, it is also important to relay

    information from inspections to employees immediately. 8or e%ample, if the health

    inspector notices an employee has returned from the dumpster area without washing her

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    hands and begins to prepare salad, immediately take the employee aside to correct the

    situation. *lso follow up with general employee training on proper hand washing

    techni+ues at a later time to assure long term compliance.

    =pen up communication

    *fter your health inspector has completed his written report, take the time to sit down

    with him or her to go over what was observed during the visit. @=pen communication ise%tremely important, so do not be afraid to ask +uestions. 2our professional demeanorwill facilitate that communication,@ says >rover. This is a perfect time to impress on your

    health inspector that food safety is a top priority for your operation. >rover adds, @if you

    get written up for any violations, make sure you fully understand what the violations are

    and how to fully correct them.@ arry caglione agrees. @This is the opportunity to learnfrom each other to meet our shared obAective of protecting the public.@


    C Be polite and professional

    C *sk +uestions

    C $rovide employee training

    C orrect violations promptly

    C *ccompany your health inspector

    C !nderstand key food safety issues

    C Make effort to learn re+uirements

    C !tili#e knowledge of your health inspector

    C &emonstrate knowledge


    C =ffer favors or food

    C Be argumentative

    C Be defensive

    C Take the inspection personally

    What is foodborne illness?A foodborne illness is a disease that is transmitted to humans by food.

    Recent developments in diagnosing and tracking reported illnesses

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    have helped the public become more aware that certain types of illnessmay be related to the food they ate prior to becoming sick.

    These high-protein foods

    are classified aspotentially hazardous

    by theU.S. Public Health Service

    The U.S. Public Health Service classifies moist high!protein and"or

    low acid foods as potentially ha#ardous. High protein foods consist inwhole or in part of milk or milk products shell eggs meats poultryfish shellfish edible crustacea $shrimp lobster crab%. &aked or boiled

    potatoes tofu and other soy protein foods plant foods that have been

    heat!treated and raw seed sprouts $such as alfalfa or bean sprouts%also pose a ha#ard. These foods can support rapid growth of infectious

    or disease!causing microorganisms.

    Lesson One: What's bugging you?(continued)

    Who is at risk?

    'nfants young children pregnant women the elderly and people whoare chronically ill have a greater risk of developing a foodborne illness

    because their immune systems may not be able to fight off the

    bacteria and viruses that cause the illness. Those at greater riskshould avoid consuming potentially ha#ardous foods that are raw or

    not fully cooked. 'nfants and children are more

    vulnerable because their stomachs produce less acid making it easier

    for bacteria and viruses to multiply. Pregnant women are at riskbecause a fetus does not have a fully developed immune system.

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    The elderly are more susceptible to foodborne illnessbecause of inade(uate nutrition lack of protein in their diets or poor

    blood circulation. People who are chronically ill or who takemedication that affects their immune system are also at greater risk of

    becoming sick from a foodborne illness. This could include people withcancer diabetes A')S patients or people who take antibiotics.

    Lesson One: What's bugging you?(continued)

    How does food become hazardous?

    *ood becomes ha#ardous by contamination. +ontamination is the

    unintended presence of harmful substances or microorganisms in food.*ood can become contaminated from chemical physical or biological


    Chemical hazards, +hemical ha#ards include substances such as

    cleaning solutions and saniti#ers.

    Physical hazards:Physical ha#ards are foreign particles like glass ormetal.

    iological hazards:&iological ha#ards come mainly frommicroorganisms including bacteria viruses and parasites.

    What is Cross!contamination?

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  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    Once in the human# $iruses re"roduce %uickly and may cause diseas

    Lesson One: What's bugging you?(continued)

    Parasites Parasites need to live on or in ahost to survive. 42amples of parasites that may contaminate food or

    water are Trichinella spiralis $trichinosis% that affects pork and Anisakisroundworm that affects fish. &ungi

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    *ungi can be microscopic or as big as a giant mushroom. *ungi are

    found in the air soil plants animals water and some food. -olds andyeast are fungi. -olds may produce dangerous to2ins in food. east

    development in foods will affect (uality.

    Lesson One: What's bugging you?(continued)

    What is the greatest threat to food safety?

    1f all the microorganisms bacteria are the greatest threat to foodsafety. &acteria are single!celled living organisms that can grow

    (uickly at favorable temperatures. Some bacteria are useful. 5e use

    them to make foods like cheese buttermilk sauerkraut pickles andyogurt. 1ther bacteria are infectious disease!causing agents called

    pathogens that use the nutrients found in potentially ha#ardous foodsto multiply.

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    Some bacteria are not infectious on their own but when they multiply

    in potentially ha#ardous food they e0ect to2ins that poison humanswhen the food is eaten.

    *ood handling practices are risky when they allow harmful bacteria tocontaminate and grow in food. 'f you touch a food during preparation

    you may transfer several thousand bacteria to its surface.

    Under the right conditions bacteria can

    double every 67 to 87 minutes. A single bacterium will double with

    each division9two become four four become eight and so on. Asingle cell can become billions in 67 to 6: hours.

    What conditions encourage bacteria to grow?

    &acteria can live in hotter and colder temperatures than humans but

    they do best in a warm moist protein!rich environment that is pH

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    neutral or low acid. There are e2ceptions9some bacteria thrive ine2treme heat or cold. Some can survive under highly acidic or

    e2tremely salty conditions. &acteria grow fastest in the temperaturerange between ;6

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    pre!ention:BotulismI llness:

    #oxin produced by Clostridium

    botulinum bacteria



    12 to $% hours


    &ausea, !omitin',

    diarrhea,fati'ue, headache,

    dry mouth, double !ision,

    muscle paralysis, respiratory




    (o)*acid, improperly cannedfoods, temperature abused

    !e'etables, meats, sausa'e,


    Steps for


    +roperly preser!e foods

    follo)in' recommended

    procedures" cook foods




    #oxin mediated bacterial



    to 2- hours

    Symptoms:.iarrhea, abdominal cramps,

    headache, chills



    eat, poultry, and other foods

    held for ser!in' at )arm, but

    not hot, temperatures

    Steps for


    Cool foods rapidly after

    cookin'" hold hot foods abo!e1-0 de'rees F



  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    Illness:acterial infection, e!en )ith

    lo) numbers of cells



    ne to se!en days


    &ausea, abdominal cramps,

    diarrhea, headache * !aryin' inse!erity



    +oultry and contaminated


    Steps for


    Cook foods properly" pre!ent




    Illness: +arasitic infection



    #)o to ten days


    Watery diarrhea accompanied

    by mild stomach crampin',

    nausea, loss of appetite3

    Symptoms may last 10 to 14




    Contaminated )ater and


    Steps forpre!ention:

    Wash hands after usin' the

    toilet" a!oid )ater that may becontaminated

    Escherichia coli


    Strain of enteropathic 53 coli

    bacteria that produces toxins

    in human intestine



    #)o to four days

    Symptoms:6emorrha'ic colitis" hemolytic

    uremic syndrome



    7a) and undercooked 'round

    beef, ra) milk, alfalfa sprouts,

    unpasteuri8ed fruit 9uices,

    dry*cured salami, lettuce,

    'ame meat, and cheese curds3

    Steps for


    #horou'hly cook meat" a!oid

    cross*contamination" only use

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    pasteuri8ed fruit 9uices3

    5xclude infected food

    Hepatitis I llness: iral infection



    Symptoms:ild fe!er, 'eneral )eakness,

    nausea, abdominal pain" can

    de!elop into 9aundice



    7eady*to*eat foods, shellfish,

    fresh 'reen onions,

    contaminated )ater

    Steps for


    Wash hands properly at

    appropriate time3 !oid bare

    hand contact )ith food"

    purchase shellfish from

    reputable supplier" exclude

    employees dia'nosed )ith

    6epatitis from )ork

    !isteriosis I llness: acterial infection from strainof (isteria monocyto'enes



    #)o days to three )eeks

    Symptoms:enin'itis, sepsticemia,




    e'etables, unpasteri8ed milk

    and dairy foods, ra) meat, and

    ready*to*eat foods includin'

    deli meats

    Steps for


    +urchase pasteuri8ed milk andother dairy foods, cook foods

    properly, a!oid cross*

    contamination" use sanitary


    "or#al$ virus

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    I llness: Infection )ith &or)alk !irus



    12 to - hours

    Symptoms:&ausea, !omitin', diarrhea,

    abdominal cramps



    7a) oysters/shellfish,contaminated )ater and ice,

    ready*to*eat foods3

    Steps for


    de;uate treatment and

    disposal of se)a'e" restriction

    of infected food handlers

    from )orkin' )ith food until

    they no lon'er shed !irus

    %almonellosis I llness: Infection )ith Salmonellabacteria



    12 to 2- hours

    Symptoms:&ausea, diarrhea, abdominal

    pain, fe!er, headache, chills,




    eat, poultry, e'' or dairy


    Steps forpre!ention:

    Cook thorou'hly, a!oid cross*

    contamination, excludeinfected food handlers3

    %taphylococcusI llness:

    #oxin produced by bacteria

    strain of Staphylococcus




    ne to six hours

    Symptoms:Se!ere !omitin', diarrhea,

    abdominal crampin'



    Custard or cream*filled baked

    'oods, ham, poultry, e''s,

    potato salad, cream sauces,

    sand)ich fillin's

    Steps for


    7efri'erate foods, use safe

    food handlin' practices"

    restrict food handlers )ith

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    open cuts and sores3


    I llness:acterial infection caused by

    strains of parahaemolyticus

    and !ulniticus



    Symptoms:.iarrhea, abdominal cramps"

    nausea and !omitin'" fe!er and




    7a) or partially cooked oysters

    Steps for


    +urchase oysters from

    appro!ed, reputable supplier"

    cook to 1-4 de'rees F internal


    'ersiniosis I llness: Infection )ith

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    =7 percent of healthy food handlers carry disease agents that can betransmitted by food.

    The most important tool you have to prevent foodborne illness is goodpersonal hygiene. Personal hygiene is the way a person maintains their

    health appearance and cleanliness. ot only can you become the

    victim of illness but you can also be the carrierB A cough or snee#ecan transmit thousands of microorganisms that may cause disease.

    $ cough or sneeze can trans"it thousands of "icroorganis"sthat "ay cause disease

    Lesson One: What's bugging you?(continued)

    Wash your hands often(

    our hands can be the most potentially dangerous serving e(uipment you

    use. Scratching your scalp running your fingers through your hair ortouching a pimple can cause the transmission of pathogenicmicroorganismsinto food.

    &ollow these ste"s to wash your hands:

    )te" *

    Wet hands thoroughly

    with warm water+

    )te" ,

    -""ly soa" generously+
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    the food service industry. The information is based on recommendationsfound in Food Code 2005. Food Code 2005 represents the most recent

    sciencebased information about good food safety.

    This lesson focuses on the application of Ha#ard Analysis +ritical +ontrol

    Point $HA++P% principles to prevent foodborne illness. ou will beintroduced to @+onsumer +ontrol Points@ from purchase through use of

    leftovers and work your way through the %onsu"er %ontrol PointKitchen+

    +onsumer +ontrol Points are critical points when foods aresusceptible to contamination from foodborne pathogens.

    &hen it co"es to food safety


    control thesepoints...

    The *ood Safety Pro0ect Team has created a bookmarkwith clever

    slogans as a handy reminder of the si2 +onsumer +ritical Points coveredin Cesson Two.
  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    Lesson 4wo: What are Consumer Control Points?(continued)

    uy cold food last+++5et it home fast(

    When buying food at the grocery store remember to:

    Purchase meat poultry and dairy products last.

    Eeep packages of raw meat and poultry separate from other foods

    especially produce items.

    Use plastic bags to enclose individual packages of raw meat and

    poultry. Frab a few e2tra while in the produce section and putthese on the bottom of the cart.

    -ake sure meat poultry and dairy products are refrigerated as

    soon as possible after purchase. The grocery store should be yourlast errand when shopping.

    Place refrigerated foods in a cooler especially in hot weather for

    the trip home.

    Purchase canned goods that are free of dents cracks or bulging


    +heck that all food packages are intact ! no broken seams or tears.

    Select produce that is freshB 5atch for signs of aging and decay

    such as mold or brown leaves and stems. Cook for glossy skin and

    green leaves.

    Select food packages with longest period of time until e2piration.

    Lesson Two: What are Consumer Control Points?(continued)

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    3on't wait+++0efrigerate(

    Cisten to the DingleB

    Pro"er storage maintains %uality and "re$ents

    contamination from unintentional andintentional sources+

    5ash hands as soon as you return home.

    Refrigerate or free#e meat fish and poultry

    immediately. *ree#ers should be 7< *. Refrigerate dairy products immediately.

    Refrigerator temperature should be below ;60longer than : hours.

    Eeep hot foods abo$e *.1;* 82

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    Reheat leftovers thoroughly to a temperature of 6= days.

    Lesson 4wo: What areConsumer Control Points?


    5hen buying food and taking it home

    remember to

    Eeep raw meat and poultry away

    from other foods especiallyfresh foods like fruits and


    Place raw meat and poultry at

    the lowest level of the cart so it

    canGt drip on other foods

    -ake sure foods are kept cold

    between the store and your


    Take into account the outside

    temperature and ad0ust your trip

    home so that that food youpurchase at the grocery store

    will not reach the (")E* +,"E

    +heck package sell!by or pull!by

    dates to make sure they are

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling



    -ake sure you have enough

    storage space in the refrigerator

    or on your shelves

    Lesson 4wo: What are Consumer Control Points?(continued)

    Can you find the si@ consumer control "oints in this









    Place the pointer over one of thepoints in the kitchen for more

    information. Return to the kitchenafter each e2planation to go to the

    ne2t point.

    Lesson 4hree: Where is 4he 4em"erature 3anger 9one?

    -".*,(/C.-,"The ood Safety infor"ation is intended for consu"ers*

    educators* and those +or,ing in the food service industry. Theinfor"ation is based on reco""endations found in ood %ode

    /. ood %ode / represents the "ost recent science-

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    based infor"ation about good food safety practices.

    .HE .EE*./*E (")E* +,"E

    This lesson presents a hypothetical situation using cartoon characters

    Lesson &our: Who is &-4 4OA?

    Cisten to the

    *AT T1- rapB

    =40O37C4O=Food Safety information for consumers,educators, and those working in the foodservice industry. The information is based on

    recommendations found in Food Code 2005.

    Food Code 2005 represents the most recentsciencebased information about good food

    safety practices.

    &-4 4OA

    *.A.T.T.1.-. e2plains what allows foodborne

    pathogens to grow. ouGll also learn someimportant food safety terms.

    *AT T1-will help you to remember these valuable terms,





    [email protected]

    AoistureLesson &our: Who is &-4 4OA?(continued)
  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    &is for &ood

    The nutrients available in food often determines whethermicroorganisms will grow. 5hile some microorganisms have

    simple nutrient re(uirements some pathogens re(uire a comple2diet including proteins.

    -oist protein!rich foods such as meat milk eggs and fish are

    potentially ha#ardous. That is they are most likely to causefoodborne illness because htey are a food source for pathogenic

    bacteria and can support growth of these bacteria.

    Lesson Four: Who is FAT TOM?(continued)

    -is for -cidity

    The degree of acidity or alkalinity $base% of a substance is measured

    by its pH. pH is measured on a scale from 7 to 6;.7. An environmentwith a pH of >.7 is e2actly neutral. *oods with a pH below >.7 are

    acidicI a pH above >.7 is alkaline. The lower the pH the higher the

    acidityI the higher the pH the lower the acidity.

    &acteria grow best in an environment that is neutral or slightly acidic.

    -ost bacterial growth is inhibited in very acidic conditions. That is why

    acidic foods like vinegar and fresh fruits $especially citrus% seldom

    provide a favorable climate for pathogenic bacteria. -ost bacteria willnot growat pH levels below ;. because the environment is tooacidic. -icroorganisms thri$ein a pH range between . and >.=.

    Lesson Four: Who is FAT TOM?(continued)

    Place the pointer along the pH line

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    to find the pH level of some common foods.

    Lesson &our: Who is &-4 4OA?(continued)

    4is for 4ime

    8-lso known asthe two!hour


    Pathogenic microorganisms reproduce by cell division. 1ne becomes two.

    Two become four. Small numbers of pathogens may be present in foodsbut they pose a very low risk to consumers especially if the food is

    cooked. However when low acid and high protein available foods $neutral

    or alkaline pH% are abused by placing them in the 4>AP>0-470>3-=5>0 9O=> 8439 $;6< to 68=

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    4is for


    -icroorganisms grow and reproduce (uickly between the temperaturesof /*; and *.1;&$=; to =>; c% . )uring the two!hour period in the

    4>AP>0-470> 3-=5>0 9O=> 8439 minimal growth andreproduction will occur especially if there is a neutral environment and

    protein source.

    1ne important rule of food safety is to limit time that foods are in theT)?. Eeep foods refrigerated $below ;6;*)until it is time to cook. +ool

    left over foods (uickly.

    Lesson &our: Who is &-4 4OA?(continued)

  • 8/12/2019 Tips of Food Handling


    canned o2ygen is e2cluded from the environment. Thereforegrowth of aerobic organisms is controlled and the food is

    preserved. Such foods are shelf stable and do not re(uire

    refrigeration until they are opened.

    Some microorganisms will grow only in anaerobicconditions $in

    the absence of o2ygen%. &otulism a rare type of foodborne illnessis caused by a specific type of bacteria called clostridium botulismthat grows only in anaerobic conditions. 'mproperly preserved

    home canned foods are a typical source of botulism. Home canneditems can not be used in foodservices.

    Lesson &our: Who is &-4 4OA?(continued)

    Ais for Aoisture

    All microorganisms must have an abundant supply of water to grow.Perishability of a food is related to the moisture content and the

    water activity level.

    Aoisture contentis the amount of water in food e2pressed as a

    percentage. 5ater activity $ aw% is the amount of water available foruse and is measured on a scale of 7 to 6.7. &acteria yeast and

    molds multiply rapidly with a high water activity level above 7.J.-eat produce and soft cheeses are e2amples of foods with awin this

    range $between 7.J and 6.7%.

    *oods preserved with salt or sugar such as beef 0erky or 0ams and

    0ellies have a lower aw because salt and sugar deprive

    microorganisms of water and inhibit their reproduction. Theseproducts are shelf!stable $i.e. they do not need refrigeration unless

    opened%. Pathogenic bacteria have difficulty growing in foods such as

    dry noodles flours candies and crackers where awis below 7.J=.