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The Speech and Language Pathologist’s role in identifying Basic Psychological Processing deficits

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Keely Swartzer, Special Education Coordinator Megan Anderson, School Psychologist. The Speech and Language Pathologist’s role in identifying Basic Psychological Processing deficits. Definitions of Basic Psychological Processes Evaluation Report Components Activity One-Observable Indicators - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Speech and Language Pathologists role in identifying Basic Psychological Processing deficits

The Speech and Language Pathologists role in identifying Basic Psychological Processing deficitsKeely Swartzer, Special Education CoordinatorMegan Anderson, School PsychologistAgendaDefinitions of Basic Psychological ProcessesEvaluation Report ComponentsActivity One-Observable IndicatorsActivity Two-SPL Assessment Subtests and BPPsAcquisition (sustained attention)

Acquisition (remains from soarem)This is an input function.SOAREM defined acquisition as: accurately, gaining, receiving, and/or perceiving information.


You will notice throughout this training that there are many basic psych processes that can be co-morbid. For example, Speed of Processing and Acquisition can be friends as Speed of Processing is a part of Acquisition.4Acquisition-ImpactsDifficulty with:PerceptionReceiving informationComprehendingAbsorbingLinkingEncodingGainingDifficulty with:AttentionInhibitory controlSpeed of ProcessingShort term memoryPhonological ProcessingAwareness Memory

Megan-Please note: When we give examples of impacts, it is not an exhaustive list. Its simply some examples.5Speed of Processing

Speed of processing-NEWFriends with Acquisition of InformationDefinition: Perform cognitive tasks fluently and automatically, especially when under pressure to maintain focused attention and concentration.Processing speed may also impact pace of retrieval of information and general rate of work completion.Processing speed may be a hallmark of SLD when other cognitive processing abilities are within or above normative ranges.

Megan7Speed of processing-ImpactsDifficulty with:Efficient processing of informationQuickly perceiving relationshipsWorking within time parametersCompleting simple rote tasks quicklyAnswering questions quickly, may appear as a time delay or lagRetrieving information from memory quicklyOverload and loss of meaning if information is presented too quicklyIf the speed of the course or pacing in delivery of content exceeds the students capacity to keep up, the student may appear inattentive, confused, frustrated or overwhelmed.Keely8Organization

Organization (Remains from Soarem)This is an integrating information function.SOAREM defined organization as: structuring information, categorization, sequencingAs you will see as we continue, organization is friends with planning and sequencing.

Megan10Organization-impactsDifficulty:DifferentiatingOrderingSequencingCategorizingClusteringTime managingPlanningAssociatingMappingLabelingFollowing directionsWebbingPrioritizingArranging

Keely11Planning and sequencing-NEWThese are integration of information processes.

Megan-As you see above on the organization impact slide, planning and sequencing are within the organization definition from SOAREM. In rule, planning and sequencing is now its own BPP. The impacts of planning and sequencing are literalthey are planning and sequencing.12ESSENCE OF WORKING MEMORY

I asked you a question buddy. . .What is the square root of 5,248?13Key ideas Generally you will see Difficulty with Rote memorization, holding information in mind long enough to use it and difficulties in manipulating or working with information.

Academic Manifestations (Gsm)Reading often there is difficulty decoding manifested as inconsistent sight word vocabulary, especially if there is a visual memory deficient. Even though in the model, CHC model has moved visual memory to visual processing, its still a short term memory ability. So if somebody has difficulty with, lets say WJIII picture recognition task which is a task of visual memory or another standardized task of memory. You might see it manifesting as difficulty with them acquiring that sight word vocabulary with an auditory short-term memory deficient you have difficulty applying phonemic awareness and phoneticall coding ability to reading activities, especially with multisyllabic words Its not that the child doesnt have intake phonemic awareness. They could have sound auditory sound processing skills but a short-term memory deficient can complicate the application of those skills. Especially when they get to multisyllabic words they dont have the memory span to hold the full string in mind. Often times it manifest here as re-reading. So you see the children starting to sound out a word like preposition and they doing it sequentially like they say prep, prepo, preposition. Re-reading whole parts of sentences as they are moving through sentences. They may also manifest their deficient by having difficulty with reading comprehension from literal comprehension (remembering facts) to inferential comprehension (making predictions). The literal comprehension has little to do with how they abstract they might have intake reasoning skills but they dont remember the material well enough to predict what will happen next. Or to make those inferential connections on what they read. Difficulty oral recalls or paraphrasing what they read. They may have difficulty with following multiple character(s) and plot lines. They could often confuse what they are reading or the elements of the story.

Academic Manifestations (Gsm)In writing the short term deficient obviously the same as with reading have difficulty with spelling like multisyllabic words. Again this doesnt mean that they have difficulties with phonetic awareness necessarily but holding the complete string in mind long enough for them to remember. They could be Difficulty with essay development or managing multiple writing demands (developing essay, while attending to spelling and punctuation)

I assessed a child or supervised a kid just a few weeks ago who had really intact spelling but when we did the writing, the spelling was horrific. In the context of those multiple demands the spelling and the attention to the spelling fell by the wayside. What was the focus was on conceptual development of the writing piece. There can be a lot of redundancy in writing (both word level and conceptual). You know they can write the same word with in a sentence or if they moved to a next line. What they just writing is what they see conceptually. Same thing again those with short-term memory deficient has difficulty with note taking Cant keep it on their mind long enough to produce at writing. They have choppy notes and they have difficulty with copying tasks. This again may go in the visual memory deficient if they have difficulty in the short-term memory. Had a Child that would take an inordinate amount of time to copy homework from the board. What was happening was not that he was necessarily slow or had any process speed deficient but his visual memory was so poor he had to consistently reference what was on the board and it took him that much longer to transcribe it. So that is an indication or manifestation of a short-term memory weakness.

In Math Difficulty memorizing facts; Difficulty with regrouping and multistep problems (esp. If there is working memory weakness); they may have difficulty extracting information to be used in word problems, and difficulty remembering mathematical procedures.

I want to say as I was reviewing this and going through this wondering isnt this all really common sense. We see it and we know there are difficulties in these areas. Obviously it could be due to memory difficulties but what I think happens at least from an assessment or intervention perspective logically as it is being talked about really Ive seen it translate it into practice very little. Ive seen people have information from a teacher but it doesnt necessarily get integrated into a report as substantiating findings and standards from test data or it doesnt get written in the recommendations that are considered in report writing . So the recommendations are just global recommendations for addressing memory difficulties and not really focused on..The child might not have difficulties across the board or they certainly could but memory crosses academic domains. But this may not manifest with difficulty in writing or spelling. They might have really good sound visual memory but have difficulty memorizing math facts and there is no recommendation for that. It is just a global generic work on repetition and work on rehearsal? For improving memory so I think that going through these areas today what I would hope that people would take away is maybe a logical connection really how do you use this information not only at the report writing level to substantiate the presence of deficits. Not only are there deficits in standardized testing but these are really supported by observation. Again in the recommendation or intervention piece I might generate a global memory standard but how do I direct this to this child with a specific difficulties. Im really looking carefully to where they are manifesting across academic demands.

Language/Behavior is most of my teacher reports when someone has a memory difficulty. It is just describing difficulty following directions, Difficulty with multistep directions, behaviorally a child who asks for a lot of repetition, Difficulty carrying out routines. They havent necessarily internalized the routines of a classroom and that can happen with other cognitive deficits if they have a reasoning deficient they may have difficulty understanding this is the same underlying routine that weve been doing every week but also with short-term memory. They just might difficulty carrying out internalizing routine. They may look inattentive . The may be quite talkative (asking others what was said) asking for clarification and Visual referencing other peoples work to see what they should be doing or how something is to be approached.

13Working memory (verbal, visual, sp

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