The Psychology of the Christian Martyrs of the Roman Empire : The Case of Vibia Perpetua

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The Psychology of the Christian Martyrs of the Roman Empire : The Case of Vibia Perpetua. Molly Mazuk Advisor: Dr. David Finkelman St. Mary’s Project. Overview. Literature Review Review of past research In-depth psychological examination of Christian martyrs Psychohistory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of The Psychology of the Christian Martyrs of the Roman Empire : The Case of Vibia Perpetua

The Psychology of the Christian Martyrs of the Roman Empire : The Case of Vibia Perpetua

The Psychology of the Christian Martyrs of the Roman Empire : The Case of Vibia PerpetuaMolly MazukAdvisor: Dr. David FinkelmanSt. Marys ProjectOverviewLiterature Review

Review of past research

In-depth psychological examination of Christian martyrsPsychohistory

Lesson PlanChristian Martyrs Religious martyrs are treated with personal biases

Personal religious experiences

Prior to the third century Picture from http://www.bible-history.com/past/images/The_Christian_Martyrs_Last_Prayer_by_leon_gerome.jpg3Vibia PerpetuaMartyred in 203 A.D. in Carthage at age 22

Martyred with many others from her community

Wrote an account of her imprisonment

Picture from http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&safe=off&sa=N&rlz=1C1TSNJ_enUS456US456&biw=1454&bih=687&tbm=isch&tbnid=thbIx3dyo_erVM:&imgrefurl=http://www.gentleshepherdrichmond.com/Saints.htm&docid=vrD3C-kayFxp_M&imgurl=http://www.gentleshepherdrichmond.com/New_Folder2/images/perpetua.jpg&w=271&h=358&ei=yPqcT4vqK4b50gH_obj4Dg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=318&sig=105745370554718582966&page=1&tbnh=149&tbnw=116&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0,i:105&tx=50&ty=84 4PsychohistoryProsProvides understanding of the individuals involved

Similarities between humans throughout time New perspectivesConsLimited information available

Presentism

Fitting information to theories rather than theories to information

Pros: is it really applicable to all people across time because arent their cultural differences that can affect upbringings and motivators

Cons: quality of information, if it is written for particular audiences or information is lost in translation5Topics Dream Analysis

Psychosexual issues

Moral development

Gender identity

Religious Perspective

Pic from a church in Croatia and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Perpetua.jpg

6Dream AnalysisFour dreams

Perpetuas interpretationReligious symbolism

Freudian interpretationLatent sexual imageryProblems Daviss (2005) Interpretation

Conclusions

Picture from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sigmund_Freud_LIFE.jpg7Psychosexual IssuesOedipus complex in relationship between martyrs and God

Sexual urges that lead to self-harm or suicideMasochisticExhibitionisticNarcissistic

Comparisons to modern psychotic individuals

Conclusions

Moral DevelopmentAdvanced stages of moral developmentKohlbergGilligan

Martyrdom as a pro-social behavior

Conclusions

Gender IdentityGender identity of martyrsMale martyrsFemale martyrs

Masculinizing martyrdom

Conclusions Religious PerspectiveCriticisms of psychological interpretations

Normative Religious Behavior/Religiosity

Martyrdom as an extension of normative religious behavior

Conclusions

Future StudiesOther martyrs

Different psychological methods

Psychological study of modern martyrsSoldiersTerroristsSocial/Political ActivistsEcstatic suicide patients12Questions?ReferencesBarlow, H. (2007). Dead for good: Martyrdom and the rise of the suicide bomber. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Barry, C. M., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Madsen, S. D., &Nelson, L. J. (2007). The impact of maternal relationship quality on emerging adults prosocial tendencies: Indirect effects via regulation of prosocial values. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=29&hid=8&sid=2abb9db6-af4c-4738-8878-0414ccce841c%40sessionmgr4 Bradford, D. T. (1990). Early Christian martyrdom and the psychology of depression, suicide, and bodily mutilation. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 27(1), 30-41.Bulkeley, K. (1997). An introduction to the psychology of dreaming. Westport, CT: Praeger.Chadwick, H. (1993). The penguin history of the church: The early church. New York, NY: Penguin Putnam Inc. Church, A. J. & Brodribb, W. J. (2009). The Annals. Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Tacitus/ annals.htmlCobb, L. S. (2008). Dying to be men: Gender and language in early Christian martyr texts. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Davis, P. M. (2005). The weaning of perpetua: Female embodiment and spiritual growth metaphor in the dream of an early Christian martyr. Dreaming, 15(4), 261-270.Ehrman, B.D. (1999). After the new testament: A reader in early Christianity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C. & Shepard, S. A. (2005). Age changes in prosocial responding and moral reasoning in adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15 (3), 235-260.Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Cumberland, A., Murphy, B. C., Shepard, S. A., Zhou, Q. & Carlo, G. (2002). Prosocial development in early adulthood: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 993-1006. Ferrero, M. (2006). Martyrdom contracts. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(6), 855-877.Fields, R. M. (2004). The psychology and theology of martyrdom. In C.E. Stout (Ed.), Martyrdom: The psychology, theology, and politics of self-sacrifice (3-22). Westport, CT: Praeger.Freud, S. (1910). The origin and development of psychoanalysis. The American Journals of Psychology, 22(2), 181-218.Gilligan, C. (1977). In a different voice: Womens conceptions of self and morality. Harvard Educational Review 47(4), 481-517.Halsall, P. (1998). Ancient history sourcebook: The ritual cannibalism charge against the Christians. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/ancient/Christian-cannibals.aspHeyman, G. (2007). The power of sacrifice: Roman and Christian discourses in conflict. Washington, D.C: Catholic University of America Press.

ReferencesKohlberg, L., Hersh, R. H. (1977). Moral development: A review of theory. Theory into Practice, 16(2), 53-59.Lefkowitz, M.R. (1976). The motivations for st. perpetuas martyrdom. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 44(3), 417-421. Lopez, D. A. (2004). Separatist Christianity: Spirit and matter in the early church fathers. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Maier, P.L. (2007). Eusebius: The church history. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.Maltsberger, J.T. (1997). Ecstatic suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 3(4), 283-301.Milliken, M. E. & Honeycutt, A. (2004). Understanding human behavior: A guide for health care providers (7th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.Moss, C.R. (2010). The other christs: Imitating jesus in ancient Christian ideologies of martyrdom. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Mounteer, C. A. (1981). Guilt, martyrdom, and monasticism. Journal of Psychohistory, 9(2), 145-171.Oden, A. (Ed.). (1994). Acts of the martyrs. In A. Oden (Eds), In her words: Womens writings in the history of Christian thought (38-46). Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.Owens, C. (2004). A literary preamble. In C.E. Stout (Ed.), Martyrdom: The psychology, theology, and politics of self-sacrifice (3-22). Westport, CT: Praeger.Potthoff, S.E. (2009). Refreshment and reunion in paradise: Near-death experiences in early north african Christianity. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 27(3), 141-156.Rousselle, R. (1987). The dreams of vibia perpetua: Analysis of a female Christian martyr. Journal of Psychohistory, 14(3), 193-206.Salisbury, J. E. (1997). Perpetuas passion: The death and memory of a young roman woman. New York, NY: Routledge.Sailsbury, J.E. (2004). The blood of the martyrs: Unintended Consequences of ancient violence. New York, NY: Routledge.Schlabach, G.W. (ed.). (1997). Excerpts from Contra Celsus by Origen. In The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 4. Retrieved from http://www.bluffton.edu/~humanities/1/celsus.htm .Shaffer, D. R. (Eds.). (2009). Social and personality development (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Shaw, B. D. (1993). The passion of perpetua. Past and Present, 139, 3-45. Tam, E. P. C. (1997). Are Christian martyrs abuse victims, neurotics, or suicidal? Comments on the psychological study of Christian martyrdom. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 25(4), 458-467.Thomas, R. M. (1997). Moral development theories- secular and religious: A comparative study. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. Warneken, F. & Tomasello, M. (2009). The roots of human altruism. British Journal of Psychology, 100, 455-471.Whiston, W. (Trans.) (1987). Letters of pliny the younger and the emperor trajan. In The Works of Josephus. Retrieved fromhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows /religion/maps/primary/pliny.html.Wieman, H.N. & Wescott-Wieman, R. (1971). Normative Psychology of Religion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.