Thomas Jefferson’s Notable Presidency

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Thomas Jefferson’s Notable Presidency. Brandon Chang Ryan Fitzpatrick Joanna Li Brian Shen. The Early Life. Born on April 13, 1743 in Shadwell, Goochland County, Virginia Son of Peter Jefferson , a planter and surveyor, and Jane Randolph , the daughter of a ship captain - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Thomas Jefferson’s Notable Presidency

Thomas Jeffersons Notable Presidency

Thomas Jeffersons Notable PresidencyBrandon Chang Ryan FitzpatrickJoanna LiBrian ShenThe Early LifeBorn on April 13, 1743 in Shadwell, Goochland County, VirginiaSon of Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor, and Jane Randolph, the daughter of a ship captainAttended the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg where he met George Wythe, his first law professor and influential mentorStudied writings of British Empiricists, including John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton

The Early Life (Cont.)Became a lawyer in Virginia and represented members of Virginias elite families

Besides law, Jefferson represented Albemarle County in the Virginia House of Burgesses

Secretary of State under George Washington (1790-1793) & Vice President under John Adams (1797-1801) John AdamsPrevious Political AffiliationsFounding Father and principal author of the Declaration of IndependenceServed in the Constitutional Congress representing Virginia and later served as wartime Governor of Virginia (1779-1781)Served as diplomat in Paris, soon becoming the United States Minister to France (1785)First United States Secretary of State, organized the Democratic-Republican Party w/ James MadisonWrote A Summary View of the Rights of British America, belief that people had right to govern themselvesFirst: Presidential Election of 1800Republican presidential candidate Thomas Jefferson ran against John Adams who led Federalists

Ugliest election in American historyboth candidates supporters showed no restraint

Aaron Burr = Republican vice presidential candidate

Burr organized Republican political machine, the Tammany Society, to win New Yorks vote

First: Presidential Election of 1800 (Cont.)Jefferson and Burr tied with 73 votes, so vote was passed to House of Representatives where each state delegation cast one vote to break tie

New Republican congress that was elected in the 1800s would not convene until after the inauguration, so the old Federalist congress voted

T. Jefferson President, A. Burr vice president.First Term as President Revolution of 1800, the dominant political party shifted from the Federalists (Adams) to the Republicans (Jefferson)

Both executive and legislative branches controlled by republican party but judiciary was left in Federalist hands

Jefferson and Republicans looked to a future greatly different from tyranny under Federalists

In reality, Jefferson, like his Federalist predecessors, also used his powers of appointment as a political weaponThomas JeffersonAaron BurrFirst Term as President (Cont.) Mindset of democratic simplicity appearance was plain and disregarded courtly and sophisticated etiquette

After Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson commissioned Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore and map the newly acquired land

Their Journey known as the Lewis and Clark ExpeditionMeriwether LewisWilliam ClarkDomestic Issues (First Term)Government was previously too large and expensive cut size of army + navy

Federalists possessed too much power in Supreme Court due to Judiciary Act of 1801 passed under John Adams

Congress attempted to impeach obstructive Federalist judges

Republicans targeted Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase but did not succeed in removing him from office

Samuel ChaseDomestic Issues (First Term Cont.)Despite treaty between U.S + Cherokee people, Jefferson made deal w/ Georgia to expel them

Jefferson believed Natives should assimilate to American culture, more dependent on trade eventually giving up their land no cultural/religious differences

Some argue Jefferson did not have the right to accept the Louisiana Purchase for it was not stated in the Constitution

Vice president Aaron Burr rumored to support Federalist plans for secession in New England

Foreign Issues (First Term)Barbary states of North Africa demanded protection money from U.S whose ships sailed the Mediterranean, Conflict arose and led to the First Barbary War between the U.S and Northwest African Berber MuslimNapoleon gained interest in restoring French power in the New WorldFrance beginning to take control of New Orleans, the most important outlet of western produce, closing port to U.S. shipsNapoleon offered to sell Louisiana Territory to the U.S. to help pay French debt and b/c his campaign in N.A. had failed continue his rampage in Europe First Term Issues: Solved?Secretary of Treasury Gallatin reduced government spending and cutting members of the executive department

Reduction of military Greater risk of foreign threats

Eliminated whiskey tax and other internal federal taxes

Jefferson reduced national debt from $83 million to $45 million

1802, Congress pass Act for the Protection of Commerce and seamen of the United States against the Tripolitan cruisers

Albert Gallatin Secretary of TreasuryFirst Term Issues: Solved? (Cont.)Authorized protection of commerce + seamen of American vessels, allowed them to seize vessels belonging to Bey of Tripoli

Due to blockades/raids, leader Yusuf Karamanli signed a treaty ending hostilities on June 10, 1805 America still pay $60,000 ransom to free American sailors

Jefferson pays Napoleon $15 million for the Louisiana Territory

Gives America huge part of Midwest including access to Mississippi River and port of New OrleansMississippi RiverSecond: Presidential Election of 1804Republican presidential candidate Thomas Jefferson ran for a second term against Federalist Charles Cotesworth PinckneyJefferson had overwhelming victory, 162 electoral votes to 14, almost 93% of total votes conductedJefferson gained popularity after Election of 1800, and Louisiana purchase which heavily contributed to his immense victoryBoth houses of Congress dominated by a Republican majority

Second Term as PresidentJefferson Victory in 1804 Election Ratification of Twelfth AmendmentTwelfth Amendment: Presidential electors specify their choice in votes for President and Vice President instead of electing only presidentGeorge Clinton would be elected as Vice President instead of Federalist Rufus KingClinton would serve under both Jefferson and James Madison (1805-1812) making him the only vice president in history to serve under two presidentsGeorgeClintonThomas JeffersonDomestic Issues (Second Term)March 1806: Political split occurred within Jeffersons party b/c of his support to ban British imports as a form of retaliation against the BritishAlbert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury proposed spending $20 million on the construction roads and canals to improve infrastructure John Randolph of Roanoke thought Jefferson had gone too far in Federalist direction and called for a purity of republican principles1807, Jefferson tried former V.P Aaron Burr for treasonBurr was charged with trying to levy war against the U.S in attempt to establish a separate confederacy consisting of Western statesFollowing Revolution, all states abolished the international slave trade, but soon after, South Carolina re-opened it

John Randolph of RoanokeForeign Issues (Second Term)Relations strained between U.S and Britain, partly from the personal hatred between Jefferson and British Ambassador, Anthony MerryAfter victory at the Battle of Austerlitz (1805), Napoleon more aggressive over trading rightsEuropean navies seized American merchantmen and their cargo as contraband of warrationalized the plunder of U.S shipping as necessary for their victoriesChesapeake-Leopard Affair: American frigate U.S.S Chesapeake was unknowingly pursued, attacked and boarded by British warship HMS Leopard

Napolon BonaparteSecond Term Issues: Solved?1807, Jefferson convinced Congress to pass the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves + condoned the I.S.T as a violation of human rightsNo new slaves imported into the states, established punishment for international trade but did not regulate domestic slave tradeAfter attack of USS Chesapeake, Jefferson issued proclamation banning armed British ships from entering Due to violations of U.S neutrality during Napoleonic War, Jefferson responded with Embargo Act of 1807 preventing American ships from leaving to foreign portsEmbargo to end conflicts with American shipping, turned out to be impractical and a failure diplomatically and economicallydevastating on US economyNon-Intercourse ActNon-Intercourse Act: Congress passed law that reopened trade w/ all nations except for Britain and France

An Astute Quote From Yours Truly...

In matters of style, swim with the current;In matters of principle, stand like a rock.

-Thomas JeffersonWorks Cited1.Autumn Scenery. N.d. Photograph. Mr. Wallpaper. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. .2."Barbary Wars." Barbary Wars. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2013. .3.Jefferson, Thomas, and Merrill D. Peterson. Thomas Jefferson: Writings. New York, NY: Literary Classics of the U.S., 1984. Print.4.Louisiana Purchase. N.d. Photograph. Mr. Nussbaum. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. .5.Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Time. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 2005. Print.6. "Miller Center." American President: Thomas Jefferson: Campaigns and Elections. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013. .7.Rainbow Scenery. N.d. Photograph. First HD Wallapapers. Web. 9 Dec. 2013..8.Swiss Alps. N.d. Photograph. Autolux Puzzles. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. .9."Thomas Jefferson." The White House: Thomas Jefferson. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013. .10.U.S Constitution. N.d. Photograph. Wise Geek. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. .11.Waterfall Scenery. N.d. Photograph. Desktopas. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. .