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  • The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism

  • The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism

    Franois Grosjean and Ping LiPrimary Authors

    With contributions from

    Ellen Bialystok and Raluca BaracAnnette M.B. de Groot

    Rosa M. ManchnVirginia Yip

    A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication

  • This edition first published 2013 2013 Blackwell Publishing, Ltd with the exceptions of Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 7, Chapter 10 2013 Franois Grosjean and Ping Li

    Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwells publishing program has been merged with Wileys global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.

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    The right of Franois Grosjean, Ping Li, Ellen Bialystok, Raluca Barac, Annette M.B. de Groot, Rosa M. Manchn, and Virginia Yip to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataGrosjean, Franois. The psycholinguistics of bilingualism / Franois Grosjean and Ping Li , Primary Authors; with contributions from Ellen Bialystok ... [et al.]. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-1-4443-3278-0 (cloth) ISBN 978-1-4443-3279-7 (pbk.) 1. BilingualismPsychological aspects. 2. Cognition. 3. Memory. 4. Psycholinguistics. I. Li, Ping, 1962 II. Bialystok, Ellen.P115.4.G77 2013404'.2019dc23 2012022088

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Cover image: Rosanne Olson/Science Faction/CorbisCover design by Design Deluxe

    Set in 10.5/13 pt Minion by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited

    1 2013

  • Contents

    Author Biographies vii

    Introduction 1

    1 Bilingualism: A Short Introduction 5Franois Grosjean

    1.1 TheExtentofBilingualism 61.2 DescribingBilinguals 71.3 TheFunctionsofLanguages 111.4 LanguageMode 141.5 InteractingwithBilingualsandMonolinguals 171.6 Biculturalism 21


    2 Speech Perception and Comprehension 29Franois Grosjean

    2.1 FromtheSpeechWavetotheMentalRepresentation 302.2 ProcessingMonolingualSpeech 332.3 ProcessingBilingualSpeech 39

    3 Speech Production 50Franois Grosjean

    3.1 FromThoughttoArticulation 513.2 ProducingMonolingualSpeech 523.3 LanguageProductioninBilingualsIsaDynamicProcess 543.4 ProducingBilingualSpeech 59


    4 Reading 73Annette M.B. de Groot

    4.1 AnOutlineoftheReadingProcess 744.2 WordRecognitioninBilinguals 764.3 ModelsofBilingualVisualWordRecognition 874.4 SentenceProcessinginBilinguals 91

  • vi Contents

    5 Writing 100Rosa M. Manchn

    5.1 ThePsycholinguisticsofBilingualWriting:MappingtheTerrain 1025.2 BilingualTextProductionActivity:ProcessesandStrategies 1055.3 TheTransferofKnowledgeandSkillsinBilingualWriting 111


    6 Simultaneous Language Acquisition 119Virginia Yip

    6.1 TheoreticalIssues 1216.2 MethodologicalIssues 1246.3 EarlyDevelopmentalStagesandLanguageDifferentiation 1296.4 Cross-linguisticInfluence 1306.5 Code-mixing 1336.6 ExtensionsandApplications 137

    7 Successive Language Acquisition 145Ping Li

    7.1 AgeEffectsinSecondLanguageAcquisition 1467.2 SpeechLearninginSuccessiveLanguageAcquisition 1517.3 DynamicInteractionbetweenFirstLanguageandSecondLanguage 155


    8 Bilingual Memory 171Annette M.B. de Groot

    8.1 TheOrganizationoftheBilingualMentalLexicon 1728.2 BilingualConcepts 1818.3 BilingualAutobiographicalMemory 186

    9 Cognitive Effects 192Ellen Bialystok and Raluca Barac

    9.1 LanguageandMetalinguisticAbilities 1939.2 AcquisitionofLiteracy 1989.3 DevelopingExecutiveControl 2029.4 AdvantagesofBilingualismacrosstheLifespan 206

    10 Neurolinguistic and Neurocomputational Models 214Ping Li

    10.1 NeurolinguisticTraditionsandDebates 21510.2 TheCognitiveNeuroscienceofBilingualism 22010.3 NeurolinguisticComputationalModeling 228

    Index 239

  • Author Biographies

    Primary authors

    Franois Grosjean is Professor Emeritus of Psycholinguistics at Neuchtel University, Switzerland. His many publications on bilingualism include three books: Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism (1982), Studying Bilinguals (2008), and Bilingual: Life and Reality (2010). The latter was selected as a Choice Outstanding Academic Title. He is a Founding Editor of the journal Bilingualism: Language and Cognition and was its first Coordinating Editor.

    Ping Li is Professor of Psychology, Linguistics, and Information Sciences and Technology at Pennsylvania State University. His books include The Handbook of East Asian Psycholinguistics (Volumes 13; General Editor; 2006), and The Acquisition of Lexical and Grammatical Aspect (co-authored with Y. Shirai, 2000). He is Editor of the journal Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, and Associate Editor of Frontiers in Language Sciences.

    Guest authors

    Ellen Bialystok is Distinguished Research Professor at York University in Canada. She has published extensively on bilingualism and its cognitive effects across the lifespan. Her books include Bilingualism in Development (2001) and Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change (2006) (co-edited with Fergus I.M. Craik). She is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and her research has been recognized with numerous awards, including the 2010 Killam Prize in the Social Sciences. Raluca Barac, PhD, is a research manager at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada.

    Annette de Groot is Professor of Experimental Psycholinguistics at the University of Amsterdam. She is the author of Language and Cognition in Bilinguals and Multilinguals: An Introduction (2011), and with Judith Kroll she edited Tutorials in

  • viii Author Biographies

    Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Perspectives (1997) and the Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches (2005). She is a member of the editorial board of Bilingualism: Language and Cognition.

    Rosa Manchn is Professor of Applied Linguistics at the University of Murcia, Spain. Her books include Writing in Foreign Language Contexts: Learning, Teaching, and Research (2007), Learning-to-Write and Writing-to-Learn in an Additional Language (2011), and L2 Writing Development: Multiple Perspectives (2012). Together with Chris Tardy, she edits the Journal of Second Language Writing.

    Virginia Yip is Professor and Chairperson of Linguistics and Modern Languages as well as Director of the Childhood Bilingualism Research Centre at The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Her books include Interlanguage and Learnability (1995) and The Bilingual Child: Early Development and Language Contact (co-authored with Stephen Matthews, 2007), which received the Linguistic Society of Americas Leonard Bloomfield Book Award. She has also co-authored a series of books on Cantonese grammar.

  • Introduction

    The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism, First Edition. Franois Grosjean and Ping Li. 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd with the exceptions of Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 7, Chapter 10 2013 Franois Grosjean and Ping Li. Published 2013 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

    In the last 25 years, the field of bilingualism has grown tremendously, as can be seen by the presence of numerous introductory books on the topic, the publication of edited and more specialized monographs, the emergence of encyclopedias and new academic journals, not to mention numerous websites and blogs dedicated to the subject.

    One of the most dynamic areas of bilingualism research involves the psy-cholinguistic study of both adults and children. Most books usually concentrate on particular domains such as language processing and representation in adult bilinguals, bilingual child language acquisition, the cognitive aspects of bilingual-ism, the bilingual brain, and so on. Few books cover all these domains at once. In addition, most are aimed at advanced students and specialists or at those who have a solid background in cogni

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