Agenda Section 3 – Islamic Civilization. The Spread of Islam. astrolabe minaret al-Rāzī Ibn Sīnā al-Idrīsī The Thousand and One Nights. Key Vocabulary. III. Islamic Civilization. Economy Trade Europe, Asia, Africa, India and China Produced textiles (silk, cotton and wool) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Text of The Spread of Islam
The Spread of Islam
Agenda•Section 3 – Islamic Civilization
KEY VOCABULARY• astrolabe
• Ibn Sīnā
• The Thousand and One Nights
III. Islamic Civilization
A. Economy1. Trade
a. Europe, Asia, Africa, India and Chinab. Produced textiles (silk, cotton and wool)c. Gold and silverd. Steel swords from Damascus and Toledoe. Jewelry, perfume, spicesf. Pottery and glasswareg. Leather goods
2. Othera. Cordoba and Toledo – centers of learningb. Astronomy and geographyc. Banking and commerce
III. Islamic Civilization (continued)
B. Government and Society1. Began as provinces led by one Caliph2. Disputes over leadership led to division into three
caliphates ruled by caliphs in Baghdad, Cairo and Cordoba
3. No separation of church/state – all laws and life were based on the Qur-an
4. Slavery was discouraged but accepted. Slaves had to be treated humanely
C. Family1. Center of daily life – extended family and elderly
were included.2. Men – responsible for meeting needs of family.3. Women – could control property – not responsible
for family’s needs
II. Islamic Society (continued)C. Family (continued)
4. Marriages were arranged – but woman could refuse5. Man had to give his bride a gift of property/money6. Polygamy was common. Up to 4 wives, but all had to be treated equally.7. In a divorce – wife kept her own money and could remarry.
D. Education1.Government provided schools and libraries2.Family and mosque also contributed to education.3.Speaking and writing were emphasized as the keys to education.4.Students went to the mosque to study religion5.Advanced students went to schools to study science, mathematics and law.
II. Islamic Society (continued) Abu al-Qasim
Pages – 250-252
What area of science did each work in?
What was their major contribution(s)?
II. Islamic Society (continued)E. Science
1. Muslims learned from conquered peoples and those with whom they traded.
2. Combined ideas from Greece, Rome, China and India.
3. Learned from and expanded ideas of Hippocrates and Galena. Use of herbs, foods and pharmaceutical drugs
advanced and some techniques for preparation of drugs are still used today.
b. Developed surgical instruments and techniques.
c. Advanced disease diagnosis and hygiened. World’s first school of pharmacy and
encyclopedia of drugs (preparation and effects).
e. Treated small pox and other diseases.
II. Islamic Society (continued)f. al-Rāzī – chief physician in Baghdad (900s C.E.) – known for work on small-pox and measles. His encyclopedia was translated into Latin and used for centuries in Europe.g. Ibn Sīnā – wrote Canon of Medicine (medical textbook) in the early 1000s C.E. – used in Europe until 1650.
F. Geography1. Trading led to interest in astronomy, navigation
and maps.2. Improved on Greek maps to more accurately
measure distance.3. Al-Idrīsī – sent people to other countries and
combined their drawings with existing maps to improve accuracy.
4. Astrolabe – instrument to chart position of the stars to find position on Earth.
II. Islamic Society (continued)G. Mathematics
1. 800s C.E. – used base-10 number system from India, including 0 to represent an empty place.
2. Introduced the system to Greek mathematics – resulting in “Arabic” number system (still used today).
3. Used decimals from India.4. Developed “al-jabr” – meaning “restoring” –
III. Islamic Society (continued)H. Arts
1. Islam forbids images that show God.2. Avoid showing any human or animal form.3. Art focused on geometric and floral designs4. Non-religious art sometimes showed people in
daily life or major military battles5. Architecture
a. Mosques and other buildings designed to show the glory of Islam.
b. Mosques were modeled after Muhammad’s private courtyard in Medina.
c. Mosques were used as both community and worship centers – including political, social and educational activities.
d. Minaret – tower from which a crier would call people to pray 5 times per day.
III. Islamic Society (continued)I. Literature
1. Caliphs supported outstanding poetry and literature.
2. The Thousand and One Nights – story of a wife who avoided execution by telling stories to her husband each night. After a thousand and one nights, he canceled plans to execute her. From this we get “Sinbad the Sailor,” “Aladdin,” and “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.”