The Rise of Europe: 500-1300 Chapters 7.1 & 7.2. Global Timeline: 500 A.D. - 1500 A.D. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Text of The Rise of Europe: 500-1300 Chapters 7.1 & 7.2
The Rise of Europe: 500-1300Chapters 7.1 & 7.2
Global Timeline: 500 A.D. - 1500 A.D.
500 A.D. 1500 A.D
The period between 500 A.D. and 1500 A.D. in Western Europe was called the "Middle Ages." At the Roman Empire's height (264 B.C - 117 A.D.), Rome had control over much of Western Europe until Germanic peoples invaded and conquered the empire.
570: The Prophet Muhammad was born
622: Muhammad flees from Mecca to Medina- The Hijra
632: Muhammad dies and Abu Bakr becomes the Caliph
600's-700's: Islam spreads across North Africa
1,000's: Many East African city states cropped up and trade thrived1235: Sundiata crushed his enemies and founded Mali
1300: Great Zimbabwe reaches its height and trades far and wide
1312: Mali's greatest ruler, Mansa Musa takes the throne
The Rise of Germanic Kingdoms
·Germanic tribes (Goths, Visigoths, Saxons & Franks) conquered parts of the Roman Empire.
· They had no written laws or formal cities.
·From 400 A.D. to 700 A.D. they carved Western Europe into smaller kingdoms. ·The Franks: most
successful Germanic tribe.
·King Clovis conquered Gaul (France) in 486 A.D.
·Clovis converted to Christianity and gained support from the pope and the Church of Rome.
A Muslim Empire Threatens Europe
·Islam was spreading in the Middle East and North Africa.
·Christians became alarmed at Islam's expansion, especially when a Muslim army Invaded France in 732 A.D.
· Charles Martel rallied Frankish warriors against the Muslims in the Battle of Tours (732 A.D.).
·Christians won and pushed the Muslims back.
·Stopped Islamic expansion into Europe.
The Battle of Tours Map
The Age of Charlemagne
·In 736 A.D., Charlemagne became king of the Franks.
·His empire extended across what is now France, Germany, and part of Italy.
· In 799 A.D., Pope Leo III asked Charlemagne for help against rebellious nobles in Rome.
·Charlemagne sent a delegation to Rome, which arrested Leo's opponents.
·To thank Charlemagne, the pope declared him "Emperor of the Romans."
·This ceremony reaffirmed the notion of a united Christian community.
·Charlemagne strove to spread Christianity to all people in his empire.
·Charlemagne also appointed missi dominici "messengers of the lord king" to check on roads and listen to grievances.
·Charlemagne supported learning and education. He set out to revive Latin and to establish local schools.
Europe After Charlemagne
·After Charlemagne died in 814, his grandsons fought over his empire.
·They drew up the Treaty of Verdun, splitting up the empire into three sections.
·Although Charlemagne's empire did not remain intact, he left a lasting legacy of extending Christianity.
·He also blended Germanic, Roman, and Christian traditions.
Raiders From the North·Starting in the late 700's, Vikings from Scandinavia looted and burned communities along the coasts and rivers of Europe.
·They destroyed the last thread's of Charlemagne's unraveling empire.
·Vikings were also traders and explorers. Around 1000, they even set up a short-lived Viking colony in North America.
7.2 Feudalism and the Manor Economy
·Medieval society was a web of mutual obligations.
·A new political system called Feudalism.
· It was a system of political, social, and economic ties.
·Lords and vassals exchanged vows called the feudal contract.
·This contract gave the lords the right to expect military service, payments and loyalty from their vassals.
·In return, the lord promised to give vassals protection and fiefs, or estates.
A Structured Society
·All aristocrats had a place in this social hierarchy (at the top).
·Below the monarch were powerful lords, also known as dukes and counts, who held the largest fiefs.
·Because vassals often held fiefs from more than one lord, relationships grew complex.
·Many vassals had a liege lord to whom he held the first loyalty.
The World of Knights and Nobles
·For medieval nobles, warfare was a way of life.
·Many nobles began training in boyhood to be a knight, or mounted knight.
·At the age of seven, a young boy would be sent away to the castle of his father's lord to train.
· Knights fought on horseback using swords, axes, and lances.
Feudalism flow chart
Castles and Defense
·Powerful lords fortified their homes to withstand attack.
·By the 1100's, monarchs and nobles owned sprawling stone castles with high walls, towers, and drawbridges over wide moats.
·The knights who defend the castle also lived there.
·In times of war, peasants in the nearby villages would take refuge within the castle walls.
·Captors would often try to overtake the command of castles.
Noblewomen·Noblewomen played an active role in feudal society
·When her husband or father was off fighting, the "lady of the manor" would often take over his duties.
·Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204), husband of French king Louis VII, and subsequently the wife of Henry II of England, held considerable political power during both of her marriages.
Chivalry: Romance and Reality
·Knights adopted a code of conduct called Chivalry, requiring them to be brave, loyal, and honest.
·Required kings to be protect the weak, including both peasants and noblewomen.
·Chivalry placed women on a pedestal.
·Wandering musicians, or Troubadours, sang about the brave deeds of knights, and their devotion to their lady loves.
The Manor: An Economic System
·The manor, or the lord's estate, was the basis of the medieval economy.
·Everything that people needed was grown or made on the manor.
·Most peasants on the manors were serfs, workers tied to the land. ·Serfs were not slaves, but
they could not leave the manor without permission.
·They had to work the lord's land for several days a week, pay fees, and ask permission to marry.
·In return, they got to work small plots of land for themselves.
A Self-Sufficient World
·The manor was a self-sufficient system.
·In theory, the manor produced everything residents needed from food to clothing.
·Most peasants never left the manor. They had no knowledge of the outside world.
·A peasants life was harsh. Hunger was rampant and disease was commonplace. Their diet consisted of black bread, cabbage, turnips, and onions.