The South’s Peculiar Institution

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The South’s Peculiar Institution. John Sacher University of Central Florida jsacher@mail.ucf.edu. How do we define the South?. Where did slaves live?. Slave Population—1860. SlavesTotal PopulationSlave % Virginia 490,865 1,596,318 31% Georgia 462,198 1,057,28644% - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of The South’s Peculiar Institution

  • The Souths Peculiar InstitutionJohn SacherUniversity of Central Floridajsacher@mail.ucf.edu

  • How do we define the South?

  • Where did slaves live?

  • Slave Population1860SlavesTotal PopulationSlave %Virginia 490,865 1,596,318 31%Georgia 462,198 1,057,28644%Mississippi436,631 791,305 55%Alabama 435,080 964,20145%South Carolina 402,406 703,70857%Louisiana331,726 708,00247%North Carolina 331,059 992,62233%Tennessee275,7191,109,80125%Kentucky225,4831,155,68420%Texas182,566 604,21530%Missouri 114,9311,182,01210%Arkansas111,115 435,45026%Maryland 87,189 687,04913%Florida 61,745 140,42444%Delaware 1,798 112,216 2%

  • Slave Population1860SlavesTotal PopulationSlave %South Carolina 402,406 703,70857%Mississippi436,631 791,305 55%Louisiana331,726 708,00247%Alabama 435,080 964,20145%Georgia 462,198 1,057,28644%Florida 61,745 140,42444%North Carolina 331,059 992,62233%Virginia 490,865 1,596,318 31%Texas182,566 604,21530%Arkansas 111,115 435,45026%Tennessee275,7191,109,80125%Kentucky225,4831,155,68420%Maryland 87,189 687,04913%Missouri 114,9311,182,01210%Delaware 1,798 112,216 2%

  • Some Figures:In 1860, in the slave states, there were 8 million whites who owned 4 million slaves.The number of slaveholders in 1860approx. 387,000In other words, only approximately 5% of all whites owned slaves.Wait a second, only 5% of all whites living in slave states owned slaves, that doesnt sound right.

  • How many families owned slaves? (1860)

    STATE:SLAVEHOLDERS TOTAL FAMILIES PCTMISSISSIPPI30943 6301549SOUTH CAROLINA 26701 58642 46 GEORGIA 41084 109919 37 ALABAMA 33730 96603 35 FLORIDA 5152 15090 34 LOUISIANA 22033 74725 29TEXAS 21878 76781 28 NORTH CAROLINA 34658 125090 28VIRGINIA 52128 201523 26 TENNESSEE 36844 149335 25 ARKANSAS 11481 57244 20 Total 316632 102796731

  • How Many People Owned Slaves?

  • How Many Slaves Did They Own?

  • Slave Owning1860Number of SlavesPercent of Owners >100 .6% 50-100 2.1%20-50 9.3%10-2016.0% 5-1017.0% 1-555.0%

  • Cotton4.5 million bales (1860)

  • Cotton Gin

  • Slave Crops

  • Strikingly Similar . . .

  • Size of Southern CropsTobacco 1849 106 million lbs. 1859 347 million lbs.Rice 1849 215 million lbs. 1859 187 million lbs. Sugar 1849 $60 million 1859 $180 millionCotton 2.5 million bales to 4.5 million bales

  • PLANTATION ORGANIZATIONA. Gang SystemOwnerPlanter (owns 20+ slaves)OverseerDay-to-day authority figureDriverSlave ForemanField HandsMen and womenB. Task System

  • Task System

  • Plantation Layout

  • Where did slaves work? They worked in . . .

    Cotton 55 percentTobacco 10 percentSugar/rice/hemp 10 percentServant positions 15 percentTrades/industry 10 percent

  • Tredegar Iron Works

  • Slave Codes

  • The Whip

  • The Bible and Slavery

  • Josiah Nott, Types of Mankind

  • Good Society Argument

  • Slave Prices

  • The Second Middle Passage

  • Slave Coffle

  • Mary ChesnutSouth Carolina Plantation MistressEvery lady tells you who is the father of all the mulatto children in everybody's household, but those in her own she seems to think drop from the clouds, or pretends so to think."

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