Parenting Thesis Guidelines Parents have a major influence upon children's development and learning. Influence can be manifested in many ways, in a way that they stimulate, teach and guide their children. Of course, for the parents, there should be love and commitment, which is very important factor in caring for their children. There are, however, a number of common caring behaviors, which many parents adopt. Moreover, since those behaviors also change from time to time, parents are unaware of the behaviors they make (Ramirez, 1999). Meanwhile, the law also states the parent's responsibility in caring for their children's welfare. The P.D. 603 of December, 1974 or THE CHILD AND YOUTH WELFARE CODE, it states that child is one of the most important assets of the nation. Every effort should be exerted to promote his welfare and enhance his opportunities for a useful and happy life. His individual traits and aptitudes should be cultivated to the utmost in so far as they do not conflict with the general welfare. The molding of the

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Parenting Thesis Guidelines

Parents have a major influence upon children's development and learning.

Influence can be manifested in many ways, in a way that they stimulate, teach and guide

their children. Of course, for the parents, there should be love and commitment, which is

very important factor in caring for their children. There are, however, a number of

common caring behaviors, which many parents adopt. Moreover, since those behaviors

also change from time to time, parents are unaware of the behaviors they make (Ramirez,


Meanwhile, the law also states the parent's responsibility in caring for their

children's welfare. The P.D. 603 of December, 1974 or THE CHILD AND YOUTH

WELFARE CODE, it states that child is one of the most important assets of the nation.

Every effort should be exerted to promote his welfare and enhance his opportunities for a

useful and happy life. His individual traits and aptitudes should be cultivated to the

utmost in so far as they do not conflict with the general welfare. The molding of the

character of the child starts at the home. Consequently, members of the family,

particularly the parents, should strive to make the home a wholesome and harmonious

place as its atmosphere and conditions will greatly influence the child's development.

Attachment to the home and strong family ties should be encouraged. The father and

mother shall exercise jointly just and reasonable parental authority and responsibility

over their legitimate or adopted children.

Parenting behavior should be consistent; however, not everyone can be patient

and understanding all the time. Still, parenting is an important piece of the puzzle.

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Parents have a great deal of responsibility of molding the whole character of their

offspring. But because of the dynamic family structure, parents may lag on an aspect or

two of parenting. And this is where the task of educators begins. Teachers can be

positive role models for children and teenagers. Their position aids in the future

aspirations of many students that come into the classroom. This is not to say that all

teachers are good role models. Unfortunately, there are some teachers who do not set a

good example for their students. When schools hire good teachers, all of the students who

come in contact with him or her will benefit from it.

Parent’s involvement in the education of their children is very crucial. Epstein

(2005) has developed a theory on parenting behaviors which involves the parents in the

educational process of their children. The needs and interests of different groups of

parents are usually a better starting point than the school's agenda when beginning parent

involvement projects. When the school offers many different sorts of activities, parents

can enter the school world in a way that is most comfortable or more interesting to them.

The question, "how do parent clinical instructors care for their children and how

do they deliver education to students?” raised curiosity to the researcher and wanted to

seek answer to it. Being a mother, as well as a clinical instructor, different factors

attributing to the parent's way of caring their children were experienced firsthand by the

researcher and some other parents. It was also the principle of “Loco Parentis” that

teachers play a vital role as second parents of students. Therefore, the researcher would

like to know as well if such belief is carried on up to these modern days. All of these

instances were taken into consideration in this study.

It is in this regard that this study finds meaning and significance.

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The study aimed to present a correlation of parenting behaviors of clinical

instructors to their children and their teaching approaches towards their students in three

universities of Cabanatuan City.

Particularly, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. How may the socio-demographic profile of the respondents be described in terms


1.1 Age;

1.2 Educational attainment;

1.3 Number of children;

1.4 Number of years married;

1.5 Type of family;

1.6 Religion; and

1.7 Number of years teaching as a clinical instructor?

2. How may the respondents demonstrate their parenting behavior in terms of the

following major types of caring behaviors:

2.1 Child rearing;

2.2 Communicating;

2.3 Volunteering;

2.4 Decision making;

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2.5 Learning at home; and

2.6 Collaborating with the community?

3. What are the teaching approaches used by the respondents in terms of:

3.1 Motivation;

3.2 Reinforcement; and

3.3 Retention?

There is no significant relationship between the parenting behaviors and teaching

approaches among the clinical instructors.

The framework of this study was anchored on two theories which are from Joyce

Epstein(1980) and Alfred Bandura(1997).

Based on the theory of Parent Involvement of Joyce Epstein, there are six types of

parenting behavior that synthesizes family and community involvement in education. The

six types of behaviors are: Child rearing, wherein the school helps in establishing home

environments that support children as students; Communicating, which is an effective

two-way communication between parents and children; Volunteering, defined as the

parents’ way of helping and supporting children especially in school activities; Learning

at home, wherein parents assist and guide their children while learning at home;

Decision-making, where parents and children participates in making decisions throughout

the course of learning; and Collaborating with the community, wherein resources in the

community are integrated to strengthen school programs, family practices and learning.

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According to the theory, parents and schools should have a concerted effort in

implementing these six frameworks of parenting.

In addition to the parenting behavior variables, the teaching approaches of parent

clinical instructors were also included as one of the factors that are very important in the

teaching and learning process. Among the teaching approaches involved in this study

were: motivation, reinforcement and retention as postulated by Alfred Bandura. These

two concepts play a big role in the analysis of the correlation of the clinical instructors’

parenting behavior and their teaching approach to their students. This involves the

specific caring behaviors of parents, where in they encounter such caring behaviors in

their everyday life with their children which they may be able to carry on whenever they

are dealing already with their students. Bandura believed in “reciprocal determinism”,

that is, the world and a person’s behavior cause each other, while behaviorism essentially

states that one’s environment causes one’s behavior. Bandura, who was studying

adolescent aggression, found this too simplistic, and so in addition he suggested that

behavior causes environment as well. In this manner he also suggested that the behavior

of the educator affects greatly that of the learners.

In relation to these concepts, Bandura, (1997), stated the importance of observing

and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. He states:

"Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to

rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do". Fortunately,

most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing

others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions

this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains

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1.Child-rearing2.Communicating3.Volunteering4.Decision-making5.Learning at home6.Collaborating with the community




3. Retention

SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE1.Age2.Educational attainment3.Number of children4.Number of years married5.Type of family6.Religion7.Number of years teaching as a clinical instructor

human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive,

behavioral, and environmental influences.

This study was anchored on the six major types of parenting behaviors of Epstein

and the three identified teaching approaches of Bandura. The analysis of the correlation

of the parenting behaviors of clinical instructors towards their teaching approaches was

studied utilizing respondents from Araullo University, Wesleyan University-Philippines

and Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology.

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Fig.1 Research Paradigm of the Study

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This study will be beneficial to the following segments of the population:

To the Respondents The findings will help the respondents to evaluate their own caring

behavior and teaching approaches. Whether there is a significance between the two

variables or none, it will serve as their guide in formulating caring behaviors that will

help in the physical, emotional, intellectual, social, psychological and spiritual growth

both of their children and students.

To the Nursing Profession. This will provide awareness of the caring behaviors of

parents to their children as really a factor to a child's growth and development. This will

serve as one step of looking into different caring behaviors of parents in child

development and further researches.

To Other Researchers. Forthcoming researchers can make use of the findings of this

study as reference materials, enabling them to pursue a related study.

The following words defined below are the terms that have been utilized by the

researcher throughout the study:

Behavior. A way in which parents behave or respond to certain conditions

Care. The work of caring for or attending to someone or something

Caring behavior. It is showing concern or compassion to others (ParentingAlone.com,

August 2010).

Child. Covers all human beings under the age of 18 unless the relevant national law

recognizes an earlier age of majority(Convention on the Rights of the Child).

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Coaching. As used in this study, children are being given choices in carrying out

responsibilities and structure these choices based on child's experiences.

Democratic. As used in this study, parents have simple rules and resemble consequences

for breaking the rules. Parents explain to their children the reasons for the rules.

Empathizing. To understand or be sensitive to another's feelings or ideas


Enabling. As used in this study, parents have high expectations and allow their children

to set their own goals, define and implement tasks, use resources, and evaluate their


Extended Family. The family as unit embracing the parents and children together with

grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins and sometimes more distant relatives (Public


Listening. When parents pay attention on hearing what their children has to say and take

into account.

Neglecting. As used in this study, it is defined as parents failing to give the proper

attention or care to their children.

Nourishing. The parents providing good sustenance in substantial quantity of the

substances that their child needs to live, grow, or remain fit and healthy (Answers.com,

August 2010).

Parenting behavior. The manner of care and upbringing of a child

(thefreedictionary.com, August 2010).

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Child rearing. The rearing or upbringing of a child or children, especially the

love, care, and guidance given by a parent (Answers.com, August 2010).

Communicating. The cycle of sending and receiving either verbal or non-verbal

message between persons(freecommunications.com, August 2010).

Volunteering. As used in this study, it is the act of offering oneself to guide,

listen or help another without any trade offs.

Decision making. The process of mapping the likely consequences of decisions,

working out the importance of individual factors, and choosing the best course of

action to take (J. Epstein).

Learning at home. As used in this study, it is the process of acquiring

knowledge, skills and values under the supervision of parents or family members

Collaborating with the community. As used in this study, it is defined as the

act of incorporating daily activities with the community.

Punishment. As used in this study, when the parents impose penalty to their children for

doing something wrong.

Teaching approach. As used in this study, the attitude of the educator on how he/she

applies different teaching methods towards the learner.

Motivation. The activation or energization of goal-orientated behavior.


Reinforcing. Supporting the ideas, opinions, and feelings of the students.

(Bandura, 1977)

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Retention. Attending to the observed behavior but also remembering it at some

later time. (Bandura, 1977)

Supporting. As used in this study, it is giving assistance, comfort, help and

encouragement to their children.

Teaching. The act, process, or art of imparting knowledge and skill.


Understanding. Comprehending, knowing what the child feels, and identifying what he

or she feels (Encarta dictionary,2009).

The researcher utilized substantial sources of literature to strengthen the viability

of the study. The literatures were taken from different reading materials such as books

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and journals that are considered to be first hand information for this research. In addition,

these were undertaken by several authors to support the study and fully appreciate the

significance of the research taken. Foreign and local studies were also included by the


According to Plown (2007), for the time being, the law also states the parent's

responsibility in caring for their children's welfare. The child and youth welfare code,

states that child is one of the most important assets of the nation. Every effort should be

exerted to promote his welfare and enhance his opportunities for a useful and happy life.

His individual traits and aptitudes should be cultivated to the utmost insofar as they do

not conflict with the general welfare.

Rogers (2008) added that the molding of the character of the child starts at the

home. As a result, every member of the family, particularly the parents, should strive to

make the home a wholesome and harmonious place as its atmosphere and conditions will

greatly influence the child's development. Attachment to the home and strong family ties

should be encouraged. The father and mother shall exercise jointly just and reasonable

parental authority and responsibility over their legitimate or adopted children.

Parenting is the basic obligation of families. Parents play a major role in the

development of healthy habits of their children. They record a significant role in creating

a healthy environment and instilling values or information that will give their children the

best chance of vigorous lifelong health as stated by Kontos (2001).

Moreover, as cited by Ellis (2008) beside new knowledge, educational

organization also produces and disperses new values and beliefs which can be potent

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generators of social change. Science, for example is a belief system that has spread

throughout society largely by the medium of the school system.

The character and effectiveness of medicine for the mind and the body always and

everywhere depend on the culture in which the medicine is practiced. Thus, the values

and beliefs of an individual are largely influenced by culture. (Donebian, 2006)

One of the important aspects of one’s culture is communication. Communicating

is one of the major types of caring behavior of parents to their children. Parents should be

able to know how to communicate well with their children. Communicating not just

involves talking but listening as well; listening is one of the greatest things that parents

can do to their children to help them have a good character.

Another factor to be effective parents is that they should be aware of the child's

skills, talents, and achievements not just in school but also in different aspects.

Learning at home means parents should have the ability to manage, react, and

praise children. Parents have a major role in guiding, monitoring, and discussing things

about the child's development. As parents, they should support, encourage, and help

children in their development. Being good parents also means a process of partnership of

shared views and reactions toward shared goals, not just a power struggle between

conflicting ideas.

Factors that will influence the development of children include genetic

endowment, parental characteristics, family variables, neighborhood characteristics, and

child's experiences in a setting outside the home. This will enable the parents to focus on

their children to gain quality care based on McGurk (1993).

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Child bearing includes much more than keeping the child safe and free from

harm. Within the household, child rearing practices include activities connected with

providing emotional security and reducing the child's stress; providing shelter, clothing,

feeding, bathing and supervision of the child's toilet; preventing and attending to illness;

nurturing and showing affection; interacting and stimulating; playing and socializing;

protecting from exposure to pathogens; and providing a relatively safe environment for

exploration (Martinez,1986).

According to Paul (1998), the challenge of loving parents is to role model

behavior that is personally responsible rather than being taker or caretaker. It is important

for children to begin the process of developing knowing and caring about other people's

feelings. Childcare as distributed parenting is caring must work with parents to create

partnerships to ensure, together, the creation of genuinely family centered service. The

first step of caring is that parents should educate themselves to make sure kids get the

information they need to make the right chores and have the lives they deserve.

As said by Bortolotti (1995), there are 10 little things good parents do. It involves

lofty fundamentals such as love, respect, and morality that are surprisingly easy to reduce

to simple, achievable goals like spending time with children and being with them during

development years. There are 10 tips for raising children of character; they are: a.)

devoting time to parenting, b.) being a good example; and c.) listening to their children is

considered one of the greatest things parents can do for them. As parents, they want their

children to be the architect of their own character crafting, while they accept the

responsibility to be architects of their environment physical and moral (Dr. Kevin Ryan

1997). Cotton (1998) in his article "Developing Empathy in Children in Youth," stated

that parents whose behavior toward their children is responsible, non-punitive and non

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authoritative have children who have higher levels of affective to cognitive empathy and

pro-social behavior.

As stated by Carl (2004), an empathic response is one, which contains both a

cognitive and an affective dimension. The term empathy is used in at least two ways; to

mean a predominantly cognitive response, understanding how another feels or to mean an

effective communication with others.

On the word of Gallo (2003), the state of empathy or being empathetic is to

perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy and the emotional

components and parent's pleasure from other parents; and d.) Make a personal connection

continuing touching where parents left off. Parents play a major role in the development

of healthy habits of their daughters. They play a significant role in creating a healthy

environment and instilling values and information that will give their children the best

chance of vigorous lifelong health.

It is not easy to be good parents today, because parenthood begets very serious

obligations. The fourth commandment of God reads "Honor thy father and thy Mother."

Implicit in this commandment is the law that parents must rightly fulfill their obligations

toward their children. Parents are bound to use their own knowledge and experience to

guide their children towards what is good and way from what is bad, no matter what

popular modes of juvenile conduct may be (Emerson, 1994).

According to Metcalf (2001), fathers play an important role when it comes to

playing with their children and teaching them how to do physical tasks. When parents use

the home to teach their children how to interact with the world around them, the children

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develop better relationship skills. Fathers can read a book or simply reencountering the

day’s event has a potential to make a child trust and respect his parents.

As remarked by McGurn (2005), the best technique to reinforce behavior is to

have caring and a respectful relationship with your child. These reinforcements include

words, feelings and privileges. Reinforces for negative behavior will work.

Moreover, an aspect of caring behavior of parent’s behavior differs from each

other. Each family has different demographic profiles, point of views, attitudes, and

perspectives towards rearing their children. Somehow, it is not easy to be good parents

today. One may go further and say that it is never easy to be such, because parenthood

includes very serious obligations, and fallen human nature rather rebels against being

obliged to anything. However, these obligations include providing formal education to

children. And it is at this part where the most essential role of an educator begins.

The lecture method can be very effective when used in conjunction with active learning

and teaching approach.  The traditional lecture has many advantages, particularly in the

large classroom, and can be effective in meeting instructional goals.  Advances in

technology, and the increasing ease of application can turn the lecture into a methodology

which touches on learning diverse modalities and increases content relevancy.

According to Myers and Jones (2006) active learning as learning environment that allow 

students to talk and listen, read, write, and reflect as they approach course content

through problem-solving exercises, informal small groups, simulations, case studies, role

playing, and other activities. These require students to apply what they are learning, and

touch on the highest levels of learning taxonomy.

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On the other hand, Lipman (2008) defines critical thinking as skillful, responsible

thinking that facilitates good judgment because it relies upon criteria, is self-correcting,

and is sensitive to context.  A list of applicable skills includes focusing, information

gathering, referencing, organizing, analyzing, integrating, and evaluation.

There are a variety of ways to stimulate discussion. A large part of the process is

the creation of a non-threatening, interactive learning environment that allows for the free

exchange of ideas. An important element is the use of inquiry questioning to stimulate

discussion and bring the forum to the highest levels. Discussion is central to active

student learning in many courses. Nevertheless, facilitating a good discussion remains a

challenge, even for experienced faculty.

Cooperative learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small

groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal.  This learning

strategy stresses the importance of faculty and student involvement in the learning


The basic principle underlying these initiatives is that writing is more than a

technical skill to be acquired in a first-year comp course but is, in fact, a mode of learning

that can enhance students' understanding of the content of the disciplines.  This strategy

includes writing across the curriculum, critical thinking, technology and computers, note

taking, and personal expression. There are a variety of goals for incorporating writing

within a course.  The conventional goal is to demonstrate learning where clarity is the

primary requirement.  There is also writing for learning, fostering involvement in course

material and promoting learning. 

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Although definitions of service learning abound, the informed movement toward

an expansion of service learning is based on the following: “Students learn and develop

through active participation in thoughtfully organized service that is conducted in and

meets the needs of the community. It is integrated into and enhances the academic

curriculum and includes structured time for the students and participants to reflect on the

service experience.” (Corporation for National Service, 1994)

An enormous amount has been written in the last two decades about research on

how people learn. Research shows clearly that a person must be engaged to learn. People

learn by actively participating in observing, speaking, writing, listening, thinking,

drawing, and doing.

If student learning is the goal, effective teaching means creating effective learning

environments and environments where students are actively participating and engaged

with the material are crucial to student learning. Students are more likely to learn and

retain if we ask them to do more than learn information. Including activities where

students can explore applications and implications will improve learning.

Another important aspect of learning that is useful to factor in to assignment and

activity design is learning style. If everyone learned the same way, it would be easy to

choose teaching approach to optimize learning. How people learn, however, varies

widely, as does individual preference for receiving and processing information. How

does this influence teaching? Your learning styles will certainly not match those of

everyone in your class, and your learning styles may, in fact, be quite different even from

a majority of your students. What works well for you may not work well for some of your

students. Because each of us knows what works for ourselves, we're prone to selecting

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teaching approach that favor our own learning styles. If you choose only teaching

approach that would optimize learning for students with your learning styles, many of the

students in your class may be at a disadvantage. Knowing something about learning

styles in general and your own learning styles in particular can help you to plan

assignments and activities that reach students with as many different learning styles as


Accordingly, Dewey (1952) argues that the function of value judgments is to

guide human conduct. He uses the term “conduct” in the broadest sense, to include not

only overt bodily motion, but also observation, reflection, imagination, judgment, and

affective responses to what we observe and think. “Conduct” is a broader category than

“action” in contemporary philosophy of action, because it includes unconscious and

unreflective activity, such as that produced by instinct and reflex. There are three broad

levels of conduct: impulse, habit, and reflective action. These differ according to how far

they are guided by ideas of what one is doing.

On the other hand, humans begin life endowed only with impulses as motor

sources of activity. Impulses include what we would call today drives, appetites, instincts,

and unconditioned reflexes. They are “affective-motor responses”: primitive tendencies

of movement toward some things (eyes toward human faces, hand to grasping whatever

is within reach), away from others (spitting out bitter food, averting eyes from too bright

light, brushing off pesky flies), and even activity with no particular orientation toward

external objects (stretching, rolling over, crying, bouncing up and down, fidgeting).

Impulsive activity is not purposive. It involves no idea of an end to be achieved by the

activity. When a newborn infant sucks on its mother's nipple, it obtains food and thereby

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satisfies its hunger. But the newborn has no idea that this will be a consequence of its

sucking, and does not suck with the end in view of obtaining food.

Moreover, habits are socially shaped dispositions to particular forms of activity or

modes of response to the environment. They channel impulses in specified directions,

toward certain outcomes, by entrenching particular uses of means, prescribing certain

conduct in particular circumstances. While individuals may have idiosyncratic habits, the

most important habits are customs, shared habits of a group that are passed on to children

through socialization. Customs originate in purposive activity. Every society must devise

means for the satisfaction of basic human needs for food, shelter, clothing, and affiliation,

for coping with interpersonal conflict within the group and treatment of outsiders, for

dealing with critical events such as birth, coming of age, and death. Yet customs need not

have been consciously invented to serve these needs. Language consists in a body of

habits and norms, but few languages were explicitly invented to serve needs for


To sum up with, the need to reflect intelligently on what one is doing arises when

the ordinary operation of habit or impulse is blocked. Customary means may be lacking;

changed circumstances may make habits misfire, producing unintended and disturbing

consequences; the social interaction of groups of people with different customs may

produce practical conflicts that require mutual adjustment. When habit is blocked, people

are forced to stop their activity and reflect on the problems posed by their situation. They

must deliberate. The aim of deliberation is to find a satisfactory means to resumption of

activity by solving the problem posed by one's situation. Deliberation involves an

investigation of the causes of disrupted activity so as to consciously articulate the

problematic features of one's situation, and an imaginative rehearsal of alternative means

to solving it, anticipating the consequences of executing each one, including one's

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attitudes to those consequences. It is a thought experiment designed to arrive at a

practical judgment, action upon which is anticipated to resolve one's predicament.

Foreign studies

Involving families in schools focuses on ways parents and families may support

their charter schools, and schools' support to families. In particular, Joyce Epstein wish to

make two recommendations for strategies that have proven effective in building parent

understanding and support: First, start the year with a family-student-teacher conference,

in which educators and parents meet to plan out the year. This helps parents understand

the program, and helps teachers understand the circumstances and needs of particular

families. Meeting with parents before the school year requires a major reallocation of

education time, but the schools which have done it report good outcomes. Second, hold

regularly-scheduled parent meetings. To keep parents engaged with the school, it is

crucial that there be some school event to which they come on a regular basis, monthly or

at least bi-monthly. This could be a potluck dinner followed by a presentation on an

aspect of the school program, could include learning activities for both parents and

students, or could incorporate student performances or presentations.

The needs and interests of different groups of parents are usually a better starting

point than the school's agenda when beginning parent involvement projects. When the

school offers many different sorts of activities, parents can enter the school world in a

way that is most comfortable or more interesting to them.

Epstein (2007) has synthesized the research on family and community

involvement in education to produce a framework of six types of involvement. The six

types are: Parenting - the school helps families establish home environments that support

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children as students; Communicating - effective two-way communication between

parents and children, schools and homes; Volunteering - parents help and support the

child in a variety of school activities; Learning at home - schools help parents to help

students learn in the home; Decision making - parents are included in school decision

making; and Collaborating with community - resources from the community are

integrated to strengthen school programs, family practices, and student learning.

There are a number of steps schools can take to help encourage parents establish

home environments that support children as students. It is generally agreed that children

learn more when they "get sufficient rest, are fed an ample and nutritious diet, get to

school regularly and on time, are dressed appropriately for the weather, have clean

clothes to wear, and have a quiet and well-lit place to work at home". Sometimes parents

just need reminders of the importance of these items. In some communities higher

numbers of families which are a major constituency for many charter schools may have

difficulty meeting these needs.

To help families meet basic needs, schools can build connections with public and

private human services providers. McAllister Swap suggests that elementary schools may

arrange for workshops to parents, on topics such as nutrition, changing needs of children

as they grow, and coping with children's eating or sleeping problems. In addition to

sharing information, such workshops may help parents create a useful support network

among each other. Community education may provide parenting classes with practical

suggestions and opportunities for sharing ideas, these are:

Effective two-way communication between schools and homes is crucial for real

partnerships. In addition to teachers' role, administrators need to provide leadership and

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support staff such as secretaries, custodians, and security personnel, "need to welcome

parents with their tone of voice, body language, and friendliness”. An open line

communication between the parents and the school will help the parents in understanding

better their children and their children’s school affairs and performance.

There are a wide variety of ways parents can support the school as volunteers.

Volunteer activities should bring in additional resources to the school while building a

sense of community between the school and families. Schools may recruit volunteers

through interest surveys or other types of contact.

To make effective use of parent volunteers, you will likely need an individual to

coordinate the volunteer effort - to distribute and collect surveys asking parents to

volunteer, to determine which activities volunteers can reasonably do, to match the right

volunteer with the right task, and to network with other school staff to ensure the process

is running smoothly. Funding a parent coordinator is apt to be a challenge: few charter

schools have ready funds to add another non-instructional staff position to the payroll. A

number of options may be worth considering as you look for ways to provide for a

volunteer coordinator. For example, one school found a parent who was willing to

coordinate the volunteer effort, for paraprofessional salary. The volunteer coordinator

could be a part time position, e.g. a paraprofessional who works part of the day with

students. Some schools may have Title I funds available to pay a volunteer coordinator.

Another option would be to find a volunteer willing to coordinate the volunteer effort.

In addition to meeting children's basic needs, parents can promote learning

through a wide variety of home activities. Swap points out that "There is widespread

agreement that parents can support their children's learning by reading aloud, providing

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an environment that is rich in print materials, talking to their child about events and

experiences, encouraging their child's interests, taking the child to interesting places, and

exploiting the wide range of ordinarily occurring home and community activities for their

learning potential".

Charter schools can include parents on their governance boards and committees or

task forces. Alaska charter schools are required to have an academic policy committee

which includes parents. In Georgia, a majority of the governing body of the school are

parents. In Minnesota, board members are elected by parents and school staff. A number

of other state charter laws require or encourage parent involvement in governance. If

parents do serve on the school's governing board, it is important that they understand

their responsibility to take an appropriate role in decisions that may benefit their children

or themselves. Schools, especially smaller schools, can enrich their offerings by tapping

into community resources. Community partnerships are becoming increasingly common:

Mindful of increasing need and decreasing resources, many schools have reached

out to the businesses and agencies in their communities to supplement and enrich their

offerings. Public and mental health institutions are sometimes willing to locate staff in

schools, offer educational programs, donate space, or work in collaboration with school

personnel to develop multidisciplinary student support teams. School-university

collaborations can provide important resources for school improvement: student interns,

collaboration in teacher preparation, and mutual stimulation of faculty and school staff

It is critical that if an educator believes in utilizing non-traditional teaching and

learning strategies in the classroom then it only seems logical that we offer students the

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same format when peer teaching.  Students have rated the experience of peer teaching as

one of their most educational experiences during their college careers.

Peer critiques are a common methodology utilized in studio and lab based

courses, as well as courses emphasizing writing and language development.  Johnson has

found that it is possible to utilize the principles of peer critiques in practically any course

because peer critiques promote understanding and analysis by placing one student in the

position of critiquing the work of another student.  Determining whether the work is

“good or bad”, “right or wrong” is not the purpose of the critique.  Analysis of the peer’s

work and a demonstrated understanding of the subject matter are the focus of this

teaching strategy.  As faculty we realize that we often clarify our own learning of a given

subject by trying to understand and express the qualities and characteristics of our

students work.  This methodology is intended to transfer this learning experience to the


The faculty member’s responsibility is to evaluate the critique, clarify, and

perhaps expand on critiquing the student’s analysis.  As a by-product of this teaching and

learning strategy students learn to trust and seek collaborative learning opportunities,

challenge the mythical authority of faculty, and become better able to analyze their own

work links theory and practice by engaging students in real life problems. Higher order

skills such as application, analysis and evaluation can only be achieved through a more

active approach to learning. The purpose of the problem is to motivate students to learn

by providing a real-world context for examining the issues involved.  Problem based

learning is thought of as a high risk educational strategy because of its lack of structure.

This lack of structure is a by-product of open ended problems which have many ways of

resolving or answering the problem at hand. When learning is in context rather than as a

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series of isolated facts and theories, the concepts are better retained.  The underlying

belief of PBL is that learning is more meaningful and enjoyable when it occurs in small

active groups which are self-directed.  This process encourages students to take

responsibility for their own learning and that of their learning group (Lieux and Luoto,


PBL is a time hungry method of learning.  Class time, once reserved for lectures,

must be exchanged for group, problem-solving activities according to Wu and Fournier

(2000). The faculty member must be actively engaged in coaching and critiquing the

problem solving process that students are utilizing.  It is important to find to a balance

between the breath of material covered in the course and learning effectiveness as neither

learning effectiveness nor teaching quality can be equated with the sheer volume of

information delivered (Wu and Fournier, 2000).

According to Savoie and Hughes (1994), the following six steps can be utilized to

organize the PBL experience in the classroom: 1) begin with a problem; 2) ensure that the

problem connects with the students’ world; 3) organize the subject matter around the

problem, not the disciplines; 4) give students the major responsibility for shaping and

directing their own learning; 5) use small teams as the context for most learning; and  6)

require students to demonstrate what they have learned through a product or a

performance.  Students construct knowledge; they do not take it in as it is disseminated,

but rather they build on knowledge they have gained previously (Cross, 1998).  When

students are addressing the problem it is recommended that the three-step problem-

solving process suggested by Stephien, Gallagher and Worksman (1993) be utilized. 

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According to Alfred Bandura, human learning does not take place only through

the principles of habituation, classical and operant conditioning. Most of us learn when

we are with other people. Thus social learning theorists highlight the fact that people can

learn from the experiences of others.

In contrast to Skinner’s “Operant Conditioning,” Bandura believes that learning

occurs through imitation and practice and requires more awareness, self- motivation, and

self-regulation of the individual. In Bandura’s postulation of “Social Learning Theory,”

the individual actively interacts to learn new skills and behaviors (Berman et. Al, 2007)

Bandura (1997) came up with several processes of learning as follows:

1. Vicarious conditioning - It is a process of learning by seeing or hearing about the

consequences of other people’s action.

2. Observational learning – It is a process of learning by watching what others are

doing. The person who is watched is called the model. Through observational learning,

people can profit from other’s experiences. While people can learn by watching the

behavior of others, it does not mean they will. Other people may ignore the experience of

others and find out for themselves what is good for them.

Bandura (1977) enumerated four requirements to determine whether observational

learning has occurred. These are first, attention, which implies that one cannot learn

unless he pays reasonable close attention to what is happening around him. Second is

retention, which explains that one must not only attend to the observed behavior but also

remember it at some later time. Third is the ability to reproduce behavior which implies

that one must be capable of doing the act. And lastly is motivation which states that

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People are most likely to imitate those that they are rewarded for their behavior and those

whom they like to have similarities with or value more.

In relation to this study, the researcher primary believed that the behavior of

children and students are co-affective by the behavior of their parents and educator. The

behavior of the parents and educator respectively, causes the response or attitude of the

individuals to which the behavior of the two are being applied.

Social learning theory is derived from the work of Cornell Montgomery (1843-

1904) which proposed that social learning occurred through four main stages of

limitation: close contact; imitation of superiors; understanding of concepts; and role

model behavior. It consists of 3 parts: observing, imitating, and reinforcements

Rotter moved away from theories based on psychosis and behaviourism, and

developed a learning theory. In Social Learning and Clinical Psychology (1954), Rotter

suggests that the effect of behavior has an impact on the motivation of people to engage

in that specific behavior. People wish to avoid negative consequences, while desiring

positive results or effects. If one expects a positive outcome from a behavior, or thinks

there is a high probability of a positive outcome, then they will be more likely to engage

in that behavior. The behavior is reinforced, with positive outcomes, leading a person to

repeat the behavior. This social learning theory suggests that behavior is influenced by

these environmental factors or stimulus, and not psychological factors alone.

Albert Bandura (1977) expanded on Rotter's idea, as well as earlier work by

Miller & Dollard (1941) and is related to social learning theories of Vygotsky and Lave.

This theory incorporates aspects of behavioral and cognitive learning. Behavioral

learning assumes that people's environment (surroundings) cause people to behave in

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certain ways. Cognitive learning presumes that psychological factors are important for

influencing how one behaves. Social learning suggests a combination of environmental

(social) and psychological factors influence behavior. Social learning theory outlines

three requirements for people to learn and model behavior include attention: retention

(remembering what one observed), reproduction (ability to reproduce the behavior), and

motivation (good reason) to want to adopt the behavior.

Social Learning Theory consists of three elements. There are the Individual

process, Environment, and Behaviour. These three are about intrinsic motivation, external

stimulus, and individual’s action respectively. An intrinsic motivation is self-motivation.

Ourselves that gives the motivation to do things. An external stimulus is the influences

around us or environment for example influences by friends, peers, television’s shows,

parents, and also stranger. An individual’s action is the behaviour of the individual.

According to social learning theory, learning is the interaction between an individual’s

intrinsic motivation and behaviour with the environment.

Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

"Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people

had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do.

Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from

observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later

occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action."(Albert Bandura, Social

Learning Theory, 1977)

People always learn through observation of others’ behavior, attitudes, and

outcomes of those behaviors. “Most human behavior is learned observationally through

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modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are

performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.”

(Albert Bandura, 1977).

Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous joint

interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. His theory

added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by

watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of

learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.

In his famous "Bobo doll" studies, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and

imitate behaviours they have observed in other people. He made a film of one of his

students, a young woman, essentially beating up a bobo doll. The woman punched the

clown while shouting “sockeroo!”  She kicked it, sat on it, hit with a little hammer, and

so on, shouting various aggressive phrases.  Bandura showed his film to groups of

kindergartens children which liked it a lot. When the children were later allowed to play

in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had

previously observed.

Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning: First, alive

model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a

behaviour.Second, a verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and

explanations of a behaviour.Lastly, a symbolic model, which involves real or fictional

characters displaying behaviours in books, films, television programs, or online media.

Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor

to influence learning and behavior. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of

internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This

emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive

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developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with

behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as a ‘social cognitive


While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behaviour,

observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without

demonstrating new behaviors.

Not all observed behaviours are effectively learned. Factors involving both the

model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain

requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the

observational learning and modeling process:

Attention: In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that

detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational

learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are

far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning.

Retention: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning

process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull

up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.

Reproduction: Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the

information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further

practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.

Motivation: Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have

to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and

punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these

motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type

of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded

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with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few

minutes early each day.

Social learning theory has numerous implications for classroom use, such as

students often learn a great deal simply by observing other people. Describing the

consequences of behavior is can effectively increase the appropriate behaviors and

decrease inappropriate ones. This can involve discussing with learners about the rewards

and consequences of various behaviors. Modeling provides an alternative to shaping for

teaching new behaviors. Instead of using shaping, which is operant conditioning,

modeling can provide a faster, more efficient means for teaching new behavior. To

promote effective modeling a teacher must make sure that the four essential conditions

exist; attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.

In classical conditioning, the conditioned response often response resembles the

normal response to the unconditioned stimulus: salivation, for example, is a dog’s normal

response to food. But when you want to teach an organism something novel- such as

teaching a dog a new trick – you cannot use classical conditioning. What unconditioned

stimulus would make it roll over? To train the dog, one must first persuade it to do the

trick and afterward reward it with either approval or food. If someone keep doing this,

eventually the dog will learn the trick (Atkinson, 1993).

Much of real life- life behavior is like this: responses are learned because they

operate on, or effect the environment. Referred to as an operant conditioning, this kind of

learning occurs in our own species, as in lower species.

Neither organism is responding to the onset or offset of a specific external

stimulus. Rather, they are operating on their environment. Once the organism performs a

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certain behavior, however, the likelihood that the action will be repeated depends on its

consequences (Arenas, 2004).

Throndike’s Law of Effect explains that, behaviors followed by positive

consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences are

weakened. Thus, he called this as instrumental learning, and his explanation, known as

the Law of Effect, as one of the cornerstones of operant conditioning. Because this kind

of learning is maintained or changed, depending on the consequence that follows a

response, when one respond to something, the response is strengthened if the

consequence is pleasant, and weakened if the consequence is aversive. In this way,

members of hundreds of other species, learn because of the outcome of different


Much like in this study, it is strongly believed that if positive stimuli is given to

and individual, the learner himself, will shed a positive response. That is why the

questionnaires formulated both in the category of parenting behaviors and teaching

approaches are positively inclined.

Cognitive flexibility theory focuses on the nature of learning in complex and ill-

structured domains. Spiro & Jehng (1990, p. 165) state: "By cognitive flexibility, we

mean the ability to spontaneously restructure one's knowledge, in many ways, in adaptive

response to radically changing situational demands...This is a function of both the way

knowledge is represented (e.g., along multiple rather single conceptual dimensions) and

the processes that operate on those mental representations (e.g., processes of schema

assembly rather than intact schema retrieval)."

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The theory is largely concerned with transfer of knowledge and skills beyond

their initial learning situation. For this reason, emphasis is placed upon the presentation

of information from multiple perspectives and use of many case studies that present

diverse examples. The theory also asserts that effective learning is context-dependent, so

instruction needs to be very specific. In addition, the theory stresses the importance of

constructed knowledge; learners must be given an opportunity to develop their own

representations of information in order to properly learn.

Experiential learning is the process of making meaning from direct experience.

Aristotle once said, "For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by

doing them." David A. Kolb helped to popularize the idea of experiential learning

drawing heavily on the work of John Dewey and Jean Piaget. His work on experiential

learning has contributed greatly to expanding the philosophy of experiential education.

Experiential learning is learning through reflection on doing, which is often

contrasted with rote or didactic learning. Experiential learning is related to, but not

synonymous with, experiential education, action learning, adventure learning, free choice

learning, cooperative learning, and service learning. While there are relationships and

connections between all these theories of education, importantly they are also separate

terms with separate meanings.

Experiential learning focuses on the learning process for the individual (unlike

experiential education, which focuses on the transactive process between teacher and

learner). An example of experiential learning is going to the zoo and learning through

observation and interaction with the zoo environment, as opposed to reading about

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animals from a book. Thus, one makes discoveries and experiments with knowledge

firsthand, instead of hearing or reading about others' experiences.

Experiential learning requires no teacher and relates solely to the meaning making

process of the individual's direct experience. However, though the gaining of knowledge

is an inherent process that occurs naturally, for a genuine learning experience to occur,

there must exist certain elements.

According to David Kolb, an American educational theorist, knowledge is

continuously gained through both personal and environmental experiences. He states that

in order to gain genuine knowledge from an experience, certain abilities are required:

First; the learner must be willing to be actively involved in the experience; Second, the

learner must be able to reflect on the experience; Third, the learner must possess and use

analytical skills to conceptualize the experience; and lastly, the learner must possess

decision making and problem solving skills in order to use the new ideas gained from the


For the adult learner especially, experience becomes a "living textbook" to which

they can refer. However, as John Dewey pointed out, experiential learning can often lead

to "mis-educative experiences." In other words, experiences do not automatically equate

learning. The classic example of this is the lecture experience many students have in

formal educational settings. While the content of the course might be "physics" the

experiential learning becomes "I hate physics." Preferably, the student should have

learned "I hate lectures." Experiential learning therefore can be problematic as

generalizations or meanings may be misapplied. Without continuity and interaction,

experience may actually distort educational growth and disable an otherwise capable

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learner. There are countless examples of this in prejudice, stereotypes, and other related


The progressive Education association, inspired by Dewey’s ideas, later codified

his doctrines as follows: First, the conduct of the pupils shall be governed by themselves,

according to the social needs of the community. Second, interest shall be the motive for

all work. Third, teachers will inspire a desire for knowledge, and will serve as guides in

the in the investigation undertaken, rather than as task-masters. Fourth, scientific study of

each pupil’s development, physical, mental, social and spiritual, is absolutely essential to

the intelligent direction of his development. Fifth, is that greater attention is paid to the

child’s physical needs, with greater use of the out-of-doors. Sixth, is that cooperation

between school and home will fill all needs of the child’s development such as music,

dancing, play and other extra-curricular activities. Lastly, all progressive schools will

look upon their work as of the laboratory type, giving freely to the sum of educational

knowledge the results of their experiments in child culture. These rules for education sum

up the theoretical conclusions of the reform movement begun by Coronel Francis Parker

and carried forward by Dewey at the laboratory school that he set up in 1896 in

connection with the University of Chicago.

According to Patindol (2003) in her article "Parenting Alone", she learned five

important things from being a single parent: First is to clarify parenting goals; Second is

adjusting attitudes, lifestyle, and behavior to fit those parenting goals; Third is be honest,

be real; and Fourth is, one does not have to do it all. Last is to keep on praying.

From the article "Pinoy Kasi: Is Parenting natural and instinctive?" by Tan

(2003), three factors that influence parenting as natural and instinctive were presented.

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These are maternal instincts, maternal love, anti death without weeping. He also gave

emphasis to move beyond the rhetoric of "responsible parenting" and ask what parenting

itself actually means besides having babies.

The responsibility of a parent does not only end in feeding, bathing and providing

shelter to your children. A holistic approach in parenting is encouraged. Based on Flores’

(2004) article, "Parenting Session", she emphasizes that Sunday is a family day. It is the

time for parents to be involved and discover more about their children, their individual

differences, achievements, problems, strengths, and weaknesses, through parenting

sessions. Parental participation in the session enhances the bond between the school and

the home. Their concern will reflect in student's future. Thus, a certain quality time is

essential to be provided by the parents to their children.

As parents strive to discover things about their children, another responsibility lies

within their hands. This responsibility is a significant factor in nourishing the individual

mind and personality of a child and that is education. In molding the future of the child,

educators work hand in hand with the parents in achieving this goal. The teacher used to

be the omnipotent fountain of wisdom, the transmitter of information and knowledge.

And the student was likened to a sponge which soaks up whatever the teacher says or

does. But today, a paradigm shift has occurred where the focus of the teaching-learning

process has transferred from the teacher and the teaching endeavor to the learner and the

learning process. Hence, the primary role of the nurse educator is not to teach or educate,

but to provide the opportunities for the learner to be actively involved in the learning

process and to create an environment that will inspire or motivate the learner to apply the

knowledge and skills to access, criticize, and select the best possible solution to situation

or problems. Additionally, the teacher should be able to elicit the learner’s participation

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as an active partner in determining the objectives and goals of the educational process

and maximize the use of their potentials, creativity and resourcefulness.(Castro,2009)

As cited by Pagtalunan (2007), nurse lecturers investigated practice development

and action learning approaches aimed at enabling post registration bachelor’s- and

master’s-level nursing students to advance practice in the context of policy and

professional developments. A patchwork text was used to assess summative what students

achieved (practice change/development) and how this was informed critically, via an

extended epistemology. First-person inquiry supplemented by cooperative inquiry post

course completion (including reflective discussions with 16 students and 16 practice

mentors) were used to assist co researcher constructions of meaning.

Based on Dela Cruz’ (2005) relational, tripartite approach to learning and

assessment (students’, teachers’, and practice mentors’ collective contributions), learning

depends on continuing reflective attention. Action learning enhances interrelation of

experience with dialectic thinking. The patchwork text functions to promote creative

writing, evaluative thinking, and praxis development. Role modeling by all, being genuine

and not just "talking" genuine is challenging yet crucial if people are to function as

mutual resources for learning.

According to Santos (2005), to increase the interactions of students with each

other, the media, the content and the instructor, the role of the teacher must include

structuring activities, motivating students, and managing the course. These skills are not

so different from a Cooperative Learning teacher in a traditional classroom. Cooperative

Learning is a proven teaching strategy that can be implemented in any content area. This

strategy has shown to increase student achievement, foster positive social relationships

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and improve student self-esteem. Furthermore it is beginning to be applied in online

instructional environments.



the researcher. Although there were a number of studies about parenting behavior and

strategies and approaches of educators, the researcher believed on the uniqueness of this

study because of the correlation study made to the parenting behavior and teaching

behaviors. The study became even more significant because its subjects were from

educational institutions of a single town to which the researcher also belonged. Thus, this

study will not only benefit the researcher but also the three universities of

_____________by providing them an insight of the characteristics of their parent clinical

instructors as to how they care for their children and how they educate their students.

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This chapter presents the method of research used, locale of the study, samples

and sampling procedure, research instrument used and statistical treatment of data.

This study made use of the correlational method of research which is one of the

types of descriptive research. According to Palispis (1991), this is used to determine the

extent to which different variables are related to each other in a given population. It also

presented an analysis on the caring behaviors of parent clinical instructors, their teaching

approaches and significant correlation between their parenting behavior and their

teaching approaches.

Sixty seven (67) clinical instructors with child/children from the three different

Universities were chosen purposively and served as the respondents of the study.

The list of selected clinical instructors with child/children was secured from the

College of Nursing office.

The questionnaire formulated by the researcher was the main tool utilized in data

gathering. It is self-structured and utilized close-ended set of questions administered to

respondents to generate information about a person, object or a specific situation

(Palispis, 1991). In the formulation of the questionnaire, the researcher had reviewed

several literatures, both foreign and local, that are related to the study.

The researcher made the questionnaire based on the statement of the problem.

Several literatures were read to come up with the six major types of caring behaviors and

their subtypes and different teaching styles or approaches. The questionnaire was

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subjected for correction and evaluation of the research adviser. After which, suggestions

were given and another much improved draft was discussed constructively and revised by

simplifying and improving the questionnaire. It was then reproduced and was subjected

to a pre-test that was conducted in the Department of Nursing A pre-test was conducted

to know the areas of improvement. After identifying the weakness of the tool, it was

subjected for another correction. Revisions were made to the questionnaire, to eliminate

the chances of encountering same problems during the pre-test. It was then evaluated by

the research adviser and statistician. An approved questionnaire was reproduced and

distributed to the respondents in , for them to evaluate their own caring behavior to their

children and their teaching approaches to their students.

The questionnaire is divided into three parts:

PART I – Socio-demographic profile. This part contains questions about the

respondent’s demographic data such as the age, educational attainment, number of

children, number of years married, type of family and religion and number of years

teaching as clinical instructor.

PART II – Parenting Behavior. This part of the questionnaire yields the parents’ caring

behaviors towards their children. These behaviors particularly pertain to how parents

provide care to their children while also establishing the basic education to their children.

PART III – Teaching approaches. This part includes the different teaching strategies and

approaches of an educator to his/her learner based on the different teaching theories that

served as one of the major backbone of this study. These teaching approaches and

strategies may be utilized both in the academic and clinical area.

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A ready made questionnaire is not available so the researcher developed one and

the following was considered to make a suitable questionnaire for the study.

The researcher had identified the problem and a set of survey questionnaire was

formulated and approved by the research adviser and run for pre and post-testing in the

department of Nursing After the post-test, trouble areas of the questionnaire were

identified and was later improved for the actual testing. Once an official instrument was

ready and approved by the adviser, the researcher went to the three universities with the

official letter to the university presidents and college deans.

The following statistical tools were utilized in this study:

1. For the profile of the respondents, the frequency and frequency percentage were


To obtain the percentage result, the formula used:

P=f/n x 100


P = percentage

f = frequency

n = total number of respondents

The frequency of responses in a certain question was divided to the total number

of respondents and then multiplied by 100.

2. For the description of parental behavior and teaching approaches: mean, weighted

mean and ranking; and

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To obtain the weighted mean for every question, the formula used was:

WM = 5f5+ 4f4+ 3f3 + 2f2 + 1f1


WM = Weighted -Mean

5f = the frequency with the highest ranking

4f = the frequency with the second highest ranking

3f = the frequency with the third in ranking

2f = the frequency with the second to the lowest in ranking

1f = the frequency with the lowest in ranking

NR = number of the respondents

For the Likert Formula, 5f will be multiplied by the choice, 5 as always

demonstrated; 4f will be multiplied by the choice, 4 as often demonstrated; 3f will be

multiplied by the choice, 3 as sometimes demonstrated; 2f will be multiplied by the

choice, 2 as rarely demonstrated and 1f will be multiplied by the choice, 1 as never

demonstrated. The product will be added and the sum will be divided by the number

of the respondents.

3. For the correlation of parenting behavior to teaching approach, Pearson product

moment correlation (Pearson’s r) was utilized. Pearson’s r is a kind of parametric

statistics which measures the relationship between/among two or more variables.

The formula for Pearson’s r

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n(Txy) – (Tx) (Ty)

r = -----------------------------------------------------------

√ [n(Tx2) – (Tx)2] [n (Ty2) – (Ty)2]


r = Pearson Product Moment correlation

n = sample size

x = observed data for the independent variable

y = observed data for the dependent variable

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Dear Respondents:

Christian greetings!

I am a graduate student of __________________ taking up Master of Arts in Nursing.

I am currently conducting a research study on the “________________________”. I would like to ask for your help for the realization of this study by answering the questionnaire attached herewith. Rest assured that the answers will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Thank you very much.



Noted by :

_________________________Thesis Adviser

Approved by:________________________________Dean, Graduate School

General Instructions: We are presently conducting a study about the relationship of

parent caring behavior of clinical instructors with their children to their own teaching

strategies and approaches. Your cooperation will be of great help in accomplishing this

study. Rest assured that the data provided herein will be treated with confidentiality.

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We are hoping for your honesty in answering the question. Thank you.

Direction: Please put a check ( / ) in the parentheses provided for you:

Part I. Demographic Profile

Age Educational Attainment:

( ) 20 - 25 Elementary ( ) Graduate ( ) Undergraduate

( ) 26 - 30 High school ( ) Graduate ( ) Undergraduate

( ) 31 - 35 College ( ) Graduate ( ) Undergraduate

( ) 36 – 40 Post Graduate ( ) Masteral ( ) Doctoral

( ) 41 - 45

( ) 46 and above

No. of children No. of years married

( ) 1- 5 ( ) 1 -5 ( ) 15 and above

( ) 6 - 10 ( ) 6 - 10 ( ) N/A (eg. single


( ) 11 above ( ) 11 - 14

Type of family

( ) nuclear ( ) extended

Religion No. of Years Teaching as a Clinical Instructor

( ) Catholic ( ) 0 – 11 months

( ) Methodist ( ) 1 – 5 years

( ) Iglesia ni Cristo ( ) 6 – 10 years

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( ) Protestant ( ) 11 – 15 years

( ) Aglipayan ( ) 16 – 20 years

Others, please specify : _____________ ( ) 21 and above

Read carefully the following statements on the types of caring behavior and rate

the degree, which it is demonstrated by checking the number according to the following:

5 - Always demonstrated (Respondents demonstrate the type of caring behavior at all


4 - Often demonstrated (Respondents demonstrate ·the type of caring behavior most of

the time)

3 - Sometimes demonstrated (Respondents occasionally demonstrate the type of caring


2 - Rarely demonstrated (Respondents seldom demonstrate the type of caring behavior)

1 – Never demonstrated (Respondents do not demonstrate the type of caring behavior)

(Please answer the following questions honestly) 5 4 3 2 11. Consciously establishes harmonious relationship with your

child/children.2. Allows child to make decisions.3. Allows child/children to learn from the consequence of their

actions.4. Guides your child/children in their learning process.5. Listens to your child/children whenever they have something to

say.6. Shows respect for each member of the family.7. Makes sure that your child/children’s actions are well guided.8. Encourages child/children to voice out what they really feel

whenever they are having problems.9. Allows child to express their feelings and verbalize their

problems.10. Touches child/children to show affection. (eg. Hugs, taps on the

shoulder)11. Encourages your child/children to do their schoolwork

independently.12. Explains to child/children circumstances which they do not

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understand.13. Provides a safe environment for child/children.14. Works and talks with your child/children based on their

knowledge.15. Makes sure your child/children are enjoying and learning while

playing.16. Involves the whole family in joining community activities to

foster a holistic growth and development among family members.

17. Supports child/children’s decision by providing advice.18. Allows child/children to define and implement their tasks.19. Teaches child/children moral lesson whenever they did

something wrong.20. Encourages child/children in developing their skills.21. Allows child/children to actively set their own goals and tasks.22. Represents self as a parent who judges their child/children fairly.

5 - Always demonstrated (Respondents demonstrate the type of caring behavior at all times) 4 - Often demonstrated (Respondents demonstrate ·the type of caring behavior most of the time) 3 - Sometimes demonstrated (Respondents occasionally demonstrate the type of caring behavior) 2- Rarely demonstrated (Respondents seldom demonstrate the type of caring behavior)1– Never demonstrated (Respondents do not demonstrate the type of caring behavior)

Part 3: Teaching Approaches


I. Motivation 5 4 3 2 1

1. Makes sure that you establish good rapport with the students at the very beginning of contact.

2. Strives to increase learners’ participation in decision making that affect them whether in academic or clinical area.

3. Allows the student to learn by experience.

4. Guides the students in the learning process.

5. Encourages active interaction between students and the teacher.

6. Consistently conveys respect to each student.

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7. Makes sure that students’ actions are well guided.

8. Shows sensitivity to the students’ problems and feelings.

9. Allows learner to freely express themselves and asks questions.

10. Conveys a sense of warmth and approachability to students.

5 - Always demonstrated (Respondents demonstrate the type of caring behavior at all times) 4 - Often demonstrated (Respondents demonstrate ·the type of caring behavior most of the time) 3 - Sometimes demonstrated (Respondents occasionally demonstrate the type of caring behavior) 2- Rarely demonstrated (Respondents seldom demonstrate the type of caring behavior)1– Never demonstrated (Respondents do not demonstrate the type of caring behavior)

II. Retention 5 4 3 2 1

1. Allows student to solve problems independently.

2. Guides students in interpreting information during the process of learning.

3. Provides conducive environment for learning.

4. Constantly assesses whether the student can follow the teacher’s train of thought.

5. Uses many teaching strategies, jokes and humor.

6. Elicit cooperation among the students to do collaborative learning through study groups, projects and other activities.

5 - Always demonstrated (Respondents demonstrate the type of caring behavior at all times) 4 - Often demonstrated (Respondents demonstrate ·the type of caring behavior most of the time) 3 - Sometimes demonstrated (Respondents occasionally demonstrate the type of caring behavior) 2 - Rarely demonstrated (Respondents seldom demonstrate the type of caring behavior)1 – Never demonstrated (Respondents do not demonstrate the type of caring behavior)

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III. Reinforcement 5 4 3 2 1

1. Supports student’s decision by providing advice.

2. Allows students to actively set their own goals and tasks.

3. Teaches students moral lesson whenever they did something wrong.

4. Encourages your child/children in developing their skills.

5. Challenges students to realize a goal with the teacher’s support..

6. Is fair in the evaluation process.

This is the end of the questionnaire…

Thank you for your cooperation!


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